Psycholinguistics – The Acquisition of Phonology

Theorists on psycholinguistics claim that children grow their linguistic competency through imitation toward surroundings. Besides, children have innate ability to cope with languages of the adults surrounding them. However, it turns out that what they utter sound different from what the adults should expect to hear. For example, instead of saying, “kupu-kupu”, a child says “pu-pu.” Another example is for the word “makan”. A child says “aan” or “mam.” These two examples illustrate how a child produces sounds from their oral instruments. Children are so fascinating, right?

Now, the question is, from your previous assignment on children’s acquisition for their language, what can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of Phonology?

Instructions:

Please type your arguments or answers on the comment session of this blog. You can type it on Microsoft Word first and then paste it to this session. However, please bear in mind that it should be three paragraphs only (not more or less) and the numbers of words is between 400 to 600 words.

Good Luck!

58 thoughts on “Psycholinguistics – The Acquisition of Phonology

  1. Name :Weltrisnawati/1314050607
    In fact, children are able to speak by imitation what they hear in surrounding them, and i agree with this theory that children grow their linguistic competency through imitation toward surroundings. Which imitation is repeat sound based what they hear, like sound speech, children learn thorough imitation. And the other even when children are trying what they hear, they are unable to produce sentence that they would not spontaneously produce. When adult said; He’s going out and child just can said : He go out. And also imitation cannot account for another important phenomenon, children who are unable to speak neourological or psychological reasons learn language spoken to them and understand it. When they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use the language for speaking.
    In observe that had i did that children’s first verbal production and naturally children can utter sound for the first by imitate the adult speech. In this case phonology as fundmental system which a language is considered to comprise, like its syntax and vocabulary. Phonology is often distinguished from phonetics, while phonetics concern physical production, acoustic transmission and perception of the sounds of speech. Phonolgy describes the way sounds function within a given language or across language to encode meaning.
    In surround child always want to speak what they hear but not perfect what they say like adult because not perfect enough to utter it. Phonological processes are patterns of sound errors that typically developing children use to simplify speech as they are learning to talk. They do this because they don’t have the ability to coordinate the lips, tongue, teeth, palate and jaw for clear speech. As a result they simplify complex words in predictable ways until they develop the coordination required to articulate clearly. For example, they may reduce consonant clusters to a single consonant like, “pane” for “plane” or delete the weak syllable in a word saying, “nana” for “banana.” There are many different patterns of simplifications or phonological processes.

  2. Name : Elvi Rahmi
    Reg.Num : 1314050390
    Class : Tbi-B
    Assignment : Psycholinguistics

    THE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY
    In language acquisition process children has some ways to deliver their own language such as; cry, facial expression and gesture. For example if the child want something or hungry so she/he will be crying, then may be she/he use facila expression and gesture also. In language acquisition process the child should has good balance between ear, eyes, and mouth/tongue. Because without that, the children can’t learn language acquisition fastly. But, if three equipment above has coordination so, they will be able to speak very fastly, then their brain will be easy to record act whatever around their. Then, In language acquisition has some process, first through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and the last structured input. I think that had clear in the last assignment.
    So know i will talk about the acquisition phonology. Phonology is the system of the sound segments that humans use to build up words. Each language has a different set of these segments or phonemes, and children quickly come to recognize and then produce the speech segments that are characteristic of their native language. It’s almost same with mechanism of language acquisition, in the language acquisition, child begin to application their first words although pronouncing not clear, for example “book’’ become bu’, “art” become “a” so we as a teacher and parents should know about that. After the child can to express words, the next step is language process, to get it’s, they constracts communication than form of language. After they begin to know about grammatical, they will input and output language with a way it is Filter. It’s that child had know about information of language that he input, so the child had know to different good or bad thing, for example Islamic religion, he know that it’s important and good thing. After all of this the children will be has performance such as speaking, writing, etc then competence like grammar. So, in language acquisition of phonology turned to the child’s utterance like vowel part may be a diphthong, phonemic or phonetic, in their first words. For example when child want says “papa” but she/he says “baba”, it’s bacause they can not differentiate the sound /b/ and /p/. And child can’t distinguish between /t/ and /d/, /s/ and /z/ also. This process must do of people to get perfect language.
    Mechanisms of language acquisition and phonology is process that must do people before they get complete language, it’s has some stages, like babbling, One-word stage (better one-morpheme or one-unit), two-word stage, telegraphic stage or early multi word stage (better multi-morpheme) or holophrastic stage and Later multi word stage. So before the child able to communication, they certain learn through mechanism of language acquisition and phonology.

  3. Name : Tari Rahman
    Reg. Number : 1314050557

    First language acquisition is the process by which child unconsciously acquired the mother tongue in the case of monolingual speakers or their native language, in terms of speaker bilateral and multi-lingual each. This process lasts for six or seven years the lives of children through lateralisation of brain they occur as a result of the possibility of hormonal changes. In general the order of acquisition of classes of sounds goes by manner of articulation: nasals are acquired first, then glides, stops, liquids, fricatives, and affricatives. Natural classes characterized by place of articulation features also appear in children’s utterances according to an ordered series: labials, velars, alveolars, and palatals. It is not surprising that mama is an early word for many children.
    Phonology have two parts. Namely phonetic and phonemic. Phonetic is a part of phonologycal learn how to produce the sounds of language or the way the language sounds produced by the human vocal organs. Phonemic is part of the speech sound according to function as a differential meaning. The pronunciation of the children limited to the ability of articulation. There are some of obstacles in uttering some phonemes such as / r / has not been able to say, but it could mention the phoneme / t /, and they clear to say letter / u / and / p /. For example: the word “rumah” the initial letter ‘r’ and final letter ‘h’, it can be changes the phoneme / r / into / t /. So, the child who said “ tumah ” it is means “ rumah ”. Because utterance the phoneme of / r / is difficult to pronunciation. It will be changes into / t /. I have observed that a child in my rent house. She said her name is “ Tipa ” it is means that “Lathifah”. She abridge her name from three syllable into two syllable. Another example is for the word “ ayam ” she will say “ yam..yam.. ”.
    When a child said “nak” or “nyam” they understand the sound of utterance is relate of the meaning, but they can say one word or a phrase, by saying the piece of begining word or the last word. In the piece of word it is same a phrase , a word “ nak ” it is mean that she praise or commend food, “ ini enak ”. So, from examples I can conclude that consonant is easy to pronunce than vowel. Children easy to imitate our style to pronunce the words. And they will do what we ask to them. So, do not say bad words to them, because they will repeat after we say that.

  4. Name : abdul latif
    Bp :1314050412
    Subject : psycholinguistict

    Question : from your perviuos assignment on children’s acquisition for their language, what can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on your material about the acquisition of phonology?

    My comment is : based on the statement that has been written on the website I just have a simple comment for this event. As we know a child is like a peace of paper who needs guidance and direction. So it based on their parent, want to guide them to right way or not?. So my comment is now we are talking about phonology, that’s mean we are talking about phoneme of word. All of us know and realize that a child can learn and produce the word by imitating everything around them especially how they producing word. Based on the statement that you have written when adult say something to child it must be different sound with sound that want to expect to hear. I think I their utter (children) has correlation with voiceless and voiced. Though they have innate ability to cope the language around them, but they still not clear to speak their first word perfectly. I think it causes of the level of challenging how to say the word, easy to say or not, because sometimes it’s very difficult to say a certain word for children and then there is a letter which so hard to say based on their age. If I remind our last material about language acquisition they are easier to utter the letter which belong to vowel letter than consonant letter. For example : like that has written in the statement before, when adult says kupu kupu, the children will say with different sound like “ pu pu”. We can see from the simple example the child has problem to say the letter which consist with consonant letter “KU” but in the fact, when they hear “pu” maybe it is easy or them. Because, saying “pu” is easier than saying “ku”. Why? Because K and U are different place to say, K belongs to voiceless and u belongs to voiced. But when they say “pu” P and U have similar place to say it is bilabial If I am not wrong. Hehe. So that pu is easier to say for them than saying ku. I think that’s all my comment about the phoneme ( phonology).

  5. Name : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject : Psycholinguistics-B
    Assignment : Six (VI)
    Acquisition of Phonology
    In acquiring phonology, a baby through slow stage from simple sound till complex sound that can be understood by the adults. This stage gets progress based on the baby speech’s organs development. In our environment we always find all babies who trays to speak utters peace of words such as cucu to say susu, mam to say makan, and utters mma to cal their mother. Actually the babies want to say as perfect as what an adult says but their speech organ has not perfect enough to utter it. For example, in childhood the children find difficulties in uttering characters such “r”. when they say a word than includes character “s” on it the can say it in a perfect way. Such as word “run” become “lun”, word “morning” become “molning”. So that sometime, it is so funny when the children try to say something.
    In acquiring process of phonology, it is begun from place articulation of manner that easiest to say. Based on the book, place articulation of manner, nasal is acquired first, then glides, stops, liquids, fricative es, and affricatives. It is clear that for every baby around the world word “mma” and “mama” is the easiest word that the baby says. For the next process the baby will able to say other word which more difficult and complex like “pa”, “ba”, and the like. When the baby’s speech organ has ripe enough the baby will able to distinguish several characters that have close articulation of manner such as /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/ and the like. They may find difficulties to utter several characters because their speech organ has not ripe yet you utter it.
    When the acquiring process of phonology has already ripe, the children start to utter several complete words and make it be a simple sentence. Word such as mama, father, sister, and the other words that they hear in their environment, will be uttered and formulated be a simple sentence. For example when they want to get food they may be say “mama I hungry, I want my bread” slowly. It is a simple sentence that they produce. An adult absolutely can understand it even though its grammar is in correct. Their phonology has good enough but their language grammar has been structured yet. But for the next process after the children acquiring the phonology they will start to acquire construct grammar. In conclusion, acquiring process of phonology has straight equivalent with babies’ speech organ that gets better based on the babies’ age.

    • Name : Elvi Rahmi
      Reg.Num : 1314050390
      Class : Tbi-B
      Assignment : Psycholinguistics

      THE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY
      In language acquisition process children has some ways to deliver their own language such as; cry, facial expression and gesture. For example if the child want something or hungry so she/he will be crying, then may be she/he use facila expression and gesture also. In language acquisition process the child should has good balance between ear, eyes, and mouth/tongue. Bacause without that, the children can’t learn language acquisition fastly. But, if three equipment above has coordination so, they will be able to speak fastly, then their brain will be easy to record act whatever around their. Then, In language acquisition has some process, first through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and the last structured input. I think that had clear in the last assignment.
      So know i will talk about the acquisition phonology. Phonology is the system of the sound segments that humans use to build up words. Each language has a different set of these segments or phonemes, and children quickly come to recognize and then produce the speech segments that are characteristic of their native language. It’s almost same with mechanism of language acquisition, in the language aquisition, child begin to application their first words although pronouncing not clear, for example “book’’ become bu’, “art” become “a” so we as a teacher and parents should know about that. After the child can to express words, the next step is language process, to get it’s, they constract communication than form of language. After they begin to know about grammatical, they will input and output language with a way it is Filter. It’s that child had know about information of language that he input, so the child had know to different good or bad thing, for example islamic religion, he know that it’s important and good thing. After all of this the children will be has performance such as speaking, writing, etc then competence like grammar. So, in language acquisition of phonology turned to the child’s utterance like vowel part may be a diphthong, phonemic or phonetic, in their first words. For example when child want says “papa” but she/he says “baba”, it’s bacause they can not differentiate the sound /b/ and /p/. And child can’t distinguish between /t/ and /d/, /s/ and /z/ also. This process must do of people to get perfect language.
      Mechanisms of language acquisition and phonology is process that must do people before they get complete language, it’s has some stages, like babbling, One-word stage (better one-morpheme or one-unit), two-word stage, telegraphic stage or early multi word stage (better multi-morpheme) or holophrastics stage and Later multi word stage. So before the child able to communication, they certain learn through mechanism of language acquisition and phonology.

  6. Name: MERLI MUSLIMA
    Class: TBI-A
    Reg. No: 1314050118
    Psycholinguistics_The Acquisition of Phonology

    Language in children becomes the spotlight for the lives of people around who knew them in the event of communication. Child uses language to interact with their environment. Obtaining a first language or mother tongue occurs in a child’s family environment. The process contains a portion of phonological related to the sounds produced in the stages of language acquisition in children. Phonology is a sub-discipline of linguistics and talk about ‘The Sounds of Language’. Specifically talking about the pure phonological function, behavior and organization of sounds as linguistic elements. Sounds of language is any unit of the sound produced by the human vocal organs.

    Childhood very interesting happened at the age of 3 years. At that age, a child has a significant transition in terms of first language acquisition, particularly in their family. Language in the form of speech that were raised by the children aged 3 years, attracted the attention of everyone who hears it. Both in terms of pronunciation which includes vocabulary and manner of delivery. Children age 3 had language acquisition are different. Age was chosen because it is the age of the child language switching. When the sounds produced by the vocal organs were not in accordance with the substance of the context of the words, but the meaning remains the same context. Obtaining easiest phoneme is the phoneme / b /. For example the word ” bum-bum”, children means car or motorcycle it sound like “brumm-brumm” but the children only say “bum-bum” because the phoneme / b / is a bilabial sound (the upper lip and lower lip), which was the first and most easily masterd by the child.

    At a certain stage of language acquisition (ability to speak and understand the meaning of the word can not be separated from the ability to listen, see and interpret the phonetic symbols with the maturity of the brain. Based on these descriptions, children aged 3 years to be discussed during the acquisition of the first language in terms of phonology (phonetic ) because at the age child language switching, and the important one that children language acquisition is also influenced by the role of the family as an intermediary for the understanding of a child’s first language.

  7. Psycholinguistics – The Acquisition of Phonology
    Name : TETI RAHMADANI
    Class : TBI (A)
    NIM : 1314050256

    The acquisition of language is “doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is over required to perform. It means many people acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, to produce and use words and sentence to communicate. Because without the language no body do not communication by using language. and as a parent that has a children, of course they are have communicate to their children.
    The developing of phonology with processes that elongated from decode of language. Largely child morphology construction will cling to its ability accepts and to produce is phonology unit. Before the children have school or study at the institute , child not only accept and phonology system but also develops ability to determine sound which that is used to differentiate meaning. Phonology gets bearing by process syllable construction that consisting of vocalic affiliate and consonantal. Even deep babbling, child utilizes vocalic consonant or consonantal vocalic consonant. Another process gets bearing with assimilation and substitution comes up perception and speech production. And phonology system but also develops ability to determine sound which that is used to differentiate meaning. When the children before the age of five the children always hear what the parent said. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without offort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether this parent try to teach there or not. And for the next time the children will use about the word. Since age so early, it has listened oldster voice, including its region accent. So, although seems to be baby just can cry, sleep and eating / Attention drink, it actually be learn active to gets communication with a mother. On this age range, baby also can imitate expression about their mother’s face. Without her realises, its effort will help it strengthens and coach mouth muscles, lip and its tongue to back up their spoken. Newborn baby will also utilize body language to inform the mother do that they want. When the children feel happy ,they will oscillating of head until foot. And then while they want to sleep usually they cry.

    The first word the children use is one word that always repeated, like pa-pa and ma-ma is a call for my mother and father, because everyday I usually play with my mother and father. And then for develop their language in 1,5 years age they can say “mik” when they want eat, because the children always heard from the mother’ said. The next develop about their language is they understand about gesture of their mother like “ban their child to make the bad things” the mother make the gesture with put her hand and to wave the hand. Together with their grown up the children can produce sentences that they heard, and if their mother ask me something, the children can respond that question like sentences “what and where”. Along with child’s age the developing of language, therefore that child will get science about language, phonology of language, and the fluency about language.

  8. Name : Budi Kurniawan
    Nim : 1314050150
    Assigment : psycholinguistics
    Children’s language acquisition develop according to the biology’s development of the children can be from their physics or psychology. Children’s language increased by the language in their brain. Children acquisted language by everything that can hear, see, and feel. Children’s brain can support their develop in language, moreover language from adult person is very fluenced to children’s language acquistion. As we know, language is a symbol of sound which has a system that can be changed become letters or other meaning and make children think abstractly. Children’s language axquisition in communication is an aspect that have to pay attenion from the parents or teacher, especially by the parents. People is comunicated from each one by using language itself, can be verbal or non berbal. The language that used by children to communication and adaption with their environment, generally children expressed it verbally or by gesture.
    Children usually changed the utterance from adult person to their own utterance and product certain sound. For examle, when mother said “makan nasi” children in age 3 years can says “mam si” it signed the children make their own utterance in language. Phonology development from children is depands on their ability to construct words, phonetic in phology system is used to distinguish meaning and related to the process of construct words. For example, children said “maa li men” its means the children want to buy candy, from this example we know that children have try to construct words. Based on phonology system, usually children product words from adult person with the simple ways. Firstly with remove the same letters such as “mama or papa became ma or pa” secondly with decreasing single consonant ex. “gambar became gabar”. Thse are because of children’s ability to represented word has limit. Children strart to study using a good utterance and remove utterance that not use or just blocked their language to comunicate with someone.
    Utterances which have single words utteranced by children focus on things that often present or exist in daily activities.in this step a children strart to construct a sound continuisly with same meaning. eventough children has different utterance actually they understand the words itself. For example “mam” its indicate that children want to eat something. Children start to say words if has a stimulation first. In short. Children’s language acquisition is a process to capable a language. The act of the parents as a clost person with student is very influenced for the process of acquisted language children. And an adult person also has act in formed children’s language.

  9. Name: Merli Muslima
    Class: TBI-A
    Reg. No: 1314050118
    Psycholinguistics_The Acquisition of Phonology

    Language in children becomes the spotlight for the lives of people around who knew them in the event of communication. Child uses language to interact with their environment. Obtaining a first language or mother tongue occurs in a child’s family environment. The process contains a portion of phonological related to the sounds produced in the stages of language acquisition in children. Phonology is a sub-discipline of linguistics and talk about ‘The Sounds of Language’. Specifically talking about the pure phonological function, behavior and organization of sounds as linguistic elements. Sounds of language is any unit of the sound produced by the human vocal organs.

    Childhood very interesting happened at the age of 3 years. At that age, a child has a significant transition in terms of first language acquisition, particularly in their family. Language in the form of speech that were raised by the children aged 3 years, attracted the attention of everyone who hears it. Both in terms of pronunciation which includes vocabulary and manner of delivery. Children age 3 had language acquisition are different. Age was chosen because it is the age of the child language switching. When the sounds produced by the vocal organs were not in accordance with the substance of the context of the words, but the meaning remains the same context. Obtaining easiest phoneme is the phoneme / b /. For example the word ” bum-bum”, children means car or motorcycle it sound like “brumm-brumm” but the children just say “bum-bum” because the phoneme / b / is a bilabial sound (the upper lip and lower lip), which was the first and most easily mastered by the child.

    At a certain stage of language acquisition (ability to speak and understand the meaning of the word can not be separated from the ability to listen, see) and interpret the phonetic symbols with the maturity of the brain. Based on these descriptions, children aged 3 years to be discussed during the acquisition of the first language in terms of phonology (phonetic ) because at the age child language switching, and the important one that children language acquisition is also influenced by the role of the family as an intermediary for the understanding of a child’s first language.

  10. RISKA AMELIA
    1314050340
    TBI-A

    Language can be defined as form of the human life, language can be having since the human were born, the first language that can they used is crying. And then they can have other language from their mother because a mother who person that always stay beside them. Some habits that always do by the children to learn the language are begin from listening and observing about the sound of the words without command from other. Afterwards too long what they are listening and observing will grow up as slowly and step by step following to develop of intelligence by the children. They can do communicate well to other people.
    According my mind, the language that used by a child will influence her social develop. The language can express her feeling as direct way, for example when a child in two years old to want something and she does not get what she want, so crying will be a language to express it. Language for children sometimes difficult to understand by other people that don’t do communicate to them when they ware child, just their mother who understand about what their babbling, but the sounds are unique in our hearing. They cannot say the sound of a word as good as possible but they can teach the sound as slowly and continue. Children will have understanding about language without realizing it. Because if a word that said by their mother as good pronounce and feel her children cannot speak well so the mother will repeat it after her children say the word as the correct one.
    In speaking, children still cannot understand yet about some vocabularies and say the word as well, so the listener must understand what the child say and know about the condition at that time. When the child almost in 3 years old, she will be a babbling about everything that she has met and asked to her listener. The word that will teach to our child must be showed with the real things, it’s better than just say without the facts. First strategy that can be applied to learn language to the child is the imitation strategy, the mother say the word and the child will imitate what the mom say. The imitation will be used by the child even though she still can speak well it.

  11. Genta / 1314050449
    According to the book that we learned in the class and linked it into the reality of children language acquisition we can see that children don’t utter the correct pronunciation of the word instantly, they need guidance or some example that they can imitate or copy, they also have their own step in acquire the words, when they are around 1 years old they just speak by gesture that their mommy can understand them, time by time they start to imitate what they have heard and trying to copy that by say the word like what they heard, even they don’t know that their words is not correct like what the lecturer said “kupu-kupu” become” pu-pu” but they just know that it is correct and they are still speaking that way until they can fix it by them self slowly, and it also depend on us who teach and guide them, some people or parents teach their children by copying what the children were saying until the children think that it is correct and they don’t change it until they grow, i think it is a problem because the children can’t speak and interact correctly like when they say maam, the parents don’t tell them the right one.
    The children disposed to say the word start from the vowel, for example, “utu” that we can get some meaning like, putu, kutu, buku, susu. To understand what their mean the parents usually combine their words with their body language, when they say some words they usually point their finger into the object. But sometimes until they are 2 years old, they still can’t differentiate among some alike words like “beras dan keras” in minang language, they will say like “ayeh”, and also in other words. When we were child we also did some mistakes in utter a words, and now we have a good language because of our parents who taught us, beside that we don’t know what the mistakes that we have ever did, because at the time we thought that what we were saying is correct, because we still didn’t know what the meaning of the words and how we can distinguish the words.
    In conclusion the children learn by imitate the pronunciation and their words have some steps to become a good pronunciation, and they don’t know when it fixes and match with the right pronunciation, as long we guide them their language will acquired properly.

  12. NAME : VINI ANGGRAINI
    REG. NO : 1314050365
    CLASS : TBI. A
    TASK : TASK OF THE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY

    1. What can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of phonology?
    Answer:
    My argument about the first verbal production with the acquisition of phonology that is the relationship. It means both have relationship because the first verbal production is small set of the sounds that is called by phonolo0gy, and phonology constitutes part of the first word. In the speech process the child will do the first words to gets the language acquisition. The first words can be gotten through imitation what he/ she hear around the environment, so she/ he will product her/ his first words suitable with what he/ she hear. Usually his/ her first words are generally the consonant-vowel form. The child may not make s distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant, although they can perceive the difference. The child improve her/ his language ability every year, for example in the first year just know the phonetic to inventory of the target language. The second year a child improve his/ her learning to know the sounds are used in the phonology of language, like he / she learn that /p/ or /b/ are distinct phonemes, and they also begin distinguish between voiceless-voiced phonemic pairs.
    When a child produces his/ her first word who shows many substitutions of one feature for another or one phoneme for another. It means a child sometimes say a word unsuitable with the phonology, for example mouth (mawƟ) is pronounced mouse (maws), with the alveolar fricate (s). It is caused a child does not know the rules of phonological who creates her/ his the rules of phonological. When a child speak the first word, he/ she speak the words without the true phonology, for example sometimes he/ she uses the alveolar stop when it should be the velar stop. But no one child will necessarily use all rules of many phonological rules that he/ she creates. When a child speak the first word who always speak “mama” with “maa”. It is wrong phonology because he/ she loses the sound of consonant vowel. So, if we want to make it perfect, we should control their experiments because it can make many of phonological that they produce.
    A child will speak what he/she hears, although he/ she makes a mistake when he/ she spell it. But he/ she becomes angry if the speaker follow his/ her words, for example when we speak light while he/ she speaks yight. So, we follow his/ her words when we answer him/ her, but he/ she does not like it who will become angry because he/ she thinks light that is yight, and yight that is not light. So we can concluded, a child is possible to making the wrong spelling, but he/ she knows the words that we speak to him/ her. When a child speaks the first words that uses the vowel part may be a diphthong, depending on the language being acquired. So the child does not create the bizarre of rules. A child uses the rules that conform for something that he/ she hears around them to the possibilities made available.

  13. Gustia rahmi / 1314050032 TBI. A
    Children first verbal production in their speech process is using monosyllabic with a consonant vowel form. At the first year a children will not distinguish between p and b. when they say “papa” may be they will say it by baba. It means that they can not distinguish the different between voice and voiceless consonant. When they learn that /p/ and /b/ are distinct phoneme they also begin to distinguish between /t/ and /d/ , /s/ and /z/. when they turn to learn this they will say “da da” not “ta ta”. The children in this stage can know more about the phonological contrast then what they can produce. It means that they know much on their brain about the different of the phonology then what they can produce.
    Syahid is two years old he live in alahan panjang, there ubi jalar called kapelo. He often hear this word because his father like it so much. And kapalo is the head in English. so when his mother asked him about what is kapelo? He will say part of body. And his mother touch kapelo he said palo or kapalo. It is not because he do not hear the correct pronunciation around he but they can not say it at his old now. They hear the correct pronunciation but their unable in their early year to produce it themselves. The another example is when he say “atit eyut” its “sakit perut” he is not able yet to produce the word like adult. Children replaced the word r with y.
    Sometime children also just pronounce the last of the word, for example when they wanted to say ibu they just say bu, buku with ku. Pai with ai etc. they also often replace the word v with p. for example when they want to say TV they will say ipi. They also change the word s with c for example when syahid asked his mother where are you going mom? His mother say I want to go to pasa then his father asked him where your mom will go? He said aca. Sometime they know what to say in their head but they do not know how to pronounce it. They will tried to imitated what they hear from the other people around they live. But they can not say it as perfect as the adult say it. They just now on their head but can not pronounce it in this old.

  14. Name : Yuni putri hamida
    Reg.no : 1314050374

    The term used for the acquisition of the English term match acquisition, namely, the process of language acquisition by children naturally when he learned his mother tongue. The children begin to recognize verbal communication with its surroundings called child language acquisition. First language acquisition occurs when children from the beginning without the language now has obtained a language. At the time of acquisition of the language of the child, the child is more directed at the communications functions of the form language. Children’s language acquisition can be said to have the continuity, have a continuum, moving from his one simple word to the combination of words is more complicated.

    The first sentence say a little when they are sentences borrowed from his mother. when children are still small children will be very fussy and like to cry, but crying is a form of language used to tell something like: children want to drink milk, or a wet diaper. At the time of infancy children have started to interact with the environment like her mother. The language he used at the time was a baby just cries and also sometimes difficult to understand . Cries the language that is the language used by the infant in expressing what they want. And when the baby is 7 months old, babies can not say anything but it was getting to know those of people with that around me like a mother, father aunts, and uncles. At the age of 7 months, when some people want to hold her, the baby will cry because they do not recognize the person. At my age 7-19 months snack already started using sign language is like when a child will want something with hands pointing toward which a child go .. At this age children begin to use gestures to interact with their environment.

    Furthermore, at the age of 20 months word out of the mouth is the word “mama”, said it was not so clearly audible and stammered only heard the word “ma” .And then word out of him is the word” papa “.and it is not obviously only heard the word “pa”. Usually the first two words that’s what a child say when 20 months old. And then words from the mouth of the child is drinking, and spoken by children “num-num” and also when you want to eat children say “mam-mam”. And when the child wants to buy something or want something a child would appointed and said (tu-tu) its mean that children want to buy it. when a child falls or when feeling pain typically son would say (atit-atit). That’s the word coming from the mouth of children ,, only single words and difficult to understand. Language development in children can not be separated from environmental influences mainly family both parents. Child is mandated by the hands of his parents and his heart still kept a precious jewel. If he is accustomed to do good (in the household environment and social environment), surely he would grow up to be good and be happy in this world and in the hereafter. Conversely, when familiarized with evil (in the household environment and social environment) as well as neglect, surely he will be wretched and have dire consequences for the development of physical, mental, and spiritual child. Therefore, we must teach the things that are good from an early age, because the period of the children is the most important time in the form of a human being useful for the nation, the State and religion

  15. Name : Weni Maryani
    Nim : 1314050166
    Class : TBI-A

    what can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of Phonology?
    Answer :
    We have to know that children construct their language process begun when the children was a child. We was knew if children when he wants to speak, he could not speak clearly. Example when he wants to talking “makan” he will says “aan” or “mam”. Then when we are talking about speech process of the student language acquisition, it was begun when he hears someone speak, the word that will be transfered in her brain. For example “ibu” he will say “bubu”. After the children transferred her first word in her brain, he will be constructed her grammar. Children are not given explicit information about the rules, by the either instruction or correction. They must somehow extract the rules of the grammar from the language they hear around them, and their linguistic environment does not need to be special in any way for them to do this. Then after they contruct their grammar when they have finished hear sound, it was could make the children easy to interaction with another people in her environment. There are output and input. Output is the word that the children getting from another people, or her friend. Then input is the word that the children getting from her parents, especially her mother, because mother is the one of who trying the children to speak with her. Mother have try to many times to invite his children how to speak something well. She have many way to make her children understand what her says. We know that interaction is language. The purpose of language is to communication ad interaction. At deep lingual that is available language acquisition which exists performance and competence. It means the children have gotten academic or education, or which is the children gets more knowledge in everywhere, example are environment, school, and etc. so this is way how the speech process of the children from language acquisition about the first word.
    Now when we are talking about the acquisition of phonology from the children, we should know what mean of the acquisition of phonology. In term of his phonology, J.P. is like most children at this stage. His first words are generally monosyllabic with a CV (consonant-vowel). The vowel part may be a diphthong, depending on the language being acquired. His phonemic or phonetic inventory at this stage they are equivalent is much smaller than is found in the adult language. In general the order of acquisition of classes of sounds goes by manner of articulation:nasals are acquired first, then gildes,stops, liquids, fricatives, and affricates. Natural classes characterized by place of articulation features also appear in children’s utterances according to an ordered series: labials, velars, alveolars, and palatals. It is not surprising that mama is an early word for many children.
    In early language, children may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant, although they can perceive the difference. If the first year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, the second year in volves learning how these sounds are used in the phonology of the language, especially which constructs are phonemic. When they first begin to construct one set that is when they learn that /p/ and /b/ are distinct phonemes they also begin to distinguish between /t/ and /d/ /s/ and /z/, and all the other voiceless-voiced phonemic pairs. As we would expect, the generalizations refer to natural classes of speech sounds.

  16. The Acquisition of Phonology
    Language acquisition (Language Acquisition) is a human process gain the ability to capture, produce, and use words to understanding and communication. This capacity involves a wide range of capabilities such as syntax, phonetics, vocabulary and wide. Language acquisition (language acquisition) is a process that takes place in the brain of a child when she gained her first language or mother tongue. Language acquisition usually distinguished by language learning.
    Language may be from the vowel as in spoken language or manual as in sign language. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition which examines the acquisition of children to their mother tongue and second language acquisition are not assess additional language acquisition by children or adults. There are two senses of the language acquisition .Firstly, language acquisition has a sudden onset, sudden. Second, language acquisition has a gradual onset arising from the achievements of motor, social and cognitive pre linguistic.
    If the starting process to demonstrate understanding and a good income from her family and the language obtained, subsequent language acquisition process will have easy. The stages of this language gives a great influence in the process of child language acquisition. Language acquisition is the process of understanding and other income (production) language in children through several stages ranging from inappropriate touching to speak fluently

  17. NAME : PUTRI MARDIANI
    NIM : 1314050016
    CLASS : TBI-A

    What can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of phonology?
    The language of the child will development if they are has four years old. They begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing. It means that the children say something based on the sounds that they heard before and they repeat that many times because at this stage they realize that sounds are related to meaning. It means that they have produce their first true words. For example, to say “SUSU” they will say “CU” , “LAN” it’s means that jalan”, “num” for “minum”and these utterances differ with adults. It’s different if we sound off foreign language for them, it will make them difficult to say that because it is not ordinary for them but they can solve this problem in relatively short time. Most children go through a stage in which their utterances consists of only one word. This stage named holophrastic stage. In holophrastic stage, an utterance can give a more complex message.
    Talking about the acquisition of phonology, children first words are generally monosyllabic with a consonant-vowel form. Their vowel part depending on the language being acquired. The order of acquisition of classes of sounds goes by manner of articulation: nasals (example “function” there is a nasal when they say this word), glides , stops, liquids, fricatives and affricates. Natural classes characterized by place of articulation features also emerge in children’s utterances according to an ordered series: labials, velars, alveolars, and palatals. So it is not strange that “mommy” is the first words can say for many children. In early language, the children cannot make the differences between voiced and voiceless consonant, although they can feel the differences. When they begin to contrast one set of the word, they learn that /p/ and /b/ are different phonemes and they also distinguish between /t/ and /d/, /s/ and /z/ and all the other voiceless-voiced phonemic pairs. At this stage, the children can perceive or comprehend many more phonological contrasts than they can produce. For example, when the children say [wan] instead of “run”. It means that they still can not distinguish between [w] and [r]. This utterances show that the children pronoun about [w] and [r] are physically different sounds, although these words seem the same to adult ear. It happens because they are unable in these early years to produce it themselves. Children first words show of one feature for another or one phoneme for another. In the preceding examples, mommy is pronounced mom, with the alveolar fricative [i] replacing to labial [m] and run is pronounced wan, with the glide [w] replacing the liquid [r]. these substitutions are simplifications of the adult pronunciation. Because there are so many ambiguous form from children words, no wonder only parents understand their children first words.children will usually repeat of some word and it like a there is no different sound.because they pohonologycal still developt.

  18. IMELIA RESKA/1314050139 TBI-A

    When a child begin to speak, they like imitate and reinforce what they hear from adults even though they can not repeat it clearly. They often try to imitate what adults do, and what they are talking about .The children also say something wrong, although their parents teach them the correct one. It shows that children have a powerful brain to receive everything in order to produce their own language. Children also learn language through analogy and structured input, as a child will create a new sentence by hearing their parent’s communication, finally they can produce the new language by hearing sample and direct speech also
    Language is not taught by someone, but it come naturally, a child get a new words and sentences by hearing people around them. While they are hearing something of course there is a part of that sentences are not pronunciated by them, it is because they can not catch well. When children imitating adults, they do not just imitate it. But they just say what they hear without knowing the rules of the language. For example adults said “sakit”, the child said “atit”,and adult said “jauh” the child says “auh” another example for the sentence is “jangan lari nanti jatuh” the child says “ai atuh”. It is shows that they overcome their speech disorder, they immediately use the language to speak.

    Children are able to learn language because adults speak to them in a special “ simplified “ language sometimes called motherese, or child direct speech. By doing this strategy, the children will be easy to learn language and they will be easy to remain word to word until some sentences that have been adults talking to them. It can be concluded that adults should use the special way ( more slowly and clearly ) to speak with children, so they can use language clearly and they can be taught and received the new sentences well. But on the other hand, children don’t imitate everything they hear, they appear to be very selective and only reproduce unassimilated language chunks. Therefore, their replications seem to be controlled by an internal language monitoring process, the behaviorist theory cannot account for the speed that first language is acquired, children say things that are not adult imitations, in particular they use inflectional overgeneralizations. It means that Children are neurologically prepared to acquire all aspects of grammar, from phonetics to pragmatics, and after that they can produce the new language by hearing sample and direct speech also.

  19. Ella juliana
    1314050275. TBI. A
    Psycholinguistics (The Acquisition of Phonology)

    The Answer:
    Language on children sometimes difficult to translated, since child in a general way still utilize language structure that stills to riot and is still experience transition phase in speaking, so, difficult to be understood by its speech partner. To become speech partner on child and to get the picture intention of child talk, speech partner shall gain control condition or environmentally its vicinity, fathom a meaning while little kid converse they utilize media around their to word intention that want to be revealed to converses. Besides utilize language structure that stills to riot, children also tend is still gain control limitation in lexicon and deep its phonemics pronunciation precisely. Environmentally really regard child language developing. Acquisition is meaning language as process that did by child reaches smooth mastery success and glib to their mother tongue or frequent one to be known by molded language of environmental around. In this case acquisition language on child will take in child on fluency and child articulation Childs aged range at child age generally have ability in absorb something and faster tend remembering than ages upon child. So in that age is advisable get good language acquisition, child shall ever be stimulated by something that gets pedagogic character or education. Lingual education on that children shall ever at increases to get good speaking result.
    Childs aged range at child age generally have ability in absorb something and faster tend remembering than ages upon child. So in that age is advisable get good language acquisition, child shall ever be stimulated by something that gets pedagogic character or education. Lingual education on that children shall ever at increases to get good speaking result. Acquisition process and children language mastery constitutes one matter that adequately boggles. How man get language constitutes one issue that tremendously amazes and difficult is proven. A variety theory of discipline area that variably was interposed by enlighten how this process applies deep children circle. Really avowed that was realise or even not, linguistics system is gained control sensibly by despite children individuals by and large no formal teachings. At the age 6 weeks, child beginning to issue kindred sound with plosive or vocalic. This sound can’t yet ensure its form because really were heard clear. While at the age 6 months, child beginning to draught consonant with vocalic so forming what aught in lingual babbling. Babbling began by consonant and followed by one vocalic. First, secretor consonant is consonantal bilabial constraining and bilabial nasa. Example : “angan” (tangan). “intang ecil” (bintang kecil) , “Anyak” (banyak), “Angca aku inyin tebang” (angkasa aku ingin terbang), “Ayis” (alis), “Iyut”(perut), “Idung” (hidung)
    “Bayon “(balon),
    The opinion about family or environmentally that family, can be concluded that family constitutes one first one scope shade someone in its life and helps it posision self as part of that environment. Absorbing child age happening on age 3 years. On that age, a child experiences transition term that adequately sig in term acquisition its first language, notably deep family scope. Language in forms statement who let fly by age child 3 that year, noise about one any one that hears it. Well of pronunciation facet that cover vocabulary and also way forwarding it. Age children 3 year has acquisition languages that variably. Acquisition given phase language (ability utters and understand word meaning not also escape of ability listen, see, and interpret is sound symbol with its brain maturity. Base that description, age child 3 year become discussions in acquisition first language of phonology facet (its phonetic).

  20. Nama : Srigus Okta Diani
    Bp : 1314050556

    Language development or communication in children is one of the aspects of the stages of child development that should not be immune from the attention of educators in general and parents in particular. Language acquisition by children is greatest human achievements and amazing, so that the issue has gained great attention. Language acquisition has been studied intensively for a ong time. At the time we have learned a lot about how the children speak, understand, and use language, but very little of what we know about the actual process of language development.
    Departing on the above opinion, acquisition of language is a human process gain the ability to capture, produce and use words to understanding and communication. This capacity involves a wide range of capabilities such as syntax, phonetic, vocabulary and wide. Language may be from the vowel as in spoken language or manual as in sign language. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition which examines the acquisition of children to their mother tongue and second language acquisition is reviewing additional language acquisition by children or adults.
    The first language language cry, the child not yet can speech like adult. Language acquisition the child is imitation of government around. Acquisition of phonology child, his first words with “a,I,u,e,o”. The child say “ I drawed this picture for you mom. Drew the say mother. And the children say “huh”. The mother say “ you drew this picture for me. The children say “ I know that I am the one that drawed it ?” while refer the picture. The children getting to know the language based on the parents when first introduced to the environment in which he lived. When the children cry and her mother said “ baby, the listened you are hungry or ‘makan’. That words usually the listen children in environment, she will said “ mam” when she want eat something or she is hungry. Then children always listen words by parents and environment around, so she is slow will language acquisition. Example, Mother say “Eh, Dawn want to drink milk, honey?”. The child answer “Enga” (no). (Suddenly comes the aunt and gave child cake). aunt say “child, says nothing at aunt?”. The children say “Kenk you!” (Thank you)”. The aunt say “I’ll play again at aunt to Ciputat, yes!” and the children say “ yes”. Even so, children will only pay attention and respond to the speech of others would be considered if the material was within the knowledge of speech and language versions used in children who tend to be simple and slow. If not, the child will ignore it.

  21.   NAME : SETRI YENTI
      REG.NO : 1314050551
      CLASS : TBI-B
      ASSIGMENT : AQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY
      
      
      On language acquisition in children could replicate through what is spoken of adults say the adult. But what was said by the child is not the same as what was said by the adults. Since the production of spoken language the child has not been so smooth and fluent. And he speaks according to his ability to speak and however its course. And we should try to correct what the child said. Example sentences imitations are saying for example put our words and then he says “ta” and drink “num” fear “Atut”, clothes “aju”.
      At this stage it is also a child start using a series of sounds over and over to the same meaning and should not be blamed if his spoken it mistake.example “mam” (I’m eating) “pa” (I want papa is here). “Ma” (I want mama is here) .The children have started to speak words of the first, though not yet complete as, “atit” which means “sick”, agi meaning “again”, Itut which means “go”, or atoh which means “falling”.
      At this stage of linguistics The first is called the stage of sentence one word or holoprase, which means that the same word with a phrase or sentence, another example of the word “pis” can mean “children to pee”, buk means that children want to powder au could aqueous “want” or do not want. It must be able to read the signs of the child. If it can shake or nod it easy. But if not, it’s confusing. Because if it does not comply with what the child is going to crying. For example, when Castle and Smith say tu does not mean “it”, but he actually wanted “something that is on the table”, for example. Likewise with ni not mean “this” but he wants “a person close to him” among others Babang. example climb the falls, which meant “Bambang was climbing last fall”. Evi does not participate? The definition of “Goddess can come not? The situation mama wants to go then he would go, but instead ask. So language acquisition relationship to the child is almost the same as the acquisition of phonology for acquisition of phonology continuation of language acquisition.

  22. NAMA : ERSISMITA
    BP : 1314050136
    CLASS: TBI-A

    Spoken language in children is an evolve language according to what they think and follow the development of the mind. In this sense will remember the language and the mind who will process it, the environment will also affect the ability of language development in children, the environment is the first medium of learning in children. and interaction is the source language in children.
    There are several ways in which children in acquiring the language that children acquire it by imitating, repeating, analogy by imitating and repeating the words were heard by the children of those that exist in the environment of her in according to automatically he will imitate and repeat the words until they can speak like parents.
    Language acquisition in children begin with the ability to hear, then imitate the sound or sounds available in the environment, in this process the child will not be able to language and speech if a child was not given an opportunity to express things you heard, therefore, the family is very important in this case, the family must give children the opportunity to learn and speak through experience that he heard, then, gradually when the children have been able to express experience good of an experience to hear, see, read and so forth, and he express language oral. So, a child says a sentence that does not think of right or wrong, who pronounce his sentence, both in pronunciation, grammar, meaning that even though, so a child to pronounce a word that matches what he listens to.
    When children can speak word the children say is still limited, and word say is still it to it as well, if don’t understand about word which he say, he for example the word jajan, he say ja-ja will not think about that, so, therefore, first word ja-ja, when he say with word ja-ja-, and after that, he asked and said something with crying, if he want something he will cry, because he cannot who say that, and he don’t know how to pronounce, language and speech is the expression of a person to show ability to express something, so that a child can imitate what dikata the adults and he did not want to think it is right or wrong, he says, which is trivial on the child, if he listened to the sentence in the other person and in his neighborhood, he would try it , because a child will try things that are new to him, whether he had seen, and heard.

  23. Nama : Wardah Nasution
    Reg.Num : 1314050004
    TBI-A

    As I observed, the child verbal production is still a lot of lost letters and still have trouble pronouncing some consonants and a vowel. And other difficulties or repeat if to say more than one word. However, children at this age are smarter than our expectations. Perhaps he was wrong in the pronunciation, but he knows what he means it. For example in the pronunciation of “Cat” will produce the sound baby “Et” by pointing directly at the object or point in the image. Although adults or people around him have shown that the actual pronunciation of the child but will remain on their pronunciation. However by growing of children and the more often he heard the word that of course the pronunciation is correct then he will be more fluent in producing words.
    The significance of first language acquisition for children are to express needs and get what they want, used to tell others what to do, and tell stories and to create an imaginary situation. At the age of 1-2.5 years the child began to recite the words of the first, though not yet complete. For example: “atia” (sakit), agi (lagi), “itut” (ikut), “atoh” (jatoh). At this time some combination of letters is still difficult to say, too few letters still difficult to pronounce like; r, s, k, j, and t.
    In general, the first word is used to comment on the objects or events in their environment. Include form of an order, notice, denial, questions, etc. How to interpret the first word depends on the context of the time the word is spoken, so as to be able to understand what the purpose of the child with the word we should look or observe what the child is doing at the time. Intonation is also very helpful to make it easier to interpret whether the child asking, the member knows, or govern. Meaning of the first words they can refer to objects, people, places, and events surrounding the child’s early environment.
    Phonology is the description of the system and patterns of speech sounds; mental aspect of the sounds in a language. Production of sounds, babbling: first imitation of consonants and vowels. Early speech production, building a system of contrasts: important to distinguish between sounds and therefore words, it shows how the child learns to place sounds into categories. The importance of the stressed syllable: children use stress to locate word boundaries. The child’s learning how to pronounce the words of the native language. First words Age 1;0: first words appear Age 1;0 to 1;6: child slowly acquires 50 words or so Age 1;6: first word combinations, children acquire phonology over several years. First year: babbling, second year: first words, subsequent years: learn to pronounce an extensive vocabulary. Sounds and syllables increase in number and complexity phonological processes capture error patterns

  24. Laras Sekar Tanjung
    1314050002
    TBI-A
    THE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY
    A child acquire phonology over several years. We can see that the first step of language acquisition is babling. They produce unmeaningfull words. After that they start to produce their first word. They start to say ma, pa, tu, etc. Then, they begin to pronounce an extensive vocabulary. They can say word and sentences with perfectly phonological just after they are in 5-6 years. Theorists on psycholinguistics claim that children grow their linguistic competency through imitation toward surroundings. Besides, children have innate ability to cope with languages of the adults surrounding them. However, it turns out that what they utter sound different from what the adults should expect to hear. For example, instead of saying, “kupu-kupu”, a child says “pu-pu.” Another example is for the word “makan”. A child says “aan” or “mam.” These two examples illustrate how a child produces sounds from their oral instruments.
    When a child was in 12-18 month old, the utterances that they produced were containing a single syllable from the things or words that they will say. They speak just one syllable, but actually it is a complete concept in their mind, but they can not say it completely as their mind has construct. For example, they say “mam”, it means that they ask some food to eat. Other example, they say “bum”, it means that want to say “ mama, it is a car” (mama, itu ada mobil). At first, the word just uses when the things are around them. But after on year old, the word “pa” (papa=father) can be meant “where is father”, and “ma” (mama=mother) can be meant where is mother or it is for a lady picture in a newspaper. Another example is the children say “nyum” (minum=drink) that can refers to a glass of water on the table.
    According to our material book on page 356, children first word are generally monosyllabic with a CV (consonant-vowell) form. It can be seen from the example above. The children say “ma” (consonant “m” and vowel “a”). Then, their phonological inventory at an early stage included the consonants (b, m, d, k), which are frequently occuring sounds in the world’s languages. Sometime, children say “iting ambut na” for “keiting rambutnya” (it is a curly hair). They did it is not caused by they didn’t hear correct adult pronunciation. They do, but they are unable in these early years to produces it themselves. On another cases, children sometimes do these mistakes above: syllable deletion, e.g. bottle (ba), banana (na:’na); final consonant deletion, e.g. ban (ba); voicing e,g, push (bus); fronting, e.g. duck (dat), push (bus).

  25. SETIA WATI KURNIA
    BP : 1314050306 / TBI (A)
    PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    Language is a system of symbols to communicate covering phonology , morphology (units of meaning), syntax (grammar). With languages, children can communicate the intent, purpose, thoughts, and feelings to others. Language development or communication in children is one of the aspects of the stages of child development that should not escape the attention of parents and educators. Language children use to communicate and adapt to their environment to exchange ideas, thoughts, and emotions. Language can be expressed through speech referring to the verbal symbols, can also be through writing and body movements. In the previous lesson we have discussed about the first words spoken by the child. The ability to speak is a potential of all children. That ability is obtained without any special learning. Used a relatively short time, children are able to communicate with people – people in the vicinity. Even before going to school, he has been able to talk like adults for a variety of purposes and in a wide – range of situations. Although the language used is not as perfect as adults. And sometimes do not use proper grammar. And if observed, language acquisition is not the one in the can at once but gradually phase. Language skills will continue to grow as running his physical, mental, intellectual and social.
    Phonology is one part of the linguistic, which has the language sounds in general. Phonological study the function of the system distinguishing sounds in a language, try to set rules to define and distinguish phonemes with one another and how it can function in a systematic language, so communication can be an effective language. phonology how sounds are organized into words, how the rules if you want to combine sounds into words and which puts stress and intonation at times sounding the words, so that the meaning more easily perceived by the listener. A child who is just learning the language, must learn to distinguish sounds and patterns that produce sounds different meanings. definition of acquisition of phonology down: it is the process whereby the children acquire the target language’s phonology, Including its functional aspects like the language’s specific sound contrasts. However, in the whole acquisition process, not only a set of phonological rules is chronologically acquired but Also a set of morphological, syntactical and semantic rules. And then, Reviews These processes are largely independent of intelligence Although the degree of competence acquired Among individuals may vary.
    So phonology is part of linguistic, sounds of language in general, from the above we can see the relationship between first language and acquisition of phonology is the pronunciation of words spoken that child depends on the sound captured by the child, what he heard. from the sound of her son tried to say. but even if the child has mastered a number of phonemes / sounds of language, but there are still some phonemes that are still difficult to say exactly. Resulting in errors in her pronunciation. regular child has a problem with the pronunciation of some letters. Like the word ‘r’ “biru = bilu”. and some are replacing the letter ‘w’ to ‘r’ example of “warna = Ruana,” es = aiys ” , sapu = puu , that often occurs in child, learning the language.

  26. Name : Nurrahmi
    Reg. No : 1314050149
    Subject : Psycholinguistics TBI-A

    Firstly, before a word is formed by children. She or he will produce vowel sounds. As “A, I, U, E, O”. but not all vowel will be her said. He or she often saying “A” or “U”. according to scientists of phonology say that the first word of children generally monosyllabic with a AC (consonant-vowel). And his say is evident when I ask her mother and my mother also say same point t. When I young age, my first word is Mama. And also the children will say Ma-ma and Pa-pa for the first word. on this time, The children try to learn say something but his/her word is not clearly. He/she try open and close his/her mouth while out his sounds. At this time also the children’s sound nasals. This sounds will be listened clearly when cry.

    When the children’s 1 years old, their words have uttered and arranged a sentence with one or two word. She/he will be said it. But this word not clear and constant when he/she said. Like “pa-pa yi” (papa sudah pergi), “Ma-ma Mam” (mama, mau makan), “ma-ma ndi” (mama, mau mandi). This process indicated that the children learn to say something with use his/her skill in speaking. On other hand, the children start to talk and he/she use palatal sound, but before he/she has known labial sounds. Like /m/, /p/, /b/ and join together with vowels. When parent invites her children talk, actually her child know with mother’s say. But the children cannot utter it with correct. The children also contrast when say word. Like If we say “pisang”, he/she will say “piyang” and if we say “pusing”, he/she will say “pucing”. Sometimes the parent did not understand their children said and make their children crying. Then a child 2 years old. He/she start learning about animals by her/his parents. like dog, cat, and hen. If we say “hei honey, that is dog. Dog always says guk-guk-guk”. His children will imitate and says “kuk-kuk-kuk”. So, if other family says “there is dog”, child will say kuk-kuk-kuk. Its mean that the dog. this process acquisition of phonology is not living process before. But, it is steps of children to know about animals and others.

    After that, the children have made words to be a simple sentence. Like “mama, Ana mau ini” (I want It) or “ma, ini ma” while show it. Although a simple sentence and grammar is not clearly. But it can be accepted and understood by parents

  27. Name : Sri Milfa Yetti, 1314050261, TBI-A
    Lingking and describing about a child’s first verbal production, as in speech process, with language acquisition of phonology.
    A child have innated ability in geting the languages, the first words are generally monosyllabic, imposible the child direct to speak with fluency but the first stept is they get language vocal and consonant form,like they want “makan” so the use vowel to express their want it “aam” they have able asked to their parents with use wrong phonology but the purpose from that is same, so parents have understood what their want. Actually the child get language from adult so they will construct it but the child is not fluency to say appropriate with right pronounciation, for instance the child want say “rabbit” but they can not say it with true so they will say “wabbit” it is so distinguish between r and w but it have their way to express it with the meaning is rabbit, so the parents will understand what their children saying.
    The child receive the language from their environment, but they have steps age when they start to speak up, the first they will out though phonology, they can not direct do interact with other people with fluence communication but they can just ask their want though phonology, it mayor about vowel and consonant like “aam, cucu, num, pupu” it is kind of their language, they know it from their environment like what they hear, see, and feel they will out all of them after they able to speak up. The second, the child have able to say word by word but it is still not clear like “ ma mamam” they have able to express they want but it is not perfect.
    According to Roman Jacobson give suggested about languistic that children first acquire the small set of sounds common to all languages of the world, no matter what language they hear, and in later stages a child acquires the less common sounds of his own languages. Actually the child get language based on theclasses of sounds goes manner of articulation. Like the first child get nasals sounds like the child can not speak, they just use their express to ask something nasal sound like crying. The next is glide like the child get language use phonology it can be seen at the child can speak but it not perfect like say “kupu-kupu is pu-pu, makan a-am” sounds. Afterthat the child direction can say consonant or stop like they have able say makan, kupu-kupu the sound of consonant have heared. The next they have able speak with liquid, fricatives, and affricatives sounds. That are characteristized by place of articulation .

  28. NAME : RIZKA AULIA
    NIM : 1314050204
    CLASS : TBI-A/ VI
    TASK : PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    Before I describe about the verbal words that said by children with the acquisition of phonology, the first I will explain about definition of phonology. We know that phonology include branches of linguistics, so that phonology is the branches of linguistics that study about the sounds of language that said by people or human. And it can be defined phonology is the study how sounds of organized and used in natural languages. So phonology is the study sounds of language. The sounds of language will gotten when we were baby. The first word is gotten by children based on what they hear. They usually got the language from the environment, and then they will imitate what the people say, although the sounds of language that their said it’s not clear, they will try to imitate it. In language acquisition, the children will through some the process to speak fluently. The children will babbling (pre language) which are the children only said 1-2 words, and there are the consonant and vocal that less when they babbling, such as “Kucing”, they will say “Cing” .They can to speak without less consonant or vocal when they are 2-3 years old. For the children, bubbling is not used to communication, but bubbling is used to training the vocal through of sounds.
    According to the linguist Roman Jakoboson suggested that children first acquire the small set of sounds common to all language of the world, no matter what language they hear, and in later stages a child acquires the less common sounds of his own language. Based on the suggested of Jakoboson that the children will hear the language of the world, they do not care what language they hear, such as the Indonesian language, English, and Minang language, they just to imitate and spoken.
    Sound or speech that spoken by adults is not yet it will be spoken by the child, and it will be happen difference pronunciations. An example adults said “minum”, so the children will imitate and spoke “nyum”, the meaning of their said same with the adults said but the different sounds of language. After that, we know that when spoke there are consonant and vocal but the children is no yet distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant. Actually the children can perceive many more phonological contrasts than they can produce. Example the children said “Iying” instead of “Piring”. The first year the children unable to produce the sounds of language fluently or appropriate with the rules sounds of language, but they know what the people say. If the adult say use bubbling to the children, so they will angry, example the children pronounced “Gocok gigi”, and the adult say “Kamu ingin gocok gigi”. They were angry because based on what they hear is “Gosok”. So, many phonological rules that children create but no one child will necessarily use all rules.

  29. Putri Rahma Dani
    1314050120
    TBI – A
    PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    The children process begin to know about communicate with their environment verbally it called as language acquisition. Language acquisition based on natural character or in other words human were created as creature get language because they have been completed with all something like brain and speaking tool. the first language that is gotten by children it more direct to function of communication than language form. There are most scientists give view that wherever children are, they keep to acquisition mother tongue with the same strategy. In the syntax field, children begin to speak by saying one word, this word for them is full sentence because they can not say more than one word, they only use one word from all that sentence.
    Mother tongue as the first language that has been gotten by human since be born through interaction with environment like family and society. The language that used by adult to children who processing acquisition is a mother tongue. Children is fifteen years old will speaking to their young brother who is two years old will use mother tounge too. As we know a child does not direct have grammar and form in the first language. A language will be gotten through some stages like imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. What are people say too much, so the children will imitate about it. There are some kinds imitate like spontaneous imitation, elicited imitation, immediate imitation, act. For example parents say susu in Indonesian language, so the children will say cu-cu. It will be happened when children are two years. After that, children will repeat that word when they want it.
    In my opinion is Ability for can speak is a potential that has been had by children which that ability can be gotten without through special learning. A language that will be gotten by children involve two skills, they are produce expression spontaneously and understanding another people’s expression. In this context, language acquisition is process ability for have a language as communication. I agree with guidance book that we use in psycholinguistics lesson that children get a language based on imitate process, it means that the children imitate and repeat of words that has been listened. This process will help to product children’s statement or expression. Nevertheless, language acquisition is not only gotten from imitation process because imitation can apply only to speech production and not to speech comprehension. Therefore language acquisition needs another process. It is like reinforcement which after children imitate about words or sentences, so the role of parents is do correction whether is the children say about something right or something false. It is very useful for them because it will improve language ability in grammar especially phonology.

  30. NAME : AYU WINDARI/1314050432

    Language, Phonological, kindergarten. This study was conducted to determine differences in phonological abilities kindergartners at school favorites and non-favorites in Surakarta. Methods Participants were recruited both kindergarten amounted to 30 children. Both groups were given tests phonological sensitivity had previously tested reliability. The results showed no differences between kindergarten phonological ability Favorite and Non-Favorite by comparison p value 0.000 < 0.05. The average value of phonological favorite kindergartner higher than non-favorite kindergarten children. Thus, the elements supporting learning in kindergarten, the curriculum is implemented, as well as the quality and quantity of human resources affect the ability of the students in the stage of language acquisition, especially in the stage of phonological processes.
    In Table 4 it appears that from test result analysis shows that the value The average (mean) TK Guiding TK represents more favorites higher than the average value of TK Dharma Women 8 representing TK non favorites. Differences in the average value significant the difference 11.70000 value indicates that language skills of children inkindergarten Favorite was also better than language skills of children in kindergarten nonfavorit. Automatically, the ability This has an impact on the quality of language reading and writing skills of children. These results are Consistent with the opinion (inpress) are saying that weak phonological abilities
    someone would result in him going have difficulty in reading. This theory is Corroborated by the opinion Bryant et al. (1990); Wagner &Torgesen(1987); and Wagner et al. (1994) states that children are better in detecting and manipulating
    syllables, rhyme, or a variety of positions phonemes in a word, the child it will be quicker in learning read, and this relationship applies although there are constant capacity factor intellectual (IQ), receptive capabilities, memory capabilities, and social class child. Factors that may affect differences in abilities This sensitivity include accreditation status which is much different, the amount of resources human (teachers) are different, the quality different teachers, facilities and amenities, and learning systems, consistency school rules.
    On the other hand, researchers found a relationship pattern factor and interaction between children in the family also have an effect on the ability phonological of children. Case The opinion is in line with Naslund & Schneider, (1996), Senechal & LeFevre, (2002), Share & Gur, (1999), and Whitehurst (2001) which states that the development of such skills identification of phonemes and phonological awareness is also facilitated by the situation informal everyday kid like spontaneous communication with the child Adult and other interactive activities at home like reading a story ahead sleep at night. From the obtained from research subjects in kindergarten favorite, researchers assumed that children in The kindergarten also tend to be easier hang out and interact with people adult. Meanwhile in non favorite kindergarten, response their children tend to be rather passive and require more time for researchers to approach. The results of this study can also be explained that the ability phonology sensitivity in girls more both of the phonological abilities male sensitivity both in kindergarten favorites or in non favorite TK. These findings according to the results of research conducted Taha (2006), which concluded that women are better in ability phonological and lexical than children man. Please note that the component phonology is a small part of the basic language skills. In school, language becomes an aspect that is very vital in the learning process in which involves the interaction of teachers and students on a reciprocal basis.

  31. YUYUT KEMALA SARI/1314050384/TBI-B

    Phonology acquisition is the sounds of a language, how they are organized to form words. The child’s learning how to pronounce the words of the native language. Language in children is sometimes difficult to translate, because children generally still use the language structures are still messed up and are still experiencing a transitional stage in the speech, that it is difficult to be understood by mitratuturnya. To be mitratutur in children and to be able to understand the intent of the speech of children, mitratutur must master the conditions or the surrounding environment, ie when a small child talking their use of media around them to explain the purpose to be disclosed to mitratutrnya inside talking. In addition to using language structures still in turmoil, the children also tend to still control limitations in vocabulary (lexicon) and the pronunciation fonemnya appropriately. environment influence the development of children’s language. So that the language spoken by the children, based on their ability to interact directly on languages that exist in the vicinity.
    Language acquisition is defined as the process undertaken by the child achieve success smooth and fluent mastery of the ‘mother tongue’ they are often known by the language that is formed from the surrounding environment. In this case the language acquisition in children will take the child to the child fluency and eloquence in speech. The age range of children in the age of the children generally have the ability to absorb anything and memory tends to be faster than after the above toddler age. So that in the ages tersbut should get good language acquisition, the child must always be stimulated by something that is pedagogig or education. Language education to children must always be improved to obtain good results speak.
    My little nephew, Yogi satria anggara, has been able to pronounce consonants such as bilabial and alveolar consonant. Consonant velar / k / and / g / unheard except / k / at the end, for example, the word ‘nak’ (naik), ‘dak’ (tidak), ‘Usak’ (rusak). Meanwhile consonant / p / often heard in the beginning, middle or end. For example the word ‘ampu’ (lampu), ‘opi’ (topi), ‘top’ (laptop), ‘papa’ (papa). Consonants / b /’ve heard in the beginning and middle. For example the word ‘mobi’ (mobil), ‘buca’ (buka). Consonants / m /, yogi is already able to recite at the beginning and middle, for example, the word ‘mama’ (mama), ‘ambi’ (ambil).
    Consonant / t / sound at the beginning and the middle. For example at the ‘top’ (laptop) and ‘atu’ (satu). Consonant / l / is not unheard of in the beginning of the word. Consonant / r / also never appeared at the beginning or the middle, but miss and replace it with the next phoneme. For example the word ‘Aya’ (Arya). But consonant / h / and / l / does not sound at the end of the word. For example the word ‘mobi’ (mobil), ‘amba’ (tambah). Consonant sounds that others often appear many are replaced by other consonants in words. As in the example above, the consonant / g / on ‘gunung’ word is replaced with a consonant / d / become “dunu”. Consonants in addition to the above, it seems at the age of 3 years or more, such as age “Yogi” can not disclose the consonant / r /. It seems to interchange of these consonants with consonants like the word “burung”is replaced by “bulung”.

  32. NAME/NIM : SUCI SYAHRIYANTI/1314050532
    TBI-B
    Describe between A Child’s First Verbal Production, as in the Speech Process

    Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. It has traditionally focused largely on the study of the systems of phonemes in particular languages (and therefore used to be also called phonemics, or phonematics), but it may also cover any linguistic analysis either at a level beneath the word (including syllable, onset and rime, articulatory gestures, articulatory features, mora, etc.) or at all levels of language where sound is considered to be structured for conveying linguistic meaning. Phonology also includes the study of equivalent organizational systems in sign languages. Language acquisition is a process whereby children unconsciously acquire their mother tongue ¬ in the case of monolingual speakers ¬ or their mother tongues, in the event of bi- and multi-lingual speakers respectively. The process takes place during the first six or seven years of children′s lives until the lateralisation of their brains occurs as a possible result of hormonal changes.
    My sister, when she was 1,5 year old, she’s been able to mention his name and already has a sense of ownership, for example, when I took her doll, she immediately responded “this is my doll” and usually my nephew always said “nyo cha to tak” (punyo cha ko kak) , she can ask something that she wants, for example,, when she want to drink a cup of tea and the funny thing is she says “num tatek” means she want to drinking a cup of tea that drinking my grandfather every morning, so when she want to drink a cup of tea, she always says “num tatek”. She’s able to recognize the voice that interesting sound. For example, when she hear the sound of ice cream with a sound like “ting tong” she already knew that it was the sound of the ice cream and its expression was very happy when I heard seemed to give out to the people around him if she wants ice cream. So, we should know everything and what children wants. Don’t be angry to children and we should be passion confront them.
    When i was a child, when i say “ma” (mama) and “pa” (papa). I can say that two words very clearly, include my familiar voice, and will quieten at the sound of it if they are crying. Tiny babies under three months will also stop their activity and attend closely to the sound of an unfamiliar voice. They will often respond to comforting tones whether the voice is familiar or not. When i was a child, i have been able to pronounce consonants such as bilabial and alveolar consonant. Consonant velar / k / and / g / unheard except / k / at the end, for example, the word ‘bok’ (bobok), ‘ucuk’ (busuk).

  33. NAMA : RADIAN MAULIDA
    BP : 1314050236
    CLASS : TBI-A

    My opinion about that is that that children,new know language and she has seen by language that at utters at its environment, adapted language of environmentally its vicinity haven’t available,and its even tongue was coached her problem stills little. adapted is children language can say to have continuity characteristic, have an unitary series, one that moving of utterance one word simpling to wend word affiliate that more complex.
    There is two savvy hits adapted languages. First, adapted language has abrupt startup, suddenly. Both of, adapted language has a startup that gradual that emerging of motorik’s achievements, social, and kognitif pralinguistik. First language acquisition hand in glove once its bearing with formative social child and hence also hand in glove relationship it with formation social id. Studying first language constitutes one of child comprehensive developing become full member a society. Language makes easy child express idea, its willingness by one aptly gets is accepted socially. Language constitutes child applicable media to get culture points, moral, religion, and other points in society. In passes off effort to get language, child led by principle or philosophy ‘ becomes others meagrely difference ’, or even ‘ gets or get a social id and in it, and develops Your person id alone ’.
    According to Stampe processes child phonology get illuminated character that shall experience grind (supresi), limit , and arrangement according to penuranian ( internalization ) representasi is adult phonemics. Fathom a meaning is a process phonology consisting of unity which mutually interfering. That interfering problem gets to be solved by three tricks, which is
    a. Repress either one both of interfering process it. Umpanya, if child has gained control bersura’s constraining sounds in all context, therefore her matter was successful repress voice disappearance process that evoked by oral’s balk sound that.
    b. Draw the line total segment or context amount that engages in to process it. E.g., voice disappearance process is drawn the line at only erect constraining sounds only, meanwhile sound constrain oversized uninvolved.
    c. Manage its happening processes speech sound disappearance and acquisition voice alternately. Its thread may be begun by speech sound disappearance process, then followed by sonant procurement process. Both of process it may not happen concurrently.
    Since adapted language startup its language, baby have conscious of difference among sound human language with other sounds that don’t man voice. It comprises “ illuminated ability ” one be had by baby since is borne. That ability is child can create its own phonology formulas since language adapted early phase its phonology, one that disparate with adult phonology formulas

  34. Name : Manja Mulyani Siregar
    Nim : 1314050235
    Class : TBI- A
    Psycholinguistics Class – Assignment 2
    Before we talking about a child’s language or children language around and the children create sounds that we could hear. We must understanding the table below. The table explain about phase or stages children development.
    Stage Typical age Description
    Babbling 6-8 months Repetitive CV patterns
    One-word stage
    (better one-morpheme or one-unit)
    or holophrastic stage 9-18 months Single open-class words or word stems
    Two-word stage 18-24 months “mini-sentences” with simple semantic relations
    Telegraphic stage
    or early multiword stage
    (better multi-morpheme) 24-30 months “Telegraphic” sentence structures of lexical rather than functional or grammatical morphemes
    Later multiword stage 30+ months Grammatical or functional structures emerge
    Then, we get the points about observations of children’s in different language areas like Minangkabau and Indonesia that the stages are similar, possibly universal. Some of the stages last for a short time; others remain longer, or influence from different culture and social circumstances. Babies have begun to learn the sounds of the language of their parents. Before that, they appear to know the sounds of human language in general.
    The early babbles consist mainly of repeated consonant-vowel sequences, like mama,gaga, and dada. Later babbles are more varied. After the age of one, children begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing. At this stage children realize that sounds are related to meanings. They have produce their first true words. When I observation Marwah Purba, my cousin, that his parents use Indonesia language in their daily life. Because different culture, my aunt Nias ethnic and her husband Batak. Marwah start to imitate his mother language when 30 mounts. His success to said mama, tutu, aek (namely from Grandmother in my culture). It show that children at this stages his first words are generally monosyllabic with a CV (consonant-vowel) form. The second year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, especially which contrast are phonemic. Some child who says [ “pupu” ] instead of “kupu-kupu “ (butterfly) and who does not seem to distinguish [p] and [k] , in addition, children sometimes produce a sound in a way that makes it indiscernible to adults observers.
    We can conclude that, of the many phonological rules that that children create, no one child will necessarily use all rules. Early phonological rules reflect natural phonological processes that also occur in adults language.

  35. NAME : RIZKA AULIA
    NIM : 1314050204
    CLASS : TBI-A/ VI
    TASK : PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    Before I describe about the verbal words that said by children with the acquisition of phonology, the first I will explain about definition of phonology. We know that phonology include branches of linguistics, so that phonology is the branches of linguistics that study about the sounds of language that said by people or human. And it can be defined phonology is the study how sounds of organized and used in natural languages. So phonology is the study sounds of language. The sounds of language will gotten when we were baby. The first word is gotten by children based on what they hear. They usually got the language from the environment, and then they will imitate what the people say, although the sounds of language that their said it’s not clear, they will try to imitate it. In language acquisition, the children will through some the process to speak fluently. The children will babbling (pre language) which are the children only said 1-2 words, and there are the consonant and vocal that less when they babbling, such as “Kucing”, they will say “Cing” .They can to speak without less consonant or vocal when they are 2-3 years old. For the children, bubbling is not used to communication, but bubbling is used to training the vocal through of sounds.
    According to the linguist Roman Jakoboson suggested that children first acquire the small set of sounds common to all language of the world, no matter what language they hear, and in later stages a child acquires the less common sounds of his own language. Based on the suggested of Jakoboson that the children will hear the language of the world, they do not care what language they hear, such as the Indonesian language, English, and Minang language, they just to imitate and spoken.
    Sound or speech that spoken by adults is not yet it will be spoken by the child, and it will be happen difference pronunciations. An example adults said “minum”, so the children will imitate and spoke “nyum”, the meaning of their said same with the adults said but the different sounds of language. After that, we know that when spoke there are consonant and vocal but the children can not to distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant. Actually the children can perceive many more phonological contrasts than they can produce. Example the children said “Iying” instead of “Piring”. The first year the children unable to produce the sounds of language fluently or appropriate with the rules sounds of language, but they know what the people say. If the adult say use bubbling to the children, so they will angry, example the children pronounced “Gocok gigi”, and the adult say “Kamu ingin gocok gigi”. They were angry because based on what they hear is “Gosok”. So, many phonological rules that children create but no one child will necessarily use all rules.

  36. Name : Leni Yusnita /1314020098

    Acquisition of phonology

    This statement is focuses on the most basic field, phonology, and explains how a child acquires the target language′s phonology. First language acquisition is a process where by children unconsciously acquire their mother tongue ¬ in the case of monolingual speakers ¬ or their mother tongues, in the event of bilateral and multi-lingual speakers respectively. First language acquisition in general is an important topic, not only for linguists, to have knowledge about it also helps the parents to raise children, especially in bilingual situations, on this season the children have many mistakes about vocal and have a variation to show words something also, because the childrent as imitation child, they will be save and aplicate back thing that they hear, although speech them not clear , its can be the first language for them, its real we find in our family, the childrent even look up us when we show funny action, and these all given many influency to child and imitation process naturally is done soon, other hand perhaps we may also understand why children initially make errors or quite unusual utterances or even extraordinary sounds (in the pre-language stages) while acquiring the native language.
    In reality, This stage is important for the child to learn what constitutes a sound in the target language, like to get to know the language′s phonemic contrasts, on unusual the input is essential to start the entire acquisition process. This pre-phase is the speech perception stage, and in this stage also happen babbling phase, this is where it starts to produce the first comprehensible sounds. Thus the point of view changes from speech perception to speech production, Its will be explained why children initially utter “rare sounds” such as when their ages between 18-21 months, the children said rabbit she or he call it waebit and elephant with the ephant, spoon ‘ pun’ plane ‘peyn’, kiss ‘tis’, clean ‘tin’, ow ‘taw’ and so on, these all are the result speech childrent while unusual often their said to improve their ability in speaking, from here also the create or understanding childrent about language as long as well, After this pre-stage, the infants begin with their first `real′ words.
    In the next stage, the childrent will be continiou errors in their speech, however, this can be certain predictable and follow logic structures, therefore, they can be described by typical phonological processes, Naturally, every child tries to facilitate the pronunciation of words, Furthermore, they show the importance of stressed syllables in production. Of the many phonological rules that childrent create, no one child will necessarily use all rules. Early phonological rules generally reflect natural phonological processes that also occur in adult language

  37. Name : Mahrufi Ikhsan
    NIM : TBI VI A/ 1314050121
    Question : From your previous assignment on children’s acquisition for their language, what can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of Phonology?
    Answer :
    The linguist Roman Jakobson in An introduction to language suggested that, no matter what language they hear, children first acquire is the small set of sounds common to all language of the world. Statement above tells us that children produce their language starting with the small set of sounds it can be a letter like m or a or consist of two letters like ba and ma or may be in three letters like mam and bam. And this stage called Acquisition of phonology where Phonological acquisition related to the construction process syllable consisting of a combination of vowels and consonants. Generally they first word s are in monosyllabic with a consonant- vowel. Children using consonant-vowel (cv) or consonant-vowel-consonant (cvc).
    Many theories show that children firstly produce sounds when they were at the age of 3 weeks to 2 months where they began to hear the sound but it is not yet clear.In this stage they were do babling where they would pull a sound according to the wishes or feelings of the baby. Babies begin to hear at the age of 2 to 6 month. In this age they began to utter words with syllables that are repeated, such as: “ba … .ba …, ma..ma ….” . Jakobson theory stated children phonological inventory at an early stage included the consonants ( b, m, d, k ) which are frequently occuring sounds in the world’s language. B and M are first letter produced by children. It is not because they love to do but children enjoy and easy to produce the letters which is place of their articulation produced in labials. B and M are labial letters. That is why children first words consist of in labial letter like ba and ma. The other place of articulation that is easy by th children to produce is velars. Some of letter that produce in velar are D and K. Da da and ka ka also two words that are often produced by te children firstly. when a baby at the age of 10 months she began to imitate the voices heard from the environment, from example they can produce word whic is consist of 3-4 letters for example mak, yah, mama and papa. and he will also use facial expressions or hand gestures when they want to ask for something. Babies begin to speak properly. At that time he was second years However, the pronounciation is not perfect as adults. They still make mistake in distinguish between distinct phonemes for example child who says lol instead of rol(ruler). Still difficult to distinguish (L) and (r). Another example minum produce menam by three years old child. And sentence “tidak boleh seperti itu” produced “nak oleh tu”
    In short, even children hear the correct adult pronounciation around them but they are unable to produce it themselves in this early years. They need time and process to be a better languagepronouncer

  38. UMAR/1314050122
    As we know that the theorists claim that children grow their linguistic competency through imitation toward surroundings. And I do believe it. it is because I have known the fact based on the interview that I have done in the last task. Children like to imitate the utterances surrounding them. They do not care about the meaning of the word itself. But when they try to produce or utter the words that they have heard, those words are not same as what adult utterances. It means that the children need a process in acquire the language. although the children have innate ability to cope the languages of the adult surrounding them. It is because they may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless consonant.
    Infants have the sensory and motor abilities to produce and perceive speech sound. During the first year of life the infant’s job is to uncover the sounds of the language. from around six months, they begin to lose the ability to discriminate between sounds that are not phonemic in their own language. so, the first word that comes up from their mouth generally monosyllabic with a CV (consonant-vowel) form. Their phonemic or phonetic inventory at this stage they are equivalent is much smaller than is found in the adult language. for example a child is easy to say mama it is because the phonetic of mama is consonant –vowel or monosyllabic. When they grow up they will devoted to figure out the phonetic inventory and they will know how the sounds used in the phonology of the language.
    When a child say something such as “spoon” they just can say “pun”. It means that the children make the word’s articulation is being easier, and it will happen until they achieve greater articulation control. The children’s early pronunciation are not haphazard because they have an effort to say the word that they have heard surrounding them. Sometimes a child make an ambiguous form, it makes us do not understand what they say. Children prefer to use a simple consonant vowel syllabic, and that is their rule that operates in the every early of stages of language acquisition. And the children do not create a bizarre or whimsical rule, it is because their own rule conforms to the possibilities made available by universal grammar or innate hypothesis. Actually a child hear the correct adult pronunciation, but they unable in this early to produce it themselves. It is based on the experiment that have done by Neil smith to his two years old son Ahmal. Ahmal said yight (jajt) , indeed he wants to say light. So when mr Smith say “oh you want me to turn on the yight” ahmal said no no yight but yight. It means that they know the correct pronunciation but unable produce it.

  39. Nama :Fitri nengsih
    Nim :1314050367
    Tugas :psycholinguistics

    Acquisition of phonology and/or child phonology has been studied from at least early this century, but it can hardly be said that there is a consensus about what the main issues are. The field is very interdisciplinary, and approaches differ drastically. Speech production includes the selection of the appropriate words (typically at the semantic level), the retrieval of their phonological form (from the phonological lexicon), their assembly into a whole phonological utterance (at the sub lexical phonological level), and the conversion of this latter level into an articulation representation that will trigger the motor commands producing speech. The child’s acquisition of language has not been the object of serious and systematic linguistic study.This neglect has been unfortunate; in addition to being of interest purely in itself,the study of language acquisition may lend insights into the organization of linguistic information in the human brain.
    In early language, children may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, although can perceive the difference. Children will be difficult to pronounce a word that is rarely heard, but they will be easier to say one word when he heard the word such as “ makan” they say “kan” because of the ability to speak depends also on what they hear examples he often listened to his mother mama said she also will be able to say the word “mama” to pronounce the sound ends “Maaa”.
    Of the many phonological rules that children create, no one child will necessarily use all rules. Early phonological rules generally reflect natural phonological processes that also occur in adul languages. Children can indeed imitate what is conveyed by adults but by the sound of tell different from what the adults like when adults say “ mandi” the kids would say ” ndi ” because children are not able to capture and pronounce words clearly, they are still in the process of language acquisition, and children cannot call the word R for word it is hard to say and the children often call /r/ with /l/ example when sister I am calling my name “Fitri” she would say “Fitli”. Children also difficult to distinguish between /s/ and /z/, the word /t/ with /d/. When the kids want to say “susu” say “cucu” they certainly did not say clearly but they say it with the grandchildren, because they are very hard to say the S word. besides, there are many words that cannot be spoken of children as clearly as words’ P’ and ’ B’ if the children want to say “ pergi ” he would say “Begi” because it can be difficult to distinguish between /p/ with /b/.

  40. NAME/BP/CLASS/: FATIMAH/1314050245/TBI-A
    Acquire is language is process one happen in children brain while she gets its first language or its mother tongue. Pemerolehan is language usually being differentiated by language learning, lingual learning gets bearing with happening process times a child study second language after she gets its first language. Which it first is kompetensi took in by each congenital child. This interest requires construction.When is child nascenting to just universalize can cry in consequence thing which its first time child available its speech sound. Language learning so krusial happens on age before six years. Therefore early age child education constitute thing most importantly deep develop child language, so can develop skill gets language on child. Child gets language of environmentally family and environmentally neighbour. With vocabulary that they has vocabulary growth will grow quickly their afters starts speaking. Environmentally child around for example coeval friend, playfellow, and at its school environment childs lingual ability be gotten and studied by child by nature to conform with its environment so child will can get socialization and gets interaction to others. And language for child is that of tool to develop intellectual ability and child basic ability. And to get is first language also so hand in glove relationship it kognitif’s developing, if child gets to result basics utterances on grammatic good one. And child processes its language efficiency. and then the children say kupu-kupu, they are just listen from another peoples. The children can improving that with quickly.
    The children when used or speak one word there the children can to know many words that they developing. And when the children say makan or aam , that is good because have can speak althought most ambivalent. The children effort speak with good, when the children still tittle very good to get language that. . Child tries to differentiate her with subjek and gathers object names. Child can develop its language ability via something that be seen. And can also interlace social that relationship healthy. I think to get language fom the children is very important and very good because when they adult , the children have pasif to speak with the another peoples and have ability on the speak and not heavy handed again. So have many abilities on the language, the children have ability on another language study from another peoples or from its vicinity. The children have skill on the language for example when the children with the another people have to know speak, And good to speak.

  41. NAME/BP/CLASS/: FATIMAH/1314050245/TBI-A
    Pemerolehan is language is process one happen in children brain while she gets its first language or its mother tongue. Pemerolehan is language usually being differentiated by language learning, lingual learning gets bearing with happening process times a child study second language after she gets its first language. Which it first is kompetensi took in by each congenital child. This interest requires construction.When is child nascenting to just universalize can cry in consequence thing which its first time child available its speech sound. Language learning so krusial happens on age before six years. Therefore early age child education constitute thing most importantly deep develop child language, so can develop skill gets language on child. Child gets language of environmentally family and environmentally neighbour. With vocabulary that they has vocabulary growth will grow quickly their afters starts speaking. Environmentally child around for example coeval friend, playfellow, and at its school environment childs lingual ability be gotten and studied by child by nature to conform with its environment so child will can get socialization and gets interaction to others. And language for child is that of tool to develop intellectual ability and child basic ability. And to get is first language also so hand in glove relationship it kognitif’s developing, if child gets to result basics utterances on grammatic good one. And child processes its language efficiency. and then the children say kupu-kupu, they are just listen from another peoples. The children can improving that with quickly.
    The children when used or speak one word there the children can to know many words that they developing. And when the children say makan or aam , that is good because have can speak althought most ambivalent. The children effort speak with good, when the children still tittle very good to get language that. . Child tries to differentiate her with subjek and gathers object names. Child can develop its language ability via something that be seen. And can also interlace social that relationship healthy. I think to get language fom the children is very important and very good because when they adult , the children have pasif to speak with the another peoples and have ability on the speak and not heavy handed again. So have many abilities on the language, the children have ability on another language study from another peoples or from its vicinity. The children have skill on the language for example when the children with the another people have to know speak, And good to speak.

  42. Name : Novi oktafani
    Class : TBI.A
    BP : 13114050243
    In previous studied we have laerned about child’s first verbal production or first language. At previous comment i have said “In adjust language children have stage in languge acquisition. Nobody thaugt language, in fact you can’t prevent the child from learnig it. The first time children know languge from verbal and nonverbal language like gesture and hearing, by this way chidren will produce a word.” To know link between child’s first verbal production with acquisition of phonology we should know what is the acquisition of phonology about.
    particular language (cf. Dretzke 1998: 17, Yule 1996: 41, 54, Microsoft Encarta 2005a). To narrow the definition of acquisition of phonology down: it is the process whereby children acquire the target language′s phonology, including its functional aspects like the language′s specific sound contrasts. However, in the whole acquisition process not only a set of phonological rules is chronologically acquired but also a set of morphological, syntactical and semantic rules. And then, these processes are largely independent of intelligence although the degree of competence acquired may vary among individuals (cf. Hickey 2003). Furthermore, first language acquisition does not require instructions and may be genetically encoded. Phonetics deals with the physical aspects and characteristics of all human sounds whereas phonology is restricted to the functional aspects of sounds in a particular language. Phonology divided in two form that is vowel and consonant. a classification of vowels and consonants is appropriate. The difference between vowels and consonants lies in their `production processes′. In the production of the latter the airstream from the lungs is blocked in the oral cavity or pharynx whereas vowels are produced completely without obstruction. Therefore, they are uttered with a vibration of the vocal cords and are thus voiced. Example, book [buk] b= consonant, u/oo= vowel, k= consonant.
    Based on explantion above we can see link or relationship between first language and acquisition of phonology that is, the child get language by hear what is people around say. They hear sounds around them. With hear sounds they try to say the words in phonetic form. Every child have diference in acquire language. When they said first word probably children will be get error and dificult to say the word like “makan” children say “mam”mamam” or in english like say “mommy” they say ma. From this sample we can see there is a phonetic symbol like “mommy” chilren say [ma]. For aware example like bellow:
    [da] “dog” [dae] “daddy”
    [sa] “sock” [haj] “hi”
    [aj] “light”

  43. Name : Novi oktafani
    Class : TBI.A
    BP : 13114050243
    In previous studied we have laerned about child’s first verbal production or first language. At previous comment i have said “In adjust language children have stage in languge acquisition. Nobody thaugt language, in fact you can’t prevent the child from learnig it. The first time children know languge from verbal and nonverbal language like gesture and hearing, by this way chidren will produce a word.” To know link between child’s first verbal production with acquisition of phonology we should know what is the acquisition of phonology about.
    particular language (cf. Dretzke 1998: 17, Yule 1996: 41, 54, Microsoft Encarta 2005a). To narrow the definition of acquisition of phonology down: it is the process whereby children acquire the target language′s phonology, including its functional aspects like the language′s specific sound contrasts. However, in the whole acquisition process not only a set of phonological rules is chronologically acquired but also a set of morphological, syntactical and semantic rules. And then, these processes are largely independent of intelligence although the degree of competence acquired may vary among individuals (cf. Hickey 2003). Furthermore, first language acquisition does not require instructions and may be genetically encoded. Phonetics deals with the physical aspects and characteristics of all human sounds whereas phonology is restricted to the functional aspects of sounds in a particular language. Phonology divided in two form that is vowel and consonant. a classification of vowels and consonants is appropriate. The difference between vowels and consonants lies in their `production processes′. In the production of the latter the airstream from the lungs is blocked in the oral cavity or pharynx whereas vowels are produced completely without obstruction. Therefore, they are uttered with a vibration of the vocal cords and are thus voiced. Example, book [buk] b= consonant, u/oo= vowel, k= consonant.
    Based on explantion above we can see link or relationship between first language and acquisition of phonology that is, the child get language by hear what is people around say. They hear sounds around them. With hear sounds they try to say the words in phonetic form. Every child have diference in acquire language. When they said first word probably children will be get error and dificult to say the word like “makan” children say “mam”mamam” or in english like say “mommy” they say ma. From this sample we can see there is a phonetic symbol like “mommy” chilren say [ma]. For aware example like bellow:
    [da] “dog” [dae] “daddy”
    [sa] “sock” [haj] “ hi”
    [aj] “light”

  44. Name : Yosi Ginestia
    Bp : 1314050263
    Class : TBI-A
    The question is, from your previous assignment on children’s acquisition for their language, what can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about acquisition of phonology?

    Answer
    As we know that, the child grow their language from the imitate. Based on last material about language acquisition, we have discussed about the child grow their language in environment. First, the child two years old, she or he can imitate the people speech around them. For the first, the child can hear what their mother say, for example his or her mother say about “ makan” and the child can speak “ mam or mamammm”. And the other word, the mother say “ minum “ and the child say “ nyum or num”. in general the child two until five years old, very strong to imitate what the people say around them.
    And in term of his phonology, most of children two until five years old, his or her first words are generally monosyllabic with a, I, u, e, o ( consonant vowel) form. The vowel part may be a diphthong, depending on the language being acquired. His phonemic or phonetic inventory at this stage they are equivalent is much smaller than is found in the adult language. The linguist Roman Jakobson suggested that children first acquire the small set of sounds common to all language of the language of the world, no matter what language they hear, and in later stages a child acquires the less common sounds of his own language.
    In early language, children may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless to consonants, although they can perceive the difference. If the first year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, the second year involves learning how these sounds are used in the phonology of the language, especially which contrasts are phonemic. When they first begin to contrast one set, that is when they learn that “p” and “b” are distinct phonemes, they also begin to distinguish between “t” and “d” , “s” and “z”, and all the other voiceless is voiced phonemic pairs. As we would expect, the generalizations refer to natural classes of speech sounds. As we know, the child in grow their language, they can speak about consonant vowel, because their brain can easy to accept the consonant vowel. And their tongue can easy to speak consonant vowel.

  45. NAMA : IRA MEDIAWATI
    BP : 1314050156
    CLASS : TBI-A
    Language acquisition occurs naturally, suddenly and unexpectedly. Independence languages began when the child was around the age of one year, at a time when children begin to use words or words separated apart from linguistic code to achieve a variety of their social objectives. Language acquisition by children is greatest human achievements and amazing. In other words, the process of language acquisition is how one can speak or the children generally acquire their first language. Language acquisition in children aged two to three years to occur naturally. Pemeroleh language is usually a natural means of language acquisition that occurs naturally without realizing that a middle child acquire language, but just be aware of the fact that he was using language to communicate. Kids usually acquire language naturally from the environment without a formal learning process at school. This natural language acquisition is not strictly related, but language acquisition was made in accordance with the physical development of the brain and the children themselves.

    At the time of the child’s language language acquisition is more directed to the communication function rather than form or structure of the language. Children will say the next word for the purposes of communication with their parents or close relatives. Children’s language acquisition process generally uses strategies mimic / imitation. Strategies in language acquisition with reference to: imitate what others are saying. Knockoffs children continue to be used, even though he was able to pronounce sounds perfect. Others have suggested that the strategy of imitation or imitation strategies will pose a big problem. Could anyone say that imitation is saying the same thing as other people say. Language acquisition is applicable processes in the brain of a child when obtaining their mother tongue. Child language acquisition begins on the environment, especially the family environment.

    In early language, children may not make a linguistics distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, although they can perceive the difference. If the first year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, the second year involves learning how these sounds are used in the phonology of the language, especially which contrasts are phonemic. A child’s first words show many substitutions of one feature for another or one phoneme for another. The children learn the meanings of words with look at an object, if the mother says a word, and the child connects the sounds with the object. For example, mother says “cat” and the child look the object (cat) the name of animal in their house so the children can know the word means is. So, children have to figure out exactly what the words refers to.

  46. Name :Dona Melya Riska
    Reg.num : 1314050119
    Subject :Psycholinguistics Task

    When the human was a child if we have to looking around and have more attention to the children or baby there are something interesting to know that how the baby produced sound or my mommy always said the way her child can spoke clearly. The baby produced the sounds through imitation by adult just like how the baby produced the word. The baby usually will say the ending sound of word to say the word, for example when adult say “ jalan” the baby will say “lan” when the word “kerupuk” it will be “pupuk” by the children, whereas pupuk in Indonesia have different meaning with the word “ kerupuk” but the meaning of children by word that he produced it means that kerupuk. In this condition the children have not learn how sounds can give the differences of meaning just like “pupuk” and “kerupuk”.
    When the children grow up they will learn how sound of word can make differences meaning to specific things like pupuk and kerupuk. Language acquisitions develop appropriate their age. In school life area, environment area with society the children will learn more about distinguish the meaning of thing by sounds. And at the time is running the children can speak clearly and fluent. As we know that language got by the children have several stages, which is important process. And in this stage the children learn trough imitation by adult.
    Children in acquisition of phonology stage have created many phonological rules, but no one child necessarily use phonological rules. In my little observation last time with my brother Fazil, he just saying what adult or another people say but he say the word have he got the way he speak my brother cannot say [r], he will say [ r ] become [L] until now when he 5 years old he can speak fluent but can say [r] clearly. In this stage the children will produce the first word just to say to them self the new word that I found, children make the dialog by them self oooh it is “kerupuk “ they say the word but the word he say just like pupuk. In my brother case when he 3 was 3 years old, when he make mistake in saying something, then I correct what he say he want to correct the word what he say into correct sentences, and when he can reform or correct his sentence he say that I can say that sentence or that word it is so difficult in minang he say “ ndak pandai zil ngecek itu dowh” he said like that.

  47. NAME : AHSANUL HUSNA /1314050063
    “CHILDREN LANGUAGE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY”
    Steps of language acquisition are the process that happened for so long time. It is consist of some steps that children should do. As we have learned in the last meeting in psycholinguistics class, children are prepared to acquire all of the aspects of language. Each aspects will bring children to be perfect in using language. One of them is in acquiring phonology aspect. It can be from phonetic to pragmatics. Phonetic is one study of sound .
    Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages. Pragmatics is the study about meaning, that will be an explanation in using language. Sound is at the beginning of language learning. As we know that sound is the first step in acquire a language for children, of course that children will be different ways in producing sounds. In this step, the children will be introduced language by using vowel and consonant sound. Such as how to say “a,i,u,e,o, ae,au, or k,l,m” . It is almost difficult for them to speak some of difficult word .
    In pre language, the sound that is produced by the children can not show the children development in acquire a language. It means that in childhood, phonology still be one step in acquire language without pay attention in the correct form. For example ; when a child is asked to say the word “ MAMA”, she or he will not say the full correct phonology. They will say “ Ma “. We can see that is showed the un complete phonetic. Other example is also occur in the word. For example ; when the mother asks her children to say “sleep”, the children will said “ Slept”. As we know that “sleep” and “slept” are different sound. Not just for sound, but also for using them in sentences. Sleep is consist of present, but slept is consist of something that happened in the past. If the first year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, the second year involves learning how these sounds are used in the phonology of the language, especially which contrasts are phonemic. This statement means that one year old , when they can produce sound, they are able to use the phonetic inventory of the target language as can as possible by figuring out it. When they are in two years old they are able to use sounds they have learned in the phonology of language. When children is in three years old, they can acquire linguistics input in speaking and they will more understood what they said. Phonology will be developed naturally when they over in five year old. It is occur because they get information of phonology from many people around them.
    Mastering of language to the children is started by getting their first language. It is often called mother tongue. This case shown that the first language is the first process was gotten by children in introducing sound.

  48. NAME : ASSRIMALONA
    NIM : 1314050183
    CLASS : TBI-A

    What can you link or describe between a child’s first verbal production, as in the speech process, with what you read on our material about The Acquisition of phonology?
    A child’s first verbal production can be showed by the child when they are after the age of one. They begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing. It means that the children say something based on the sounds that they heard before and they repeat that many times because at this stage they realize that sounds are related to meaning. It means that they have produce their first true words. For example, to say “makan” they will say “mam” , “ndi” for “mandi”, “num” for “minum”and these utterances differ with adults. It’s different if we sound off foreign language for them, it will make them difficult to say that because it is not ordinary for them but they can solve this problem in relatively short time. Most children go through a stage in which their utterances consists of only one word. This stage named holophrastic stage. In holophrastic stage, an utterance can give a more complex message. Example, when the child say “kue” it can be an utterance to asking the cake from us, they see the cake and the naming the cake, or may be they want to asking for some cakes. When they say “mama” they may be making a request to buy something or asking permission to do something to their mom, and it also can be an utterances to complain about something that they dislike. It means that children have more complex mental representation than their language at this point allows them to express.
    Talking about the acquisition of phonology, children first words are generally monosyllabic with a consonant-vowel form. Their vowel part depending on the language being acquired. The order of acquisition of classes of sounds goes by manner of articulation: nasals (example “function” there is a nasal when they say this word), glides , stops, liquids, fricatives and affricates. Natural classes characterized by place of articulation features also emerge in children’s utterances according to an ordered series: labials, velars, alveolars, and palatals. So it is not strange that “mommy” is the first words can say for many children. In early language, the children cannot make the differences between voiced and voiceless consonant, although they can feel the differences. When they begin to contrast one set of the word, they learn that /p/ and /b/ are different phonemes and they also distinguish between /t/ and /d/, /s/ and /z/ and all the other voiceless-voiced phonemic pairs. At this stage, the children can perceive or comprehend many more phonological contrasts than they can produce. For example, when the children say [wan] instead of “run”. It means that they still can not distinguish between [w] and [r]. This utterances show that the children pronoun about [w] and [r] are physically different sounds, although these words seem the same to adult ear. It happens because they are unable in these early years to produce it themselves. Children first words show of one feature for another or one phoneme for another. In the preceding examples, mommy is pronounced mom, with the alveolar fricative [i] replacing to labial [m] and run is pronounced wan, with the glide [w] replacing the liquid [r]. these substitutions are simplifications of the adult pronunciation. Because there are so many ambiguous form from children words, no wonder only parents understand their children first words.

  49. DIAN ANESTI
    1314050269
    ETD-A

    The first language acquired in several stages and each subsequent stage closer to the grammar of the language of adults. According to experts, these stages are somewhat characteristic of universals exist in various languages in the world. Knowledge of language acquisition and the very first stages obtained from diaries kept by parents who also psycholinguistics science researchers. In studies of more sophisticated, the knowledge gained through the recordings on tape, video tape, and experiments are planned.
    The first step is phase vocalizations. This stage of this babble, babble of children already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. Vowel is / a / thus, its structure is K-V. Another feature of the chatter is at around the age of 8 months, K-V syllable structure is then repeated so comes structures such as: Parents associate the word with the father papa and mama with her mother. Second, phase one word. At this stage it is also a child start using a series of repeated sounds for the same meanings. At this age, the child has understood that sound said with regard to the meaning and began to utter the words first. That is why this stage is called stage one word phrase or sentence, which means that a child’s spoken word is a complete concept. For example “mam” (I’m eating); “Pa” (I want papa is here). “Ma” (I want mama is here). At first, the words were spoken the boy if the stimulus is there, but after more than a year, “pa” means “Where’s daddy?” And “Ma” can also mean “The image of a woman in that magazine is Mama”.
    Third, phase two words, one phrase. This stage takes place when the child is 18-20 months old. Speech consists of two words began to appear like mama and papa participate. If at this stage of the spoken utterance the child may not be determined meaning, at this stage of these two words, utterances child should be interpreted according to the context. At this stage, children also have started thinking “subject + predicate” although relations such as inflection, plural personal pronoun and can not be used. In the mind of the child, subject + predicate “can consist of a noun + noun, like” Ani toy “which means” Ani was playing with a toy “or adjective + noun, like” dirty shoes “, which means” These shoes are dirty ” etc. 4) Telegraphic utterances. At the age of 2 and 3 years, child’s vocabulary is growing rapidly reach hundreds of words and pronunciation of words more and more like adult language. At an early age onwards, a child learning its first language gradually in his own way. There is a theory which says that a child from an early age to learn the language. If adult asks the child to name “He’s going out”, the child will recite “he go out”.

  50. Deza Zalia Permata Dewi/1314050510

    I do agree about this theory on psycholinguistics claim that children grow their linguistic competency through imitation toward surroundings. In general, children are able to speak by imitate the speech they hear around but what they utter sound different from what the real should utter and the adult should expect to hear. It same with the materials that I have learned. Children learn through imitation, exactly children adjust their language by imitation.
    Imitation is repeating something that listened. Imitation is involved to some extent, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech. I have tried to proof that by observe children around me and read some article about children’s first verbal production and naturally children can utter sound for the first by imitate the adult speech.
    Most of children utter first verbal production with consonant vowel form. For example some of language has sounds (m). (b), (d), (k), (y) such as my nephew can utter sound for the first buy imitate what he heard, he said that “da” refers to “bunda” and “ya” but it means father, it is so different meaning with adult context meaning because in our mind “ya” refers to yes and agree or follow something, and the other example my little brother’s first word is “bubu” and it means “duduk”, he has different word with another, so it can be conclude that children can utter sound by imitate the adult speech but it utter sound different and sometime has special meaning. Actually, do not all of the people can understand what children said because it is different with the adult should expect to hear but actually it is word from the adult speech.

  51. AYUTI ELVIRA
    1314050142
    ABOUT THE ACQUISITION OF PHONOLOGY

    ANSWER

    From our material at page 356 about acquisition of phonology, and l read it (acquisition of phonology material) and from the statement and example from the lecturer in his site, I can describe that the first words from children can not detached from phonology influence, because phonology is a branch of linguistics that study about “sounds”, in the other source I found phonology is the study of how sounds are organized and used in natural language. From this material said that all children used at the first words monosyllabic with a cv (consonant – vowels form. The vowel part may be a diphthong, depending on the language being acquired. Children may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, although they can perceive the difference. If the first year is devoted to figuring out the phonetic inventory of the target language, the second year involves learning how these sounds are used in the phonology of the language, especially which contrasts are phonemic.

    In addition, children sometimes produce a sound in a way that makes it indiscernible adult observes. Acoustics analyses of children utterances show that the child’s pronunciation of wing and ring are physically different sounds. Though they may seem the same to the adult car. So if talk about phonology it means we talk about the sounds. This is will we connect with the fisrt words from children. In generally the first words at children, they usually use easy word (easy words are the simple words, those easy to use or to talk). Usually the easy words at linguistics are the words from one consonant plus one vowel ir more. For example: “ma”, “pa” ma’am / “makan or eat”, “ai” it means go, and “tak” it means give. In the below, writer make a dialogue to clarified the explanation above.
    Mother : “ini susu mu” this your milk. (while gives a glass of milk her child).
    A child : “a a, cu cu “ . / susu or milk
    Mother : “Ini sayang”. this honey.
    A child : “ati” it means “roti” her child asks bread.
    Usually the children talk like that, they still under 3 years old. They just says the consonant and vowel letter which simple in the their tongue.

    From writer’s explanation above and example from lecturer before, (children have innate ability to cope with languages of the adults surrounding them. However, it turns out that what they utter sound different from what the adults should expect to hear. For example, instead of saying, “kupu-kupu”, a child says “pu-pu.” Another example is for the word “makan”. A child says “aan” or “mam”). We can conclude that all children lean to use monosyllabic from one or more consonant – vowel form (monosyllabic CV). They are the reason why the children all this time use rasher of word, that comprise with a consonant- vowel. Because easy to talk or to use, that they listened the words from the peole around them before. They want say “makan” or eat they say “mam” it comprise with 1 consonant + 1 vowel+1 consonant. “pu-pu” (one consonant+one vowel) the child meant “kupu” or butterfly. And another examples: spoon, (they says pun), clean (the children says it tin), bread (they says that bled), mouth (they says with maws). Why they change the words, because the children lean to use easy the word, that easy at their tongue. Usually the easy word is one or two consonant and one or two vowel.

  52. Name/ NIM: Sari Ramadhani / 1314050549
    “The Development of Grammar for the
    Acquisition of Phonology”
    Child phonology was about defining the (ordering of the) constraints that characterize children’s productions. Sound is at the beginning of language learning. Children have to learn to distinguish different sounds and to segment the speech stream they are exposed to into units – eventually meaningful units – in order to acquire words and sentences. First language acquisition is a process whereby children unconsciously acquire their mother tongue ¬ in the case of monolingual speakers ¬ or their mother tongues, in the event of bi and multi-lingual speakers respectively. The process takes place during the first six or seven years of children′s lives until the lateralisation of their brains. At the age of 1, children only just begin to speak, and their utterances are not adult-like yet at all. Children’s perceptual abilities are still developing, too. In fact, both production and perception abilities continue to develop well into the school years, with the perception of some prosodic features not being fully developed until about 12 years of age.
    In early language, children may not make a linguistic distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants, although they can perceive the difference. Infants produce a variety of vowel and consonant-like sounds that they combine into increasingly longer sequences. The reason why children need to learn the sound distinctions of their language is because then they also have to learn the meaning associated with those different sounds. Young children have a remarkable ability to learn meanings for the words they extract from the speech they are exposed to, i.e., to map meaning onto the sounds. Often children already associate a meaning with a new word after only one exposure. The production of vowel sounds (already in the first 2 months) precedes the production of consonants, with the first back consonants (e.g., [g], [k]) being produced around 2–3 months, and front consonants (e.g., [m], [n], [p]) starting to appear around 6 months of age. Consonant and vowel (e.g. [bababa]).
    Children’s productions become more consistent around the age of 18 months. When their words differ from adult forms, these differences are more systematic than before. These systematic transformations are referred to as “phonological processes”, and often resemble processes that are typically common in the adult phonologies of the world’s languages. Of the many phonological rules that children create, no one child will necessarily use all rules. Early phonological rules generally reflect natural phonological processes that also occur in adult language.

  53. Name : Manja Mulyani Siregar
    Nim : 1314050235
    Class : TBI- A
    Psycholinguistics Class – Assignment 2
    Before we talking about a child’s language or children language around and the children create sounds that we could hear. We must understanding the table below. The table explain about phase or stages children development.
    Stage Typical age Description
    1.Babbling 6-8 months Repetitive CV patterns
    2.One-word stage 9-18 months Single open-class words or word stems
    (better one-morpheme or one-unit)
    or holophrastic stage
    3.Two-word stage 18-24 months “mini-sentences” with simple semantic relations
    4.Telegraphic stage 24-30 months sentence structures of lexical rather than grammatical morphemes
    or early multiword stage
    (better multi-morpheme)
    4.Later multiword stage 30+ months Grammatical or functional structures emerge
    Then, we get the points about observations of children’s in different language areas like Minangkabau and Indonesia that the stages are similar, possibly universal. Some of the stages last for a short time; others remain longer, or influence from different culture and social circumstances. Babies have begun to learn the sounds of the language of their parents. Before that, they appear to know the sounds of human language in general. The early babbles consist mainly of repeated consonant-vowel sequences, like mama,gaga, and dada. Later babbles are more varied. After the age of one, children begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing. At this stage children realize that sounds are related to meanings. They have produce their first true words. When I observation Marwah Purba, my cousin, that his parents use Indonesia language in their daily life. Because different culture, my aunt Nias ethnic and her husband Batak. Marwah start to imitate his mother language when 30 mounts. His success to said mama, tutu, aek (namely from Grandmother in my culture). It show that children at this stages perceive or comprehend many more phonological contrasts than they produced.

  54. Name : Azilah Octavia
    Reg. Num : 1314050588
    Class : TBI. B

    I think, in general, children are introduced to the language since the beginning of their development, one of which is called motherse, the way a mother or an adult, children learn language through imitation and repetition of the people around him. Not only around the residence alone but children were also taken to the place he had never met so that children can get to know the language and get a lot of vocabulary positive environment. Parents, in particular, should provide stimulus to the development of language skills in children, such as communicating in a child with the words good and educate, speak gently, and as much as possible to make the child feel comfortable in an atmosphere conducive to domestic harmony, harmonious and peaceful. It can stimulate the child to be able to learn to communicate well because if the child is stimulated in a positive way will it be possible for the child to respond positively as well.
    When children have started chattering with bilabial sounds like [m] for ma-ma and [p] for pa-pa or [b] to ba-ba, a parent can interact with the child’s language. One thing to remember, ma-ma and pa-pa as a babbling child not refer to the meaning of words literally meaning mother and father, but because of the sheer consonant bilabial and vowel [a] is a sound that is easily mastered at the start said. Of these skills can be established more communicative atmosphere between parents and children that have an impact on further developments. The impact can be positive as well negative. The better the stimulus provided a parent, the more positive evoked responses of children. To practice listening skills, parents can use the method see-hear the children regale his favorite story. Storytelling directly without using a book occasionally needs to be done to change the atmosphere.
    Direct storytelling with words alone understood the child would give more effect on the telling. This tells activity should be done using the mother tongue (the first language of the child). Listening skills will have an impact on the speaking skills. Stimulus parents in the form of data gathering for children can be responded by the method of re-said. This method will show the absorption of the child in the story or the parent speech. At this stage, parents should change the position of the position of the narrator being a good listener. Let the child tell a straightforward according to his understanding. It can help children in the process of speaking. Parents do not require children to talk in accordance with the storytelling style of parenting. Controlled experiments show that children at this stage can perceive and comprehend many more phonological contrasts then they can produce. the same child who says [waebit] instead of “rabbit”, and who does not seem to distinguish [w] and [r], will not make mistakes on picture identification task in which she must point to either a ring or a wing. In addition, children sometimes produce a sound in a way that makes it indiscernible to adult observers. As a further example, a spectrographic analysis of ephant, “elephant”, produced by three years old child clearly showed an [l] in the representation of the word even though the adult experimenter could not hear it.

  55. Nama:Silviana Yandri
    Npm :15040016
    Writing I
    Cause – effect paragraph
    Cause and Effects of Stress on Your Health.
    stress is actually a normal part of life, and how that stress might be affecting your health . When you are in a stressful situation your body launches a physical response, and releasing hormones that prepare go to either fight or takr off.
    Everyone has different stress triggers, such as having a heavy workload or to much responsibility and working long hours. Moreover is effect for health of these physical signs, headache, fatigue, difficult sleeping, difficult concertation and.upset stomach. When stress become long term and is not properly addrrssed, it can lead to a number of more seriously heath condiction including, depretion, high blood pressure, abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia), hardening of the arteries, heart diseasr etc.

  56. Nama:Silviana Yandri
    Npm :15040016
    Writing I
    Cause – effect paragraph
    Cause and Effects of Stress on Your Health.
    stress is actually a normal part of life, and how that stress might be affecting your health . When you are in a stressful situation your body launches a physical response, and releasing hormones that prepare go to either fight or takr off.
    Everyone has different stress triggers, such as having a heavy workload or to much responsibility and working long hours. Moreover is effect for health of these physical signs, headache, fatigue, difficult sleeping, difficult concertation and.upset stomach. When stress become long term and is not properly addrrssed, it can lead to a number of more seriously heath condiction including, depretion, high blood pressure, abnormal heartbeat (arrhythmia), hardening of the arteries, heart diseasr etc.

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