Psycholinguistics – Midterm TBI A & B 2016

Dear Students of Psycholinguistics Class,

We have discussed about Mechanisms of Language Acquisition and How Children Construct Grammars, started from our discussion with Stages in Language Acquisition, The Perception and Production of Speech Sounds, First Words, and The Development of Grammar.

Our midterm examination today will get into the following questions:

  1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
  2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.

Type your answers not less than 20 sentences for each question. Please support your answer with relevant examples and narration. Also, you need to recheck your grammar before posting it.

Note:

Please answer the questions above by posting your comments on the available section on this post. The deadline for this examination is on Friday, April 29, 2016, 07.00 am. Late submission of comments will still be allowed, but that will reduce your score. Therefore, please do it ontime. The printed form of this examination should be collected through the Class Coordinator on Monday, May 2, 2016.

For our 10th meeting, please read  and give your opinions on “The Development of Grammar for the Acquisition of Phonology” section on the book we used for our class. We will collect it on Saturday, May 7, 2016.

Good Luck!

69 thoughts on “Psycholinguistics – Midterm TBI A & B 2016

  1. NAMA : ERSISMITA
    BP : 1314050136
    CLASS: TBI-A

    Spoken language in children is an evolve language according to what they think and follow the development of the mind. In this sense will remember the language and the mind who will process it, the environment will also affect the ability of language development in children, the environment is the first medium of learning in children. and interaction is the source language in children.
    There are several ways in which children in acquiring the language that children acquire it by imitating, repeating, analogy by imitating and repeating the words were heard by the children of those that exist in the environment of her in according to automatically he will imitate and repeat the words until they can speak like parents.
    Language acquisition in children begin with the ability to hear, then imitate the sound or sounds available in the environment, in this process the child will not be able to language and speech if a child was not given an opportunity to express things you heard, therefore, the family is very important in this case, the family must give children the opportunity to learn and speak through experience that he heard, then, gradually when the children have been able to express experience good of an experience to hear, see, read and so forth, and he express language oral. So, a child says a sentence that does not think of right or wrong, who pronounce his sentence, both in pronunciation, grammar, meaning that even though, so a child to pronounce a word that matches what he listens to.
    When children can speak word the children say is still limited, and word say is still it to it as well, if don’t understand about word which he say, he for example the word jajan, he say ja-ja will not think about that, so, therefore, first word ja-ja, when he say with word ja-ja-, and after that, he asked and said something with crying, if he want something he will cry, because he cannot who say that, and he don’t know how to pronounce, language and speech is the expression of a person to show ability to express something, so that a child can imitate what dikata the adults and he did not want to think it is right or wrong, he says, which is trivial on the child, if he listened to the sentence in the other person and in his neighborhood, he would try it , because a child will try things that are new to him, whether he had seen, and heard.

  2. Nama : Wardah Nasution
    Reg.Num : 1314050004
    TBI-A

    As I observed, the child verbal production is still a lot of lost letters and still have trouble pronouncing some consonants and a vowel. And other difficulties or repeat if to say more than one word. However, children at this age are smarter than our expectations. Perhaps he was wrong in the pronunciation, but he knows what he means it. For example in the pronunciation of “Cat” will produce the sound baby “Et” by pointing directly at the object or point in the image. Although adults or people around him have shown that the actual pronunciation of the child but will remain on their pronunciation. However by growing of children and the more often he heard the word that of course the pronunciation is correct then he will be more fluent in producing words.
    The significance of first language acquisition for children are to express needs and get what they want, used to tell others what to do, and tell stories and to create an imaginary situation. At the age of 1-2.5 years the child began to recite the words of the first, though not yet complete. For example: “atia” (sakit), agi (lagi), “itut” (ikut), “atoh” (jatoh). At this time some combination of letters is still difficult to say, too few letters still difficult to pronounce like; r, s, k, j, and t.
    In general, the first word is used to comment on the objects or events in their environment. Include form of an order, notice, denial, questions, etc. How to interpret the first word depends on the context of the time the word is spoken, so as to be able to understand what the purpose of the child with the word we should look or observe what the child is doing at the time. Intonation is also very helpful to make it easier to interpret whether the child asking, the member knows, or govern. Meaning of the first words they can refer to objects, people, places, and events surrounding the child’s early environment.
    Phonology is the description of the system and patterns of speech sounds; mental aspect of the sounds in a language. Production of sounds, babbling: first imitation of consonants and vowels. Early speech production, building a system of contrasts: important to distinguish between sounds and therefore words, it shows how the child learns to place sounds into categories. The importance of the stressed syllable: children use stress to locate word boundaries. The child’s learning how to pronounce the words of the native language. First words Age 1;0: first words appear Age 1;0 to 1;6: child slowly acquires 50 words or so Age 1;6: first word combinations, children acquire phonology over several years. First year: babbling, second year: first words, subsequent years: learn to pronounce an extensive vocabulary. Sounds and syllables increase in number and complexity phonological processes capture error patterns

  3. Name : Ayung Mahendra
    Reg. Number : 13140500586
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer
    Language acquisition process performed by a child naturally when she learned their mother tongue. The process of the child begin to recognize verbal communication with their environment referred to child language acquisition. The first language acquisition occurs when the child who from the beginning without language has now gained one language. At the time of child language acquisition, the child is more directed at the communications functions of the form language. Language acquisition children can be said to have continuity characteristics, have a continuum, moving from greeting one simple word to the combination of words is more completed. First language acquisition is closely connected with the development of cognitive development: first, if the child can produce fundamental remarks on grammar neat, does not automatically imply that the child has mastered the language in question well. Second, speakers must acquire cognitive categories-categories that underlie the various meanings expressive natural languages, such as words, space, modalities, quality, and so on. Cognitive requirements of the procurement of more required language on second language acquisition than in the first language acquisition. Examples What do children tend to see situations where children live, the language used tends child. So a child will follow what he heard and what he saw, he would take the lead and immediately practice what he saw. So the environment greatly affect the pattern of child speak.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.?
    Answer
    The first word I used to say when I was a child is the word mama, ma when to call brother, my mama said when I call brother, call ka ka .. .. continue my mama said included slow to speak. And I tend to prefer to practice what I see. I most easily say Mamam, mama I want Mamam. If for drinking sentence I say ‘num’. and if you want to play with my friends often say “ain-ain” that’s what I know about the language used at the beginning I started berbicara.ka ahat ma (my sister is evil)

  4. Name : ISKANDAR DINATA
    Reg. Number :1314050381
    Class :Tadris Bahasa Inggris- B
    Mid Test : Psycholinguistics

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?

    I think every body exactly for children have different ways to adaptation with their environment. Adaptation is one of the important requisite to make individual bounce and health soul so we should adaptation with social environment, soul, and others. As a children, there are some child easy to adjust into the environment and slow to adapt into the environment, if we try push child he will find the better formula to adaptation. But before we unscrew to social environment we must know about situation and character of the people in there to enactive our child not related with bad people or bad situation. Because in this situation child can not filter and chose good or bad thing. What they hear they will say again, good environment will make our child good people, in order we get like that we are as a parents must give controller certain attention for them. To adapted we exactly children involve herself, family, friends. So he really need pushing or attention from parents and friends to created composed environment to make child brave to try but we should not force child to skilled to adaptation, if we force them to adapt they will feel boring and not safety so we must carefully.
    For example,
    Child : no body don’t like me
    Mother : no, say “ Nobody likes me”
    Child : Nobody don’t like me
    Mother :Now, listen carefully, say“Nobody likes me”
    Child : Oh, Nobody don’t likes me
    So we must really carefully to teach our child and we should controlling in their social environment.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.

    When I was child may be when I one years old my word really funny, I don’t know it is funny but my parents say like that. If I call my mother I will say “mmmak” in mandahiling language “ umak” ( mother), and I call my father “ ah/ ayyyah” (ayah) if I want to eat I will say “ mamm, mamm” if I don’t like something I will say “nak” ( indak) and some times I will cry. And than I try to make sentence such as, if I want to buy something I will say “ ufi, ufi, ufi” (mandahiling language),if I want to bath I will say “ uwaah” ( aku maw mandi) if I wanna used blanket I will say “ inda ulok au ilak” it is mean “ aku tidak pake selimut, aku kepanasan, and I think it is really funny if I compare right now.
    My parents said that when I was child my word is different with child of the same age, so only may parents know or understand what I mean, and that condition make me always near with my mother. For example, other child will say “ busi, busi”(“ manabusi” In mandahiling language) if they want to bough something, but no with me, I will say “ufi, ufi” (“manabusi” in mandahiling language) if I want to buy something. And I remember one thing unique, if I want to sleep I always touch may mother or father ear if I don’t touch I can’t sleep. That’s all, thank you,!

  5. 1. Firstly, a child will imitate other people saying. For instance, when he/she looks people’s talking, he will try to utterance. Sometimes when her/his mother invites her child to talk, her child tries out sound. Then, the children through her sound try making a word like “ma”. The next, the children will helped by her/his parents in speaking. If child has incorrect grammar, her/his mother or her/his parents will be corrected it. Example, a child says “mama, I not there”. Mother will correct with says “I will not go there, dear”. Mother will repeat correct sentence until her child true in say it. Then through analogy, the children is hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentence. For instance, a sentence “I painted a red barn”. The children will say “I painted a barn red”. It is not different, but grammatically is incorrect. The children learn structured input or grammar is automatically. Wherever his live, he will learn grammar base on his environment. For instance, a child lives in minang. Everyday she/he always listens people’s speak. So, she/he will say base on people said. For instance, everyday some people always communication with others. The children will hear people’s saying and will try making sentences with structure in his/her environment.

    2. My mama says that I am late in speaking. Because I can speak and make sentence when I am 2 years and 6 month old. First word I was said “Mama”. Then I was said “Papa” when I am 8-9 month old. And when I am 1 year and 5 month old. I know animals like coat, cow, hen , cat, and dog. If my mother says coat, I will say “mbeeeeeek”. if she says cow, I will say “moooo” and “my cow”. If she says hen, I will say “uu…uyuuuuk”. If she says cat, I will say “meooong”. And if she says “dog”, I will say “guk, guk”. I can also count just of 1 until 3. I have done it when I am 2 years old. I can’t still making sentence. When I am 2 years and 6 month old, I was started make sentences. A sentence just consist of two words, like I drink, I play, and Mama hungry (Mama, I am hungry). My mother says that she understands my speaking and my utterance is clear. So, she did not difficult with my sentence. When I am 5 years old, my speaking very clear and I was very like singing. I am late in speaking than my brother.

  6. Annisa Djafri/ 1314050623/ psycholinguistics midterm
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Tere is some process of a child adjust his/her language ability into the evirontment, for the first time the thing that a baby can do is crying, what ever that baby think and want to tell he/ she just crying, it is like he or she say “mom i am hungry”, “it’s cold here mom” or ” i am happy” but he or she just tell through cry. this first sound communication is really important because this give an effect for every people around that baby, the baby will make same sound for the same effect so we will know what that baby want and need. Then, in that baby first 3 years, he or she try to talk, that baby will say “tan ma” or “nin ma” to say “mom i am hungry” and “mom it’s cold here”, it is because that baby listened that sentence from the people around that baby when they doing an action to give food. in this first 3 years baby will still use their sound to communicate, because it is fun for baby, especially adult people give their response with the same sound with them.
    Then the next step is “one word” in this step a baby just use one step to express their feel. most of the babies’ first word is “mama” and a baby used to use it to ask “where is my mama?” or “don’t leave me mama”, etc. The way of that baby say it tell the meaning of that word.
    When the baby is his or her first 3 years he/ she learn alot of the name of objects and verb, they use a single word again and again, but because that baby still in the stages of language acquisition we used to see the repeatition in this step. After that they trying to combine the single word that they used into a sentence for example; ” ma lapa” means “mom i am hungry” or “ma pai oto” means “mom i want to go with a car”, the baby just use the important word in this step.
    After that step the baby or kid will come to the place that there he or she will meet with alot of people, in this condition we wil find some response; 1. the baby just being a good listener; 2. give a response with a word; 3. give a response with a short phrase; 4. just give a sound; 5. join with the people that doing communication around them; 5. talking with long sentence; 6.give a question; 7. the last and the good one is the kid can telling a story.
    the next step is the kid try to talk with a good grammar, and if the people around that kid use 2 languages, i meant bilingual, that kid wil try to learn that second language too

    2.When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    whe i was a kind my first word that my mother remember is “Mama” same as the other kid, i was not a good speaker, i cant say every word that there is include letter “R” and “S” i changed it with “T”, for example “Rumah” become “Tumah” and “Sapu” become “Tapu”. My mother said that it was so difficult to her to learn me to say “R” and “S” well, but nowadays i can say it. my mother and my family used to ask me to say “Rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrr” and “Ssss Sss ssapuu”.
    I was not a good speaker, but i was an active speaker, i interested to learn a new word, i used the new wors that i heard, even i don’t know what is the meaning of that word, for example when my cousin told me about her experience when she visited zoo, she say “ado harimau gai disitu”, i heard it like i know what is harimau well, but after that i said to my mother “ma ado hatimau di dapua”, my mother and my dad laughed and asked me to tell them what is “harimau” that i meant, we go to the kitchen and i show them the tiger that i meant, that is a big pumpkin. From that accident my mother known that she should tell me more about noun. then she buy the posters for me to show me the names of animals, color, parts of body, etc. she also ask me to visit zoo to show me the real of animals. While i learnt about color and parts of body she also show me the real color and the real parts of body.
    I just learn minang language in that time. my mother taught that she doesn’t need to learn me indonesian language because i still 3 years old and i will know it when is go to school, but she change her mind after i meet my cousin that taught to speak with indonesian language, he meet me and talk with me with indonesian language, my mother said that it was funny to see me talk, we talk with different language, and we trying to understand each oter, even our conversation is not in the truth line, we still talk. beside on that phenomenon my mother teach me Indonesian language.
    After i go to school i got alot of new word, in my second day in my school i get a special new word, that is “Pantek”, i said it to my mom, i said “ma Pantek, pantek tu apo artinyo”, my mother was so angry when she heard that she hit (tapuak) my mouth, then she tell me about that and asked me to never say it anymore, she also tell me about the other bad word that i hould not say, because it is bad.
    i think from those phenomenon i try and try again to learn language through listening and my mother help me to choose the good word or not, and also help me to say the word that i can’t say well until i can say it as well as she does.

    i am really sorry sir becuse i late to send this assignment, beacuse a got some trouble with the internet connection in my rent house. i tried to send this assignment since 06:00 AM but the internet connection is bad i cant sent it. So now i am in internet cafe to sent it sir. i am really sorry, i don’t meant to sent it late sir.

  7. Name : Budi Kurniawan
    Nim : 1314050150
    Mid-term : Pscholinguistics
    Lecturer : Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S.S, MA

    1. Children at the age of 3-5 years have been able to utter the words despite difficulties in the articulation or clarity of pronunciation. parents have an important role in the development of children’s language so that it can focus properly. Children learn a language in its own way is not something that is taught but children imitate what is said or done by the family or parents. It takes the interaction as a bridge for communication to children. And it would be better if parents teach the language to practice. Eg mother says “jump” where only the jump in the child still did not understand what was said her mother. The mother should practice what it jumps to the child, so the child can process the brain they said jump by seeing movement. Besides the language development of children, more children tend to pronounce the words often heard in their ears, for example in the family of the word “mama or papa” is often invoked in the family, it can easily child will imitate the nickname as “ma or pa “.
    Besides, the family is an important factor in the development of children’s language. Environment is also a second deciding factor that must be considered .. A good environment will produce good language skills also in children. Certainly in the environment the child will get a variety of words even gained new sentence. There is both good and bad, the role of both parents in sorting out back and teach the child if this is good or bad word spoken. Families who educate children with good language will make children be polite. Therefore, parents should provide plenty of time to communicate with children. Although they still do not understand what is being said by the parents so that the child does not become less personal vocabulary in socializing in terms of playing with friends. Because it is very important in the field of children’s language and communication. THAT can be concluded, language development in children is a phase that need to be considered both by the parents and their environment. When the child is still small, it will be easier to catch everything that was taught by Mom or large families. Therefore, parents can begin introducing another foreign language to the child so the easier for him to be fluent. Even good foreign language skills can improve self confidence when the child grows up.

    2. I have asked my mother about my childhood, how language improve from me. When I was children I used minag language as my first language. However my mother though me to use Indonesian but I always use minang. It is supported by my brothers use minang also while the are in house. Something that I never forget is about bread, why I said like that? When I want to eat bread I said to my mom “ti ntek” my mom just laugh and repaire my word with “roti incek” I forget the composition of this bread but I never forget that statement.
    And then, words that sound out from me just word by word for example “ama, apa, num(minum), men(permen) and etc” i just said like that if i want to speak with other. Sometimes my mother said “when i want to playing marbles, i always say in cek bg” its means main ciek bg in minang language.
    My improvement is a good proccess in my age. i show to everyone that i want to join with my family, talks with my mother that i want to play or do something else although word by word. By look my growth when i am watching a cartoon film I looked very interest with that film and talks to my brother kak e bg “cakak e bg = in minang language”. It is show i have a good response while I am watching.
    In short. The development of children can fluenced by their parents and the environment. If the parents teach them by using minang or indonesian language they will learn fastly. in the other side. If the parents have teach them minang or indonesian language but the children still use the first language (e.g Minang lg) its called “mother tounge” furthermore the environment of the children use minang also so that fluenced the children to use minang language.

  8. Yuyut Kemala Sari/ 1314050384
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition

    There are some stages of language acquisition in process a child adjust his/ her language ability into environment. They are imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. First, The Imitation teory says that children learn grammar by memorizing the words and sentences of their language. Before attacking this view, let’s make sure we recognize that language acquisition must involve a lot of memorizing. Children born of Mexican Spanish speaking parents in an Engliah speaking inveronment will learn English, even if they hear only Spanish from their parents. Children product many things not in the adult grammar like ‘nana’ for banana. They product things not produced by adults. Some people maight say that this is simply to consequence of the difficulty how learning to speak and not a problem for the imitation theory. Children make consistent , predictable errors that cannot be attributed to mispronounciation and which still are not ever heard in the adult grammar. Children make errors like saying “goed” instead of “went” or “drawed” instead of “drew”. These errore are important because they indicate that the child cannot simply be memorizing all of the word in her or his language. The second is reinforcement theory. The basic idea here is that children larn to speak like adults because they are taught to do so by being praised and otherwise rewarded for doing things right. At the same time, they are helped because parents”correct” them when they make mistakes. The third stage is analogy. The analogy says that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentences and using it a sample to form other sentences. Example : when the child hear the sentence “ I painted a red barn”, now in analogy the child can say “ I painted a blue barn “. We can see that something”s be wrong. So, analogy did’n wrong. A child formulate a rule for forming question “ move the auxiliary to the posisition preceding the subject.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this qustion.

    When I was a child, my mother sat that the first words that i speak are “mama and papa”. I can say that two word very clearly because my mother say that i was very easy and quickly to speak. My friends can’t speak quickly but I can. My mother is smart mother to introduce the language to me. Everything that I see, she tries to say to me. I am a talkactive child. So, that’s very helpful me to absorb the words.
    When i was two years ago, i can spell many words, because my mom, my dad and my family are talkactive person. So, many new words can i heard and many words can i say it. I like asking about everything that i want to know. When i sees something, i will ask “what is that?”. If my mom and my dad answer my question, so, I will ask more and more untill he feels satisfied with their answer, that’s my mom said. I will ask “ how “ or “why”. they should give the best answer to me and they should be passion for his all qustion. My mother say that i like to imitate what i heard in around her. Example when i see my mother wash clothes, i will imitate and wash clothes without we commond him, or when i see my sister is cooking, i will help to disturb her. haha
    My mother say that i have the ownership. I will be angry if i keep taking my ownership such as my favourite plate, my toys, my pillows, etc. If they take my toys, Then i will be angry to them. When i was five years old, i have studied in junior high school. My friends did’n yet. I can understand my teacher’s lesson.

  9. NAME/NIM : AYU WINDARI/1314050432

    1. What can you describe about child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages on language acquisition?

    Answer:

    Children’s acquisition of language has long been considered one of the uniquely defining characteristics of human behaviour. Still today, it is the commonly held belief that children acquire their mother tongue through imitation of the parents, caregivers or the people in their environment. Linguists too had the same conviction until 1957, when a then relatively unknown man, A. Noam Chomsky, propounded his theory that the capacity to acquire language is in fact innate. This revolutionized the study of language acquisition, and after a brief period of controversy upon the publication of his book, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, in 1964, his theories are now generally accepted as largely true. As a consequence, he was responsible for the emergence of a new field during the 1960s, Developmental Psycholinguistics, which deals with children’s first language acquisition. He was not the first to question our hitherto mute acceptance of a debatable concept – long before, Plato wondered how children could possibly acquire so complex a skill as language with so little experience of life. Experiments have clearly identified an ability to discern syntactical nuances in very young infants, although they are still at the pre-linguistic stage. Children of three, however, are able to manipulate very complicated syntactical sentences, although they are unable to tie their own shoelaces, for example. Indeed, language is not a skill such as many others, like learning to drive or perform mathematical operations – it cannot be taught as such in these early stages. Rather, it is the acquisition of language which fascinates linguists today, and how it is possible. Noam Chomsky turned the world’s eyes to this enigmatic question at a time when it was assumed to have a deceptively explanation.
    Further in this term-paper I am going to describe the stages in child language acquistion starting from the very birth of an infant till the onset of puberty.

    Promoting child development through parental training, among other factors, promotes excellent rates of child development.[3] Parents play a large role in a child’s life, socialization, and development. Having multiple parents can add stability to the child’s life and therefore encourage healthy development.[4] Another influential factor in a child’s development is the quality of their care. Child care programs present a critical opportunity for the promotion of child development.The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. In addition there are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that compose child development.

    2. When grown up as you are today, can you please

    When I was At the age of 2 months, the baby was already distinguish the sound of each other, and to respond with a smile or a laugh. Until the age of 6 months babies can already issued babble or a burst of sound. At the age of 8 months, she understood some of the sounds and words. It is very useful to foster understanding. He began to shout to get attention, to respond when his name was called, and interested when there are people talking though not directly fixed on him.Mastery of the child will develop according to the natural law, to follow the talent, the nature and rhythm of natural development. But the development was greatly influenced by the environment or by external stimuli (environmental). Besides, the child’s language is closely combined with the natural particularly with emotions / feelings.This is clearly expressed in the song,rhythm and voice of the child when he uttered the words and sentences.When I was say mama with “mamma”and I say makan with “tatan”.At the time of this emerging awareness that every object has a name. So there is an awaress of language support.Children experience the events of “hunger word” is willing to continuously memorize words and want to understand the new word.Child’s vocabulary so increasig rapidly and the child will always feel “thirsty asked” by asking questions as much as possible. The child is able to record the word of the people around him. The child like imitate people around him. So Talking is the largest part of the language that we use everyday. But the language is more than just talk. Language composed of elements of communication such as body language, gestures and eye contact. A child uses language to communicate.

  10. Name : SUCI SYAHRIYANTI
    Reg. Number : 1314050532
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    Children experience language acquisition stages that come from the environment, can be described by the following time line:Twelve to 18 months is a particularly sensitive age to begin childcare. Young toddlers are quite aware of a new environment, but their language, memory, and coping skills are just developing. Fifteen-month-old Javier, for example, is sitting at the breakfast table with the other children looking very somber. He pulls his hat snugly down over his ears and clutches a small yellow truck from home. Javier’s primary teacher sits near him when his grandmother bends to give him a kiss and says “Adios.” He clings to his beloved abuela, while his teacher gently cradles him in her arms. She talks softly about his feelings and then offers him an interesting activity of soft, mushy play dough. Javier whimpers and refuses to take off his hat or put down his toy. His teacher continues to talk to him, acting as a bridge between being with his grandmother and being in childcare. Very gradually he is enticed into play by another child and tentatively mushes the play dough with his free hand. After a while, he relaxes enough to take off his hat and share a small smile with his teacher. The grandmother’s predictable pattern of always saying goodbye helps Javier to trust that she will return at the end of the day. That’s why it is so important that family members say goodbye, even if it brings more tears. When people leave without saying goodbye, they seem to disappear. Then life feels unpredictable – making separations much harder.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer :
    When i was a child, my mother say that the first word that i can speak are “ma” (mama) and “pa” (papa). I can say that two words very clearly, include my familiar voice, and will quieten at the sound of it if they are crying. Tiny babies under three months will also stop their activity and attend closely to the sound of an unfamiliar voice. They will often respond to comforting tones whether the voice is familiar or not.
    At the age of 12-15 months, i was able to respond to what i like or not. for example, when my mother give the cooky, i was able to respond if i love this cooky or not. My mother/father also responsive to changes in my tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech. For example, they can be fascinated by toys and other objects that make sounds, enjoy music and rhythm.
    At 18 months, i have able to mention my name and already have a sense of ownership, for example, when my brother took my toys, i immediately responded “this is my mine”, i can ask something that i wants. I can able to recognize the voice that interesting sound.

  11. Deza Zalia Permata Dewi/1314050510

    1. A child adjusts his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition.
    We have learn about the ideas on stages of language acquisition. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is just one strand of psycholinguistics which is all about how child learn to speak and the mental processes involved.
    Children speak depend on their environment and language use in the place. Some of children speak by construct grammar by themselves, it make their environment difficult to understand what they say. Children adjust their language by imitation because like we have seen and observed children just listen to what we said around them in the environment and then they imitate it. Imitation is repeating something that listened. Imitation is involved to some extent, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech.
    Children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong. Reinforcement seldom occurs, and it is usually incorrect pronunciation. The other Children adjust their language through analogy. Children put words together to form phrase and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form another sentences by people around them. Children are able to learn language because adult speak slowly. They can speak well because the adult speak step by step and do not make them be confused.

    2. About my first word
    My mind is not too clear about memory in the age was under second years because I got the high fever and made I forgot about everything include my mom, daddy and also did not know how to called them, while I have remind the number in the age. I was like a new baby again, so my mom treated me since the first until I can stand here right now.
    My mom told that my first word was ‘bah’ in sixth month. It was different with another because the other child usually can speak by ‘m’ or ‘p’ the easy sound to speak. It word constructed by own self, there is no one to teach me about how to call my parents. My father said that he and also my mom did not know about how to call them and they spoke to me by called their name.
    My mom also did not clear about that because he had treatment by a doctor until I am two years old. So, I was with my grandmother and the other family but she said that she had pretty mind about most all of the people in my environment do love me and came to my house to carry me because when I was a child, I was so beautiful and cute, my mom often told like that, sometimes, it made my face embarrassed.
    Next month I can say ‘ma’. It because imitate what always I heard in my environment. The others family and my neighbor always reinforcement to say ‘ama’, so I called my mom by ama and my dad by abah. And it same with the word to get ASI, my grandmother asked me to say ‘nenen’ and I could her by ‘nyenyek’ In fact, there are many sounds that I heard and they always invited me to speak. So, I could speak quickly and after that I could walk.
    I could read like students in the school when I was four years old and I went to school in five years old. My parents and my big family do care about me and give me the best treatment that I cannot forget, I love them so much.

  12. Name : Ayu Oka Lestari Nim : 1314050445 Class : TBI-B

    1. Interaction is a process to speak that doing by someone with other people. Parents is an important point that will help child to speak and interaction. The parents can be a friend to plying with the child and also be loved the child. With their parents helped a child will more easily to interaction with other people and start to enjoy what they do. Since the child born until first year, they try to adaption and respond what that the people said around them. In the year, a child was known with her name. If she hear the name she will look at someone that called her and she was understand it. A child can give a respon if someone said to go and she will said, “da-daah” while raise she hand. For example, when my aunt go to my house she bought her child and his name is Ziqa. When they are enter to my house, the child observe all of the thing that Ziqa see around her. When I talk try to talk or smile with her and then he is smile again but when I try to hold him so he will reject and said, ”uh…uh…” (like give me his bad body language )while ignore me. Although she just look at again and ignore again without want to allow me to hold. With the “uh…uh…” that he said it can be sign that he don’t like to touched. He does that because he can’t to speak. In 2 years, the child try to enjoy with her environment like playing together with other child and don’t based on her parents. But, the child can’t share their toys with other child although she can to interaction with them. Here, the parents can guidance the child to don’t do that again and teach her to be a kind and honest child. In the steps the child can speak some word although not clearly but someone can understand it. For example when she was hungry she will said, “mam” or “mamam”. Athought she just said, “mamam” not “makan” their parents can understand and the meaning that she said. In 3-5 years old, a child can imitating what the people do around them. She can speak more clearly. If she was hungry she can said, “ma, lapar” and don’t said, “mam” or “mamam” again. Same like if she want something, she just not said, “uh..uh..” but she can said, “mau itu”. In the steps the child can interaction clearly with her friend in her environment.
    2. When I was a child, I include a child that kind, mysterious and naughty. When I was child I often with my grandmother. She teach me to speak in Minang language. I think the environment have important step to guidance the child in using language. Usually, when a child about 4-5 years old she can speak some word that not clear or we can say that “cadel”. It’s not with me. In a moment when I enjoy in my shop, a child about 7 years come and want to buy oil. But, I don’t understand what he said although he repeat that he said, “li nyak doten”, then I called my grandma in the shop. After that my mother said, “what do you want ?” and he repeat it again “li nyak doten nek”. When she hear that she just smile and then take 2 liter oil and give to the child. I just attention them. I don’t when he said that my grandma can give him the oil. After he go I ask to her, “a kecek nyo tu nek ? k’ ayu ndak pernah ngecek mode tu do ?” she just smile. Then she said, “itu artinyo bali minyak 2 liter” but I can’t accept that because if become him I will said, “bali minyak 2 liter” but that he said not clear. Even though he older than me and can’t speak that. My grandma said he is different with you. He is late in speak, but I like that, I said. Yes, you are right, its your different. After that every I look at him I still remember that. It’s strange for me.
    I think the growth every child is different. Some child can quick to use the language acquisition but the other child is late. Maybe, it’s increase by their parents guidance.

  13. Name : yuni putri hamida
    Reg. no : 1314050374
    Mid test : psycholinguistic

    1. The process of language acquisition was first experienced by a child from the environment, especially from her mother. Words used to say at the time of his usual child says “mama,” “papa”, “drink”, “eat. language acquisition in children is a natural process in a person the child to master the language. Language acquisition usually obtained from verbal contact with native speakers of the environment. Thus, the term refers to the acquisition of language proficiency unconsciously. The development of children’s language acquisition can be divided into three main parts, namely: family environment, school environment and social environment.

    Language acquisition in children in their environment can be done in various ways: first in the acquisition of language by observing or imitating what others are saying. Normally this way can be found for the first time within their families, for example, when her mother taught her to say “mama” or say “papa,” the child will start imitating them. And also when members her family say “thanks” if you give something to others and if you ask something to others say ” please” then the child will imitate what is taught by the range to it. Then over time the child will become accustomed though he was only imitating and do not understand its meaning.
    The second way to do that is by taking children to interact with others, how is common among school or social environment. Interacting with others will train knowledge, values and attitudes of children. Children have limited cognitive development at certain ages, but through social interaction will increase its ability to think. His influence in language learning is the child will be able to learn if given the optimal activity while children should be encouraged to communicate frequently. The presence of older children or adults age that accompany learning and invite conversation will help your child to use language skills or jump-start a higher potential intelligence already owned subsidiary of languages.
    Invite children to interact with others can be done in linkgkungan social or school environment. Games that can support the creation of stimuli in children with language such as props in the form of images that are on the books or posters, listen to songs or singing, watching movies or listening to tapes, reading stories (story reading / storytelling) or storytelling. Any activity that can stimulate a child’s ability in speaking such as:
    1) The game “Pick One Thing” performed by dividing the children into groups. Each group gets 10 kinds of objects. Children were then asked to choose 5 of the 10 objects. Children can think of where things are more important. After a while, the children were asked to choose 3 of their last 5, finally asked to select one object only. Then each group was asked to speak to why they chose these objects. The aim of the game is to train speaking skills.
    2) The game “Guess the Animal Sound”: done by writing / drawing to each child and can not be opened before instructed tutor. Then each child should have a voice like an animal that is in the paper obtained (the child can not speak, just speak up only) and looking for a pair of the same voice. “Who does not find a partner? Guess the name of the beast! “. The goal is to read simple words on behalf of animals and recognize sounds.
    3) Games “Moving family”: performed by positioning the children sit in a circle and give them a piece of paper with his father, mother, brother, sister. Then we mention the title, such as “father”, the boy’s father could take up writing. When educators say “mother”, the child’s mother brought the writing stand, and when the educator mentions “family”, then all the good that has the words “father”, “mother”, “boy” stood nearby. The goal is to introduce the paper to read, listen to the sound.
    2. when I get mid test, I telephoned my mother in the village and asked the first sentence that I used to say when I was child. My mother told me once when I was a child who is very fussy and like to cry so my mother confused understand sign language of tears me if indeed I want something like drinking milk, diapers I wet or indeed, because I really like crying. By the time the child is still a baby has begun to interact with the environment like her mother. Language she used when the baby is still crying, and also difficult to understand. Language crying is the language used by the infant in the express will. Next time run continuously enters I get 7 months of age, at this age I also can not say anything but I’ve got to know those around me of people with such a mother, father ,and aunt and uncle. At the age of 7 months, when people want to hold me, I would cry because I felt I did not recognize the person. At my age 7-14 months I have been using sign language is like when I want something I will appoint my hand towards that direction. And also when I want to sleep I will appoint collar of my bed. In this age when I started using your movement to interact with my environment.

    Then my mother told me that word out of my mouth is the first time the word “mama” at that time I 15 month old, my mother very happy, he said, though not so clearly sound like stammering. When mothers know I can say the word “mama” my mother told my father and he was happy to hear my development. They began to teach the word “papa”. A few days later I was able to say the word “papa” although with a stammering tone also. The first two words that I say at the age of 20 months. Day increased the vocabulary I would multiply like when I want a drink, I said the word “num-num” and also when you want to eat I speak “mam-mam”. And when I want to buy something or want something I will point toward and said (tu-tu) it’s mean I want to buy it. when I fall or when I feel the pain I said (atit-atit). That’s the word coming out of my mouth, only one word and difficult to understand. The next day I started to grow already have started to combine the words that I speak as when I want to drink milk, I said to my mother “ma-ma cu-cu”. And when I want to pick her up by my father, I said “papa endong-endong” although the words that I say are hard to understand but I keep saying the words of my mouth. Since I’ve been able to combine words, my mother continued to teach words like “papa go to work to earn money to buy milk and I say” pa-ja-li -Gi cu-cu”. And so on, up to 4 years old, language that say has begun to clear and not difficult to understand.
    Language development in children can not be separated from environmental influences, especially both parents. Child is mandated by the hands of his parents and his heart still kept a precious jewel. If he is accustomed to do good (in the household environment and social environment), surely he would grow up to be good and be happy in this world and in the hereafter. Conversely, when familiarized with evil (in the household environment and social environment) as well as neglect, surely he will be wretched and have dire consequences for the development of physical, mental, and spiritual child. Therefore, we must teach the things that are good from an early age, because the period of the children is the most important time in the form of a human being useful for the nation, the State and religion.

  14. Name : Dona Melya Riska
    Reg. Number : 1314050119
    Subject : Midterm Test Psycholinguistics

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    Language is tools of communication to get information by other and environment, there are four skills in language to develop according to the theory that used, just like listening, speaking, reading and writing. Adult usually have to speak with structured of grammar and use several expression to describing the things that their think, but how speaking phenomenon working by children. There are steps and time to get children in language acquisition. Eventually, the process of language acquisition can instantaneous, but fast it can be four year during children in language acquisition stages.
    Firstly, the children have to looking and hearing what the people say. When children 6 week of age they have to produce sounds just like crying and whimper because of natural stimulus of the baby. Usually the baby will crying if they have hungry and wants something to do by their mommy. Then baby will started to babbling on five until six month, the word that their produced just like in the end of word for instance say word “pipis” it will be “pis” by the baby. Babbling phase is important for speaking ability of children in this phase the children can understand the word that say have correlation with the object that say by the children. So that, the children can understand the meaning of word they say anyway. After babbling phase there are phase, the children can say one word clearly and have know the meaning, then the word that have say by the children can be one phrase, it just like the word “ma” (the word mama) have another meaning by the children. For Instance, they say “mel ma” to another women have meaning like “itu mamanya amel” this period around 12-17 month. When the children in 2-3 years old they have to say like adult but still using unregulated grammar for example adult say “she’s reading a book” but the children say sentence “she read book”. When it phase is going baby have to learn to the environment and what have their gets around. The children absolutely get by the media around television for example. My brother routine waste his time to watch that program and they have know and can produce the sentence use Malaysian accent he can imitate the sentence “apelah ko rang ni” and they have memorized that sentence because of they familiar of it by that program. Amazingly, my brother used that sentence to response my dialog. Its proof that the children have learn by imitating what they have learn about the environment around, by imitating their parent, what they watch, what they have look and listen around. When children into the environment they have to learn anything of it, if they are language or not. If the children isolated by environment and have minim interaction with another people language acquisition of children not develops. And they will have bad in language ability they have much time to know the word, for the last I said that the children will difficult to speak and have adaptation in new environment.
    2. When you were grown up as you are today can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first word? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    Talking about my first word when I was grown up its little hard to remember. My mother said that my first word when I was child it just like the general word like children say first in minang language it just like the word “mamam” it have meaning “makan”. When I was child, I included child have good language ability, just like the other children I have 2-3 year can speak fluently. As I remember, my parents always bought CD for me for children song like Joshua song, and make sing a song follow what the CD have talking about just like karaoke. When I get karaoke at that time I have known Indonesian language of it, in fact my mother tongue is minang language including my environment of it. That action (listen to CD) has big fluency by myself I think because I really like to learn about language than mathematics.
    For minang people there are different accent in speaking if have make some distinguish with Indonesian and it will be weird to listen if minang people have to speak Indonesian. From the treatment that has done by my parent it is make a proof I can speak Indonesian fluently now. When I was in junior high school the teacher have taught there using Indonesian, but usually the student has response in minang language. In my village the people that used Indonesian to communicate each other will have blame, and it makes me difficult use my Indonesian. The people there have bad response in Indonesian language. I have fluent my Indonesian language is when I was in senior high school, because the teacher and student in the class are use Indonesian in making interaction. So that is not difficult time to use my Indonesian because my senior high school is far from my village, briefly I said that I go out by the environment. In simple I said, the environment has big effect for children language develop.
    When I was grown up until now my minang still have dominant than Indonesian and my English, because my mother tongue is minang. Depend on what the parents do to develop our language when I was child that’s really influence the way speaks now. It is also depend on the environment started by the accent, the expressions to speak. Language acquisition in get our first language have effect by several factors. From my case above I have known Indonesian by listen to the music and sing a song. Its means that language acquisition of children have effect in internal factor by parents for example and external factor by environment.

  15. Ahmad Guntur
    1314050544
    TBI B

    (1) Children language acquisitiion comes trough many processes. it’s started from birth when a child shout their first cry out loud they already practicing their language ability which is the capability of producing sounds, no word come out yet. but as the time flows the people around them keep communicating with them again and again. This communication start when their elders laugh and said words to the speechless infant sometimes the infants laugh back some other time not. As their brain keep developing their language ability also develop within, at their first year children be able to say simple words most of this first words is a repeatition such as; mama, papa, mamam, mimik and etc. Those first words are the common words they heard in daily interaction with their elders.somehow the children did not pronounce the words correctly but their elders know and understand what the children say. At the age of 2 the children language skills gets more complex than before their vocabularies also increasing but they are not performing the correct grammar of their language yet. For example a children which growing up in Minangkabau language environment may not be able to say the correct form of Minangkabau grammar such as: “mak awak nio makan es”, indeed the child just said “mak.. es” several times followed by the gesture pointing to the thing that they want. At the age of 3 to 4 years old the child already common grammar rules of a language but sometimes a child which grow up in multilingual neighbourhood mixed up their code randomly which sound funny. Children language acquisition process comes from a lot of repeation, observing, reinforcement, and analogy. The environment play major role in a child language acquisition. But somehow a child seems to have a better language skill than other kids, some of the child learn language faster than other kids.

    (2) Flashing back to the old times when I was just an ordinary child growing up in a loving and small family in a village far away from the busy cities. my first language teacher was my mother. She told me the best forms of words from language she knew which was Minagkabau language, our daily interaction made me be able to speak minang starting at the age of 2-3 not a perfect one just like mother told me but I guess I was starting to get the sense of this language at that time. It’s kind of hard to grow up in a environment where the people spoke some different languages there are people who speak Minang, Mandailing, Bahasa Indonesia and some of them speak Javanesse. This multilingual environment some times reaches its boiling point inside my small childish head. There was a time when I was at the age 4 years old when I was starting to socialize with other kids in neighbourhood, those child who have been taught Mandailing-nesse by their parents say “Mangan ma jolo nak e!” in mandailing i was just confuse and could not figured out what they’ve been saying but every time I am arround this kids always saying that word which i guess mean “Makan” in Minangkabau language. So, one day when i was at home and feeling hungry i said to my mom “Mak aku nak mangan?” which suprised my mom and she asked me where did I learn the word “mangan” ? . Based on what i’ve learn in pscholinguistic class i knew that my childhood languge aquistision came from my closest people and others arround me which I encounter in my daily activities.

  16. Name/Nim: Sari Ramadhani/1314050549
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Children with normal hearing develop speech and language in predictable stages. While there may be variation in the times of onset, and length of time of each of these stages, they are always present. Should this pattern not develop normally, the child may face a lifelong communication handicap.
    There exist a crucial time period in which a child must be exposed to the linguistic environment or any form of communication. The time of language acquisition can be described by the following timeline: Shortly before their first birthday, babies begin to understand words, and around that birthday, they start to produce them. This one-word can last from two months to a year. Around 18 month of age, language changes in two ways. Vocabulary growth increases; the child begins to learn words at a rate of one every two waking hours and will keep learning at that rate of faster throughout adolescence. Primitive syntax emerges, including two-word strings like “papa away” or “see pretty”. By the time they are two “many children speak in complex sentences”. It is safe to way that except for constructions that are rare, predominantly used in written language, or mentally taxing even to an adult, all parts of all languages are acquired before the child turns.
    The language learning process goes through several stages: Prelinguistic stage (from birthday till around 6 months of age) crying, cooing, vocal play. Babbling (starts around 6 months of age) consists in the seemingly random production of sounds, One-word utterances (12-15 months) the child starts to say the words of the parents’ language. Two-word utterances (beginning at approximately 1-2 years old) the child begins to form two-word utterances, telegraphic speech (2-3 years) full sentences with syntactic structure appear
    Environment is another major influence, especially in terms of pronunciation, rate of grammatical development. Parents who talk and read more to the child regularly, who share toys and games with the child, and who respond to the child’s words, seem to have children whose language develops faster.
    Children produce a wide variety of sounds, not all of which are used in the adult language. A widely held belief is that babbling children produce all the speech sounds, including all the sounds used in the language they hear and all other human languages. However, babbling infants do not articulate all the speech sounds they hear in the adult language. For example, children who hear English around them, seldom (if ever) utter the th sounds — the sounds in words like this and three.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Actually I do not know clearly about what my first words. But yesterday I have called my mother to get the information about my first words. My mother could not remember exactly what my first words, because she was difficult to distinguish my first words and my brother first words. So, I asked my mother tried to remember, my mother finally told me. My mother said when I was child I included friendly and naughty child. I like play with the other child or my neighbor. Sometimes it make me got a pain. If I got a pain I will cry so I call my mother and said to my mother “atit mak” (Sakit Mak). I start to talk when I was six months, I begins babbling with different sounds. For example, I say “ba-ba” or “da-da.” After that I can say mak “the way I call my mother” and Ba (Bak) “the way I call my father. If I want to eat I will said to my mother “Mak mam”.
    I talk at 18 months. At this age I can point to people, objects, and body parts. I repeat words or sounds that I have hear from people around me, like the last word in a sentence. But I often leave off endings or beginnings of words, said my mother. For example, I may say “Num” for “Minun (drink)” or “Mam” for “Makan (eat)”. In my house we use Jambi language. But it’s hear liked Melayu language. So my first language is Jambi language. In my hometown almost never people use Indonesian Language, until I am entering the school I start to use Indonesian language. Exactly my parents did not teach me how to walk and they did not teach me how to talk. Yet, I learned from them and everyone around me.

  17. Nama : Wel Trisnawati/1314050607
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    All human (Children too) use language as tool of social interaction or environment very important in language acquisition because child adjust self with around. Therefore, children must have the opportunity to interact socially for language to develop adequately. A child interaction with environment with way imitation what she hear and then repeat speech like sounds. Example they hear sound ‘book ’ child repeat with “bu’
    Children achieve language through stages like when new born, first day is crying. Then, children achieve linguistic milestones in parallel fashion, regardless of the specific language they are exposed to. For example, at about 6-8 months, all children start to babble, children many speech. That is, to produce repetitive syllables like “Babbaba”. At about 10-12 months they speak their first words, and between 20 and 24 months they begin to put words together. It has been shown that children between 2 and 3 years speaking a wide variety of languages use infinitive verbs in main clauses, or omit sentential subjects, although the language they are exposed to may not have this option. Across languages young children also over regularize the past tense or other tenses of irregular verbs. Interestingly, similarities in language acquisition are observed not only across spoken languages, but also between spoken and signed languages.”
    The Process of the child begin to recognize verbal communication with their environment referred to child language acquisition. The first language acquisition occurs when the child who from the beginning without language has now gained one Language. At the time of child language acquisition, the child is more directed at the communications functions of the form language. Language acquisition children can be said to have continuity characteristics, have a continuum, moving from greeting one simple word to the combination of words is more complicated.
    2. When you have grown up grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? you can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    When I was child, I begin to associate sounds, linking the family dog to a bark, for example my first communication will be crying, but I will soon begin to use my tongue, lips, and palate to make gurgles, ooh, and aahs. I start talking that is, attempt to express himself in words with meaning. Then exactly 1 year old I begin know language, I ask my mother retell to me about first word what I say in childhood. My mom said me that I always cry when I want something and I can’t speak I just cry so people call me with “baby crying or ‘lebe” Minang Language. Every day and every moment I always cry but my mother try introduce words and My mom show me things around then mention what the thing that.
    When I it enters the age of two year. I begin understand words, and begin to produce it when my mom speak something I begin imitation. At the time, my mother ate fried rice. When I hungry I want to eat something but I don’t know food what will to eat, I just say to my mom “maaamm” and crying. my mom give food and I stop to cry.

  18. NAME : Rizka Aulia
    NIM : 1314050204
    CLASS : TBI-A / VI
    MID TEST : PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    We know that language is tool to communication, interaction with the people, without the language someone can not to communication, convey the ideas to the other people. Someone get and understand the language when he was the baby or the child. The child get the first word in the language acquisition from the family, or the closer family such as mother and father but the language acquisition not only get from the family, the social environment also make effect to the language acquisition of child because the child will interaction with around people and play with his friends. The environment has the important role in the language acquisition of the child after the family, and also environment is the one of the factor that affect to the child language acquisition. The environment or social make the child get the new language or the new words that he never hear in his family.
    In language acquisition, a child usually just hear and imitation what he hear from the family. The example the child often hear that his family call his mom is “Mama”, he will imitation what the family said and he call his mom with say “Mma”. Then when he with the his friends, he hear that the friend call his mom with said “nda, bu” which is according to him “Nda, bu” same with “Mma” because the his friend call it to the girl that old. Sometimes the child will change his language and call his mom with say “nda, bu” although his parents never said it. The language of the child will change if the his environment using the different language with his family because the child can discriminate between sounds that are phonemic in other language and nonexistent in the language of his parents. The example in the house or in the family, the child use Indonesian language and when the child develop, interaction with his friends, he hear the different language, which is the around people using minang language. First, the baby will observe the human language although he does not what the people say, example his friend said to his self “Ambo”, the child does not the meaning of the his friend said but his friend said it refer to himself (friend) . After that when he with his parents, he will imitation what his friend said to him with said “Boo”. Actually his parents do not understand the meaning of their son said, but the child point toward to himself and said “Bo nyum”. The parents will think the meaning of “boo nyum” is “bobok”, but the child said “Ndak” and he point toward to glass.
    Because in language acquisition the child will perception and production a language, so when the child communication with the other people he will hear the variety the sound of the word, example the people said to him “it is rabbit” and the child production of the sound with said “ Wabbit”. But when the people said “It is Wabbit”, he would became angry if the people said to him and he would reply “it is wabbit”. Actually many phonological rules that children create, no one child will necessarily use all rules, and it is production naturally.
    Based on the statement above, we can conclude that the child need the people to interaction and communication in develop of language. Because language acquisition not only from the family or genetic factor, but the language will get more from the society and where the child live, so that the child can adjust the language ability that he hear from family and around people into environment.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today. Can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father , or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    I have asked to my mother about my first word that I said when I was the child. The first language that I said is “Mmma” because my mother often said “mmma” to me. When I cried, I always call “mmma” I am seldom to call “Pa” because everyday I always with my mom, my father went to the scholl, and I have not brother or sister. I imitation what the mom said, example my mom said to me “Makan, nak”, but I said “Momom”. And then if I want something, I will call my mom with said “Mmma” and point toward to that I want. Actually my parents come from Bukittinggi and we live in west Pasaman, my parents could not to speak use Pasaman language but I could because I always play with friends around the house.
    When I was child, I spent more time in my school. I was kindergarten when I was 2,5 year old. My mom enter to kindergarten faster because my mom afraid if I get the bad effect of the around people. My mom said if the around people say bad words or “Carut marut” I would say “Ma, urang tu baco-baco” and my mom reply “iyo, jan baco-baco bantuak itu, badoso berang Allah” and I would understand the meaning of my mom said. Because I knew if we said “Carut marut” is sin, so I was not imitation about it and I afraid the sin. Actually I was not understand about sin because my mom said “Berang Allah” so that I think there are someone that angry if I did.
    After that when I was two year old, I still bubbling and my spoken not fluency. When I meet with my cousin, my parents call him “Abang” but I could not to said “Abang”, and I called him with said “Abah”. So I created the new phonology, although the difference sound but have same meaning.
    Based on the interviewed I with my mom, I can concluded that a child would imitation what the adult said. The child could only bubbling, example “Pa Vs Ba”. If she want something, usually she would cry or call her mom. Environment also could give the effect to language acquisition of the child, although in the house the child use Indonesian language, because she spent more times with the environment, so she would fluently using the language of the around society and her parents must be attention the language that used by the child. The child just can hear and imitate based on her hear without she knows the meaning, what the meaning is positive or negative.

  19. Name: Merli Muslima
    Reg. Number: 1314050118 (TBI-A)
    Midterm: Psycholinguistics

    1.What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    The process of language acquisition is fast, but it is not instantaneous. People around the world have stages and forms of the same language proficiency. Language acquisition is a process that takes place in the brain of a child when she gained her first language or mother tongue. Children do not suddenly have a complete grammar in their brain and complete. Children have some stages in language acquisition. Firstly, when the children of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers. Sound issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel sounds. However, these sounds could not be ascertained because the shape is clearly audible. But, it is a form of self-expression of the children as if the children laughs then she means being happy or when the baby cries mean she is not feeling well or sad. This stage it was called as cooing stage and can not be called a language. Secondly, babling is a speech that has a single syllable and pronounced is the suffix of the words heard by children like mu and da. As for the aging children babbling can be determined with certainty. Babling of children already produce different vowels and consonants, they begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Thirdly, Holofratis stage. This stage when the child is aged between 12 and 18 months. Utterances that contain single words spoken child to refer to objects that are encountered daily. At this stage it is also a child start using a series of repeated sounds for the same meanings. At this age, the child has understood that sound said with regard to the meaning and began to utter the words first. That is why this stage is called stage one word phrase or sentence, which means that a child’s spoken word is a complete concept. For example “mam” (I’m eating); “Pa” (I want papa is here). “Ma” (I want mama is here). Fourtly, two words, one phrase.This stage when the child is 18-20 months old. Utterances made up of two words began to appear like “ibu dan ayah pergi”. At this stage of the spoken utterance holofratis the child may not necessarily be determined meaning, at this stage of these two words, utterances child should be interpreted according to the context.
    telegraphic utterances. Finally, At the age of between 2-3 years, children begin to produce utterances double word (multiple-word utterences) . Children also able to form sentences and sort forms correctly. Child’s vocabulary is growing rapidly and pronunciation of words more like adult language. At an early age onwards, a child learning its first language gradually in his own way.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    As many exemplified by psycholinguistics theory that parents will teach children to say “makan ” and the children will say “mam” to mention I’m eating, “Pa” (I want papa is here). “Ma” (I want mama is here). As my mother told my first words is “-linci” (kelinci) to mention I want my bunny doll. Then when I began to enter the age of two years I could almost call it right, although not yet complete like “Bu, neka linci” (Bu, Boneka kelinci) I say it when I want to my mother bring my rabbit doll by pointing at the doll. When I entered the age of 3.5 years I began to pronounce it as “Bu, dima boneka kelinci?” if I lost my bunny doll.
    So it can be conclude, that the development stage of the development of child language acquisition is consistent with what is described by experts. Start from the child only say ending of the word, then combine it phrase two words one at a time. We can understand that the steps undertaken by the children was noticeable that developed in a pattern and rules gradually. This means that the appearance of children’s grammar can be said to remain constant within a certain period of time. That is, any change of age, then there is also a change in the ability of children. Children language develop is running continuously for the better in line with their age change toward higher anyway. Another thing which is come to change the language that is their physical changes itself, of not been able to say anything until he could say and convey thoughts or a meaning. Although not as clear as in the sayings of adults, the child is still trying to pronounce it in their own way.

  20. Name : Maratus Shalihah
    Reg.Num : 1314050643
    Midterm : Psycholinguistic
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    In language acquisition, if we view it through the ideas on stages of language. The baby can divide those around 6-8 months all children start to babble and produce repetitive syllables like “mamaaa….paaa.” or “dadaaaaa….” That is bilabial, to say “ma/pa” or “da”. At about 10-12 months children speak their first words. At around 20-24 months they start to combine words. The idea comes depend on the level of ages. We or parents can see the different how they talk to us, the increasing of language, development of words, and the meaning of words. Language development is often a measure of the level intelligence children, although essentially children developments is unified and complete each other.Language development is very important because of the language as the basis for a child’s ability to be able to improve the abilities of others.
    Parents never teach their children the rules of language. But, there are may be some correction but children seem to ignore it. For example, I have relative cousin she about 1 years old when, she says a word “abam” it means “abang” the older brother, parents have to correct to say it “abang”. So, children make many mistakes when they learn language. Children need to hear language is used to talk about things they can see and feel, what they have just experienced or are about to experience. What the children are curious and what they care, include what they see and feel. The most important thing that parent needs to know about language is talk to children about what matters to them. Children develop social skills through language. A social skill in environment begins by mastering language skills. Through language, the child can express thoughts, and then they understand and create a good social relationship. And also if the children try to speak she/ he would talk to close people. The way them speak it is different from the person sometimes they meet or the new people. It was the children used the ides or stage in language acquisition. So, it’s not surprising that the language is regarded as one indicator of the children success.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    About my first words was I say. I don’t remember exactly, so I called my mother who the first person knew me since was born. I try to ask her, what is the first word and she said “mam…” and then the word changes to “mamaam….” Its mean I wanna eat. The other words are “num….” it means I need to drink , “paaaah….” It was me at 11-12 month. And I was taught to call my mother “bunda” and I said just the last part “nda….” and until now. My mother say, she can’t remember clearly, because I am the first child, she says it was 21 years ago and have 4 brother and 1 sister, she doesn’t remember. I ask to my father, when I was taught to call him “ayah” but I said “paa…” or “paaah…”. I only have an oldest cousin brother, he is 3 years older than me, I can’t get any information, because we weren’t grow up together, he lives in his village and I am going to out of town. That’s all about my language acquire, specifically Minang language.
    I don’t remember how can I speak Bahasa Indonesia. Perhaps, it was in my first school or primary school, there were some children spoke Bahasa, I try and imitate how the way them speak, it was not really different with Minang. When was my parents let me to watch TV That was the way I learn to know Bahasa Indonesia. While in Arabic, I have learn to read Al Quran and some “mufradat” with my parents, continued at TPA/MDA about 4 years and graduated coincide my fourth grade in Elementary School.
    When I was the fourth or fifth grade at Elementary School I was taught by my teacher, English Language and it was really strange language, that time I didn’t like English. But, as time goes by English language is important. I learn to like and love it by song, story and film. And other language (passive language) I interested of Korean, I listen and watch Korean, Japan, China, Thai. Those informations what I remember about my words till grown up as I am today.

  21. Name : Wardah Nasution
    Register Number : 1314050004
    Midterm

    1. How children adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?

    Language acquisition is influenced by the environment, because the language is basically a result of learning from the environment. Child (the baby) learn the language as well as learning other things, imitate and repeat the words that spoken by another person is way to learn language in infants early. Adult (especially his mother) around him/his to correct and clarify the wrong words. Learning a new language is actually performed by children aged 6-7 years, when the child starts school. By the process of first language acquisition, language adaptation process can run smoothly and quickly because it is driven by factors of children’s needs. So, language acquisition is determined by the environment.
    Babies have not paid much attention to the environment; therefore if her/his needs have been met, the baby was no longer concerned about the environment, the remaining time of his life used to sleep. In the second year, children have learned the word “no” and have started to learn “reject” the environment, such as saying “do not want this “,” do not want it “,” do not go “, and so on. Child started to react actively to the environment, he has learned to distinguish themselves than others, emotional started to grow and it’s bulking large. Every child goes through several stages before he began to speak. Language acquisition begins immediately after birth. Relationship with other human become more widespread soon; he/she knew his/her parents, his/her family members, playmates of the same age, and schoolmates. In the next age, children begin to learn in school, they begin to learn to develop social interaction with learning to accept the view of the group (community), understand the responsibility and understanding with others.
    The need of social and interaction with other person, started to be felt since the child was six months old, when the child was able to know another human being, especially mothers and their family members. Children begin to know and are able to distinguish the meaning of smiles and other social behavior, such as anger (not happy to hear loud noises) and affection. Eventually everyone realizes that humans need each other.
    The influence of different environments between families, communities, and schools in language acquisition will cause differences between children with each other. This is demonstrated by the selection and using vocabulary appropriate to the level of social family. Families of people lining the low educated or illiterate will be used language carelessly and the terms are rude. In general, the educated public has a good social status, will use terms that are more effective, and in general teenage children also speaks better.
    2. about my first words
    When I make a ringing with my mother and i ask her about little Wardah. How about my first words? By enthusiasm she told everything when I was a child. By the story that my mother told to me, I know that, I am like a child in general. My first word is “mak” (umak) for calling my mother, when I was 6 month old. When I was 8 month old I could say “akan” for “makan”, “u’num” for “minum”, and “cucu” for “susu”. And I also begin watched a movie. My mother said, I will say “cucu” louder and repeat it when I was thirsty. And I also could sing a song, such as “cicak-cicak di dinding, tik-tik-tik, naik kereta api”, and so on. Even though there are the missing words like for song “naik kereta api” “……api, tut tut tut”. And for the next verse I will sing like gargling.
    When I was 1,5 years old I had knew about animal and their name, especially goat, cat, cow, and chicken. Because when I was a child, my parent has chicken breed, goat, and also cow. So my parent often carries me there. Just like learning and play, my parent point the animal, mention the name and imitation sound of the animal. When I was a child, I am talkative child, by always told to my mother what that I have done in a day. When I was 2 years old, wants to know feeling begin to appear by many asking, what, what, and what. And I almost forgot, I live in Mandailing environment but, my family use Bahasa. When I played with my friends I will did adaptation by using mix language, Mandailing language and Bahasa. And when I was 3, 5 years old I asking of something have deep by asking why.

  22. SETIA WATI KURNIA
    BP : 1314050306 / TBI (A)
    PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :

    The ability to speak is a potential of all children. That ability is obtained without any special learning. Used a relatively short time, children are able to communicate with people in the vicinity. Even before going to school, he has been able speak like adults for a variety of purposes and in a wide – range of situations. Although the language used is not as perfect as adults. And sometimes do not use proper grammar. And if observed, language acquisition is not the one in the can at once but gradually phase. Language skills will continue to grow as running his physical, mental, intellectual and social. At first the way children interact with their environment or how to convey his desire that is by crying or smiling, Kids can only make a sound – the sound of reflexive to express hunger, pain or discomfort that causes the child to cry and fuss, it is about going at the age of 0-4 months.

    At the age of 1 year, children can get to know the language of the sound, he saw pronunciation of adults. At this stage the child had frequent chattering, the child will see the movement of the mouth while talking. Children also can give the ‘ma ma, pa pa, Ba ba, da da . At this stage the child also became active, and how to integrate with circles not only to cry or smile, but it can hold or grasp, and pointed. At the age of 2 years, the child is able to pronounce words, even if talking without grammar, for example when child want cake, the child will say “mah ueh” or other instances when he want to sleep a child will say “mah bok”, from the example above we can see that child just say the important word. at age 3-5 years, the use of the child’s language is already very good. he did not just give the two words, but it can arrange constructing words, even had a lot of questions that will appear in brain, the child has a high curiosity. they would ask why is this? Why so? What is this? What is that? And many questions that will asking. Here the role of parents so is important so that the child can be well controlled. And guide children in mastering the language, so their children can communicate smoothly. From the description above can concluded that development language in children is gradual, and the children learn the language of environment, from what is seen, heard, and watched . And child have own style way in shaping his language. So finally reached the normal order and the appropriate language.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer :

    When I was little child , I included a lively and active. Im very happy chattering and ask any questions. My mom said my first word was maa .. it happened when I was 8 months, and it is the first word that makes my mother happy, even my father also taught the word paa .. so that I can say. At the age of 13 months I’ve been able to stand and walk slowly.
    I grew up in an environment that majority use Minang language. So automatically I use Minang language. Indonesian and foreign sounds rather my ears even though I’ve heard that language on television but when try to say it is a difficult for me at the time. I have brother and sister, and they not older too. So I can play and learn a lot of things with them. Including in the use of language. In the use of the language of our family uses only Minang language in everyday language. And we were not taught to use a another language. Therefore, when my cousin came from Jakarta, she uses Indonesian and I often noticed when she spoke, and when she spoke I noticed a well so that I can catch what she is talking about. when I tried use Indonesian pronunciation errors occur, I make minang into Indonesian language like the word “cucup” to “cucuik” that should suction. In my mind “cucuik is cucup”The mistake would be an oddity in Indonesian. But I just say it and feel it is correct to when my aunt to correct the word. Over time, Indonesian has become a language that was familiar to me. because I often watch TV. And it is quite helpful in adding my vocabulary. From this story I can draw the conclusion that the language takes time and habituation. children absorb a new language more easily than adults. Although sometimes its use might be confounded, because children do not quite understand the separate languages. But it only took habituation and use over and over again.

  23. Name : Marini
    Reg. Number : 1314050498

    Psycholinguistics

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stage of language acquisition?
    Talk about how the language skills of a child in its environment by means of absorption of the language. Honestly, I do not know how exactly. But through what has been learned previously that the son was not perfect as adults use language. A child that talking does not correspond to the actual words.
    I am here going to explain the steps of how a child uses language in their environment through the absorption of the language according to its phases. First, a child at this stage is to pronounce the name of an object or a person’s name is not appropriate. Most of them just say suffix word we say. This is not because the tool is damaged or absorption of the language is not good, but the child can not pronounce or combine the word. Like for instance when words like “eat” the child responds with “mam”, then the word “bath” with less words “ndi” and other examples, children say the word “where” with the words “nna”. Perhaps this stage occurs when the child is able to talk about the age of 1 year to 2 years or more.
    Furthermore, in the second stage. This stage is called “language process”, in which the stage is a continuation of the first stage. Here the children have started to carry out the various processes involved in using language. As the child is able to assemble language to convey intent. Especially to their parents. Although sometimes in stringing words errors still occur. Understandably, because at this stage the child is still in the stage who do not understand how to use good language. Later in this stage also children can not use proper grammar. They only say what he wanted to say. This might happen at the age of 2 years to 3 years for children who have high absorption instrument language.
    Then later in the third stage, which is called the “children construct grammar”. In my opinion, at this stage the child already organizing or using the language correctly by using the existing grammar. Perhaps this is also influenced by the environment. Where parents have begun to function in regulating their language. And parents also saw that her son was able to speak properly. Then parents will be more focused to justify their pronunciation. I think this happens when children aged 3 years to 4 years.
    The next stage, I will describe how the absorption of the child’s language at this stage of the fourth, that of “interaction”. I think, at this stage the child has begun to interact with the environment in the use of language. And children are familiar with the outside world, and his friend too much. Interaction with the outside world is also influenced by religious and cultural her or his environment .with their interaction with the environment, then the child will better understand how the language actually.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can youplease briefly inform what can you remember about your first word? You can get the information from your mother, father, or sibling for this question.
    Well, here I will explain how my first language when I was a kid. But before I tell it, I would say that I do not remember about my first language and then I could not ask my parents about the first language that emerged from the mine. That is because I am now far from my parents and my parents did not remember what the first word I spoke. But, here I will explain the words that I remember when I was a kid, and this word is also often told by my parents and my family. When the word is discussed, this word becomes a word that is very funny and laughter we all.
    The words that I say is “bah ci we”. This word meaning is “to make rice ” in Indonesian or that good is “cooked rice”. The word “bah ci we” is the language of my hometown is “mambuek rice Bareh” so this word was the one I refer to the phrase “mbek ci we”. This word I often say every mother I was cooking rice. I always saw my mother cook and I say that word over and over again until my mother finished cooking. I think this is a very funny thing that happened to me as a child.
    From these words it is clear that in pronouncing my language is not perfect. The word “mambuek” I refer to as “bah”, then the word “rice” I refer to as “ci” and the last word “Bareh” I refer to as “we”. Perhaps this is the same as the events experienced by other children of the same age with me in that day. Because children aged 1 year or 2 years old can not say a word perfectly, they can only say endings of words spoken by the people around him.
    Then my parents said, I said the line is just spontaneous, not imitate speech of others or emulate what my parents say, I think-I think it turns out that time included a creative person as well.

  24. Nama : Srigus Okta Diani
    Reg.number : 1314050556
    Class : TBI-B
    MIDTERM Psyicholinguistics
    Answer
    1. The first language based on children are cry and sulk, that is communication first the children. If the children cry that is : she is hungry, sleep, cold, and uncomfortable. If the children sulk that is: she is happy. The children getting to know the language based on the parents when first introduced to the environment in which he lived. When the children cry and her mother said “ baby, the listened you are hungry or ‘kamu lapar ya’. That words usually the listen children in environment, she will said “ lapee” when she want eat something or she is hungry. Then children always listen words by parents and environment around, so she is slow will language acquisition.
    Next the children begin acquisition one word is mama it mean “mama dimana”, then the children make sentences “mamaa, lapee”. All children language acquisition that they listen in the home and around environment. At the end of one year of age, children are able to understand that objects have a permanent nature so that the child begins to use symbols to represent objects that are not present in front of him. The symbol was later developed into the first words spoken child. The language acquisition associated with the interaction between the input “input” and internal capabilities possessed learners. Every child has language acquisition device since birth. However, without the appropriate input may not be a child can master the specific language automatically. Increasing language children happen around 2 years or first age 3 years : 30 until 50 words each month, if children listen the talking they around. When she begin started school early childhood, the children’s begin interact with her friend. She learned language Indonesian and English. So, mother tongue is minang, the first language is Indonesian and second language is English. Teacher begin to learning of language first. In general, the child was imitating what he sees around him. If she have together with friend other, she will try imitation, example : she saw her friend take something with left hand, she will imitation and language that listen of other people example : if my friend speak about that impolite like “can give me tea”. It is expressing impolite, should “would you give me tea, please.” Culture and procedures of the theme will be replicated as well.

    2. According to information that I received on my first language acquisition of both my parents. The first word I said “ma..”, word “ma” change to became ma’ not “mak” because my parents always said “mamam yuk nak, amak suokan honey”. Until now I always called my mother with word “amak”. Then, word “yah”, my mother often the said “this is child ayah”. Word ayah that I listen that time only can I spelling “yah”. When age 1 years, I often sleep. According my mother, my sleep very be sound and I dislike crush up the pants the time sleep, hehe. Because obsession sleep. At age 2 years, I begin said “ma’ appa,mamam,yam” it mean I want ate or I am hungry and I cried. My mother always story telling about malin kundang before i sleep. At time morning, i cry and i said ” ma’ crta lin dadang liak” , my mother laugh and i am so. my mother speak or correct my sentences.
    Next, when I invite to play with my brother, I saw, he play marbles. Then, I said “ba itu apa?”. He said “ kelereng”, oh kele’eng”. I can’t express “ r “. All that I listen of my parents, bother and around I imitation. I started learning sentences when 2 years. My mother said “you should many studied language”. I don’t spelling with clearly sentences it. My mother always learning me until sentences that speak right. When I started elementary school, I have fluent speak minang but Indonesian language is not clearly. In the elementary school I studied language Indonesian and English. At time class 3 elementary school I begin started English, like kucing “ cat” I spelling “ caet”. The teacher give the studied with very well.

  25. NAME : TARI RAHMAN
    REG. NUMBER : 1314050557

    1. A child adjusts his/her language ability into the environment with a few stages of language acquisition. He/she produce a word based on what his/her heard from the environment. Learn the first language in children is one of the holistic development of a child becoming a full member of a community . Since the babies have been interacting in the social environment. A mother is often offered an opportunity for the baby to participate in social communication with him . When that baby was first exposed to socialization , that the world is where people share a sense. The environment influence the child. Through language, children learn to become human society. The child interact with environment and imitated. So, his/her language can change to another language. His/her will record adult language and use it. Although ungramatical. Example: His/her get the first language from his/her parents is Indonesian, but his/her interact with people in the environment who using another language such as “minang language”. In my rent house, there is one a child about 2 years old. She produced her first language from her parent is Indonesian. Because the people in the environment speak in Minang Language, so she imitate and also produced it. She adjust her language from dialogues in her daily. And then habits of her parent. A child learn language star from the words easy to pronounced and ungramatical such as ‘two foot’. And then he/ she often to hear that. A child will imitate bad words if his/her environment speak bad words to his/her. A child learn language a little from what he/she heard into the environment and then produce that. So, the environment influence the child language.

    2. I can not remember about my first words. But my parents still remember about it. My mother said that my first words is “yah..yah..”. I call my father like that. My mother teach me how to spell ‘ayah’. And I imitate it but not perfect. I will say “mam.. buu..” it is mean (mau makan ibu). I call a dog and then I run while cry and said “ wou.. wou. ja..”. it is mean the dog run to me and shout louder. My mother said to me I like music and dance. When my mother want to do her daily activity, she will play the music to me and I will play with it while dancing. I will stay in font of the radio until the music finished. Because we just have a radio. I like to traveling with my father. I will climb my father head and said ” taa..ta.. taa..ta..”. I can speak in 1 year old. At that time I still can not to walk. I grown up in good environment. My mother tongue is Minang language, so speak in minang languae. l learn Indonesian language at school. I can easily understand Indonesian language.

  26. Name / Reg. No : Nofia Hulandari / 1314050454 / TBI.B

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    There was a time where a child should be exposed to the environment in the form of linguistic or other communications. When children go through a stage of language acquisition from the surrounding environment, can be described by the following time line: when the child enters the age of 3 months, children have started to laugh. Because children have started to understand when parents express funny facial expressions, the child would laugh. And if they laugh parents will be laughing too as a form of interaction with his son.
    When a child enters the age of 1 year, children have started to speak with easy word. They hear and imitate the words that have been heard from the surrounding environment. And at this stage that children begin to absorb and say the words said by the parents or the people around him. At this stage the child’s age is approximately 1 to 2 years. At the age of 2 to 3 years, children have started to speak fluently. They will be quicker to remember what words he had heard from others. They have started to speak a few sentences like “go?” Or “this is my shoes” and a lot more other sentences.
    At the age of 3 years, children have started to communicate seamlessly with the family or the people who are around the environment. Although the words that they say are not all true and correct. To justify the word of the child, parents should not impose their will on children. Because the language of the child can not be forced. When in force the child will not want to learn how to change the language structure. And when children often interact with the environment, the child will often hear languages that are rarely heard. Whether it’s subtle language or offensive language. And they will imitate the language well. Therefore we are as a teacher, we should be able to cite the language of good language to children who can only speak well.
    At the age of 4 years, children have started to ask questions about what he was thinking. They will be asked about what, where, when, who, why, and so on related to the events that they see around them. They have started to inform and answer the questions smoothly. At this age children have started well and could arrange words into a correct sentence.
    For children, the acquisition of language refers to the process where a child is usually developed to be the language of good and proficient without having to make an effort that seems difficult. Acquisition, therefore, in contrast to “learn” which refers to the process where a deliberate effort must be made in order to become proficient with the use of language, for example, the ability to write and read. Every child goes through several stages before he began to speak. Language acquisition begins after birth, the child’s vocabulary including some nice words, but does not include grammatical words, or the end of the grammar.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer :
    When I was child, I am a smart kids or chatty and has a high curiosity. When asked about what the first words that I said, I am not sure about it, and when I began to speak. But raised my curiosity, and I tried to find out about it. I asked my parents, especially my mother. In my family, I have four sisters, including 2 women and 2 men. Because of age, my mother difficult to remember about my childhood, because it was so long ago. And my mother is also very difficult to distinguish the first language of my brothers, my sister, and I. Because our age range pretty close.
    In my family, we use Minang language to communicate. Mother said that I began to speak at 1 year old. The first word I say is “Ma” and “Pa”. If I want to ask something usually I often cry and point out what I want. But if I feel hungry and want to eat normally I put out the word “mam”. If I had said such a mother would understand and would give me what I want it. And other languages that I can say that “indak, iyo, pai, kakak”. At the age of 1 year I can only say that there is an easy language around me. Because at that time I was very difficult to say the languages that are difficult to understand.
    Following from that age, I was about 4 years, I have started to increase in the language. Since I’ve started hanging out with my peers. During that time I have heard a lot of words that are difficult. Although the words were often heard and always taught by parents. But the word still I can not pronounce it correctly. Words such as “arang and kue”. To say “arang” I can only say “alang” and the “kue” was “tue”. My mother was very diligent to teach me the words are difficult. Because the mother is very worried when I grew up I could not speak properly.
    I am very grateful that my parents have taught me, and let me hang out with a friend who is on the surrounding environment. I think it’s a great stage to teach children to know the language, and be able to understand how the language is used properly.

  27. MID TERM SEMESTER OF PSYCHOLINGUSTIC
    NAME: NOVI OKTAFANI
    CLASS: TBI.A
    BP : 131405243

    1. In adjust language children have stage in languge acquisition. Nobody thaugt language, in fact you can’t prevent the child from learnig it. The first time children know languge from verbal and nonverbal language like gesture and hearing, by this way chidren will produce a word. The next, first word they got by her parents. Words like “ma. Mama”, “pa,” papa”. It we call imitation. It be between10 month to 2 years.

    Next stage is reinforcement, in age one others hearing and imitate children also reinforcement words. They will reinforce words that have been reared. For example, they hear someone say “papa” so they will repeat it some time. Baby or children will repeat what else words that they have heared. Children who in age three to five often say sentence with bad grammar. we need the roles of parent for this situation. Reinforcement word can help children to produce languge with good grammar. By reinforcement they will can to construct grammar theirselves. The briefly children get language from her parents, it is call mother tongue. The first language or mother tongue never taught. But children get their first language by imitate what they look, say wht they have heared. Finaly can produced languge based on comprehension theirselves.

    2. My mother said i grown up like children asusual. In my cildhood i was energic, hyper active, talkactive. Thereofer when i was junior high school i bacame quite people. Now i can be talkactive, can be humoris, and also can be quite. It is depend of situation and condition. If i am in a place that i want and stay in good people or someone that has similarity with me, i will talkactive, and energic. But if we stand in place that i dont want or i dislike, i wiil be quite and bored.

    If i tell about first words, it is mean i will tell about my childhood. Chilhood is the best moment and beautiful time that unforgotable, always remember in our memory. When i was child the first words that i say was “ta” “ tatata”. It is because my mother’s name is ita, and it was time i hear everyone cal my mother “ta” . because of that i often hear ita, and try to say “ta” “ta”. It has been when i was 10 month. When i was in age one, I begin to say “mama” ” ma” “mama” and “papa” “papa”. My mother using minangist languge in communicate with me. It is mean every day i use minang lnguage to communicate. But if we went to other environment like market, tourism place and other place, my mother use indonesia language with me. It was made me felt confused. Because this habit, i can hold two language that is minang and indonesia language.
    Now i am twenty years old. In this age i have added my langugage that is english, bacause now i am a english student.

  28. Nama : Wira Afriani
    Bp : 412.083
    Class : TBI-B
    Answer for number 1:
    At first the children getting to know the language based on the parents when first introduced to the environment in which he lived . That was when he first heard what he’ll say. In the preliminary stages of language acquisition, usually children produce words of adults are simplified as follows: for example the word “ibu”, he will be heard as the example of his brother or from people older than him and he would eliminate consonants finally , so they will enter the first sound she heard that word and he could only say the word “bu” or the word “u” she will follow the movement of the mouth of the person is not of what he has heard. and also reduces consonant clusters into a single segment: batere “bate”, bring “bin” or it can also remove the syllable unstressed as kunci “ti” semut”emut” and also reduplicated syllable is simple:
    pergi “gigi”, nakal “kakal”.
    First language acquisition is closely connected with the development of cognitive development: first, if the child can produce fundamental remarks on grammar neat, does not automatically imply that the child has mastered the language in question well. Second, speakers must acquire cognitive categories-categories that underlie the various meanings expressive natural languages, such as words, space, modalities, quality, and so on. Cognitive requirements of the procurement of more required language on second language acquisition than in the first language acquisition.
    The child would not be the same as desired by adults. If an adult asks the child to name “He’s going out”, the child will recite “He go out”. There is another theory which says that a child learns by reinforcement (reinforcement), meaning that if a child learns the correct utterances, he got reinforcement in the form of praise, such a nice, smart, and so on. However, if his speech is wrong, he gets a “negative reinforcement”, for example, again, wrong, not nice. This view assumes that the child must be continuously improved if the wrong language and praised if they utterance it right. truth is that a child establish rules and devise its own grammar. Not all children show the same progress despite all showed progress regularly.
    Thus, we can understand that the steps undertaken by the children was noticeable that both developed and developing language development in a pattern and rules gradually. This means that the layout appearance discuss these children can be said to remain constant within a certain period of time. That is, any change of age, then there is also a change in the ability of children. The changes running continuously for the better in line with their age change toward higher anyway. Another thing that participated that language changes are physical changes of their own, of not been able to say anything until he could say and convey thoughts or an intent. associated with the interaction between input and internal capabilities possessed learners. Every child has LAD since birth. However, without the appropriate input may not be a child can master the specific language automatically.

    Answer for number 2:

    According to information I received on my first language acquisition of both my parents, I spend remark first made the parents feel confused because they do not understand. but dealing with the situation with the direction they begin to understand what purpose. the first word they hear is “nen”. because it is related at that time my own mother breast-fed me. It came out of my mouth when I’m hungry or thirsty. then my mother will understand the purpose of my remarks such.
    Within a few months I started to learn to talk and try to make my own words, ask for something, to speak words that are not clear. if my parents do not understand the words they taught me to speak clearly. Day-by-day my speech that change according to the progress of my age. To be able to teach me to speak said they have to wait for the process of learning to talk very long, I need help from them to connect the words. can also pass my cry then my words would come out. I started to make a sound “rounds”. the beginning of words that will make verbatim.
    The word for the first time really melt your heart. When they teach me to talk, I try to imitate it.
    if I hurt a language the first time I spend is a cry to show what sick to my parents. they would instantly know that I feel something sick on me. then they would blow what I feel. if I hurt a language the first time I spend is a cry to show what sick to my parents. they would instantly know that I feel something sick on me. then they would blow what I feel. so whatever I say I am definitely a mother will understand what we mean. That’s because there is a bond between mother and child.

  29. Name : Laras Sekar Tanjung
    Reg. Number : 1314050002
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    Basically, in acquiring and learning a language, the first thing that people do is imitating how the language is used. In different, in acquiring process, someone don’t need to go to a school or a certain place to get how to use the language, but in learning process, someone is going to master the language from a teacher, tutor, professor, etc. It shows us that a child just need to be around the parents to acquire language from them.
    Every child that born to the world has an ability to acquire the language from the parents automatically, and the ability is given by his creator, Allah SWT. In other words, a child does not need to be send to a school to know how the way to speak is; it same with the case that a child does not need a teacher from a school to teach them about the theory to walk. From a listening process of every word that spoken by the parents and people around him, a child has started to construct their own language.
    At the first, a child can not show up their language ability in a good way. It is caused the child is not born with bring grammar and roles of the words on his mind, and he also doesn’t have enough vocabulary that can be used in a sentence. Children are beginning to acquire language through the social live in their environment over the time. After that, they will construct their language independently.
    One of spoken language function is to send our idea through verbal form, and a child that cannot speak yet (infant) uses ‘crying” as their tool to show up what they want. This is the first stage of children in adjusting their language to the environment. When the time is running, an infant is starting to do babling. He wants to send something through spoken language, but in fact the words that he produces does not have meaning, and may be it is not appropriate with what he has construct in his mind.
    In the next stage, children start to produce sounds that understandable by the people. For instance, they want to say “mama”, but the sound just “ma”, so people around them can understand what the baby said. This is their first word.
    After children produce their first word, they start to combine words into sentence. But sometimes the sentences that they produce are having grammar that a little bit different from that adults had. This is caused the children create word and sentence according the construction in their mind. It makes the children become stubborn. But this is not a big problem for the children because it is normal for them. They will be rational people over the time.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    Talking about my first language makes me become amused. It is appropriate with what i have explained in the question number one. I asked my mother and my father about it. They tell me about my behavior in the early age. They said that my first word is “mak” (ibu), “apak” (ayah).
    I lived in a multicultural environment. It is caused near from my house there is a factory, and the employees are coming from many cities in indonesia. My mother is minang people, and my father is java people. I have neighbor from different place, such as Palembang, Medan, Kalimantan, west sumatera, Aceh, etc. It makes they must use Indonesia language to communicate each other. By the explanation above, we can see that my first language is Indonesia.
    I did not drink mother’s milk for more than three months, so I have accustomed to drink formula milk. It affects my first language. I did not say “mik” for asking water from my mother, but i said “syusyu” to ask formula milk from my parents.
    When i am not able to say “r”, I substituted it with “y”. For example, “korek” become “koyek”. For another case, I like fried chicken so much. But i did not call chicken thigh by “paha ayam”, but I called it by “ayam kaki”. There no one can correct it.
    I was being an elementary school student at five years old. My teacher taught me about Pancasila song. When I came home, I was starting to sang it. The first lyrics line is garuda pancasila, but I sang it by garuda pancasilat. Then, when the lyrics “akulah pendukungmu”, i change it into “akulah pendayungmu”. My parents corrected it, and I cannot accept it. I become crying and said that my parents did not know it. I said that my teacher taught me like that, but it nonsense. Actually my fault, but I cannot accept it. I am the right one. It was what i thought at that time. It was so funny.

  30. NAME/ NIM/ CLASS: LUCY DEWINTA ELVAN/ 1314050377 / TBI B
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    There was a time when a child must adapt to the environment in the form of linguistic or other communications. When children at the stage of language acquisition that is derived from the environment, can be described by the following time line. When the child was 4 months old, they have started to laugh. If they laugh, parents will participate. This is a form of interaction with his son. Children also can see the faces of people who are nearby. When the child was one year old, children begin to speak with words that are not intact. They absorb what they hear and say what they hear from their environment. At this stage the children imitate what was said by his parents, about 1 to 2 years of age.
    Between 2 to 3 years, children’s grammar in conversation has started smoothly. They’ve started to say something like “Where is mama ?,” my clothes “and so on. At the age of 3 years they have started to communicate fluently, although not every word they say is true and correct. And to justify every word, parents should not impose their will on children. Because language cannot be forced. Children also can replace words that they get by imitating with new words according to the situation. For example: parents say “father is wearing blue shirt” he would reply “I’m wearing red shirt”. At the age of 4 years, they began to ask questions about what their thoughts. They could ask why, what, when, where, who, where, and so on associated with the phenomenon they witnessed. They’ve been able to say and answered questions smoothly. From the analysis of child language acquisition, it seems children are experts in their own words. Each child through several stages before they start talking. Language acquisition begins immediately after birth.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    If asked about me personally, I do not know exactly when I began to speak and what the first word that I said. But I still want to know and try to ask my parents, especially my mother. I have three sisters and all of the women. So because of the mother’s age, my mother less remember how I got my first language acquisition. My mother found it difficult to distinguish language acquisition between my sisters and I. But after I tried to convince her to remember the events 21 years ago, she tried to remember again. Mom said that I got first language at 11 months. The first word spoken at that age is “Mak”. Then it continues with the words “yah, bang, mam, num, and mimik”.
    From the age of 11 months to 2 years, I was only able to speak a language that is easy and there around. Because at that time, I could not hang out with anyone except home. Moving on from that age, I began to get along with peers . About 4-years old, I found the words hard and I cannot pronounce it correctly. Although the words are already a couple of times I repeated and taught by parents. Examples like “garam” (in my language is sira), and also “mobil” (in my language is motor). Sira I can only recite sigha, and the motor is motol. Like most children in general.
    My mother was worry if I cannot say “r” at school later. Mother worried because my neighbor was a teenager but have not been able to properly pronounce “r”. Mother afraid I will mock ridicule at school because of it. So mom and dad tried to teach me to recite “sira dore marserak serak”. And I followed the sentence even though it was very difficult. When I began to tire me stop and go play. But the mother advised and not force me to learn.

  31. NAME : SETRI YENTI
    BP : 1314050551
    MID TERM : PSYSCOLINGUISTICS.
    CLass : TBI-B

    Answer number 1

      How to adjust his speaking ability of the child to the environment if we see him trough the ideas about stages of language acquisition. Language acquisition in children there are a number of ways, namely by way of remembering, emulating, reinforcement, direct experience, language activities with play activities. The first, namely by way of remembering very sensory experience where children be recorded in her mind. When she’s touch, smell,see, and hear things, children’s memory to store it. Memories that will be more powerful, especially when the mention of certain objects or events will occur over and over again. He kept it the words he heard, he’ll need in memory. He was trying to say what he saw and remember it.
      Second, language acquisition in children by imitating what is the see. The word is not always exactly with what he heard. That change could be a subtraction, addition, and replacement of words or sorting order of words. And the child would only say the speech is capable of really mastered.
      Third, language acquisition in children with a means of reinforcement. By way of this strengthening of the children invited to pronounce the sentence with the way over and over again so that she say it’s true. If a mispronounced word we teach it wrong then we say it’s not that we repeat her sentence.
      Fourth, the strategies that accelerate the child’s first language is experiencing direct activities in the context of a real language. Child using his good language when communication with other, as well as when alone. He listen and talk directly, and at once obtained responses from partners interlocutor. From the responses obtained, unconsciously the child obtain input about the naturalness of it’s language, behavior and ordinance, and in the same time also the child gets input from a partner carried out acts of speaking in his talk.
      Fifth, language acquisition in play activities. In the play, the child sometimes acts as adults, as a seller or buyer trade in play-merchandise, mother, father or child in the play house, as a patient or a doctor or nurse or teacher or students in the school- the school play.
      
      Answer number 2
      
      Based on the information I received from aya and my mother. The first language I spoke first to speak is na, na, na and ba. If I’m glad I was clapping while saying na, na, na. Then my mother said puk ami-ami..and then I answer mi..mi..mi.. While laughing merrily. And when asked for a drink or for milk I told you the mik, mik. When I want to pee my pants told pis holding. If I want to eat I said am ma. If you want to wear my mother said that when I ju, ju, ju. Take a bath I said ndi, ndi. If I see that I like I said ncak, ncak,
      
      When I see something dirty and my mother said it was aak son. Then I left and ran away from there while aak, aak. If there is something I fear I said to my mother bogey as he ran and hugged my mother. If I eat and it tastes bitter or sour, I say ca, cam. It was the first language I learned at a time when I was a kid. Based on the stories I learned from my father and mother.
      

  32. NAMA : RISKA AMELIA
    NIM : 1314050340
    KELAS : TBI-A
    TUGAS : MID-SEMESTER OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
    What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition
    According ideas on stages of language acquisition, it is explaining about how the children use her/his language through imitation. This imitation can be gotten from her/his parents or brother/sister that always do communicate to her/him. This way not only can get from her/his family but also from environment in around her/him. As we have known that the first word that take out from the child just screaming or crying. If her parents always do communicate with her, it can be accepted to the child. Sometimes in the two years old the child can accept the parents language and apply in her activity even though still not perfect yet. The first word that take out from her sometimes the word that the parents taught to her like “mama” or “ibu”. Because a mother who always talk to her child. She will teach how to call her and then say other word like “papa” or “kakak” or “makan”. when the child says those words, maybe she can say with lose one or two letter, like say “mama” with just “ma”. It will be perfect if her parents teach her every time. The child can learn language through reinforcement also. But in this way the child will learn about sentences. As we know the three years old, a child can learn about sentences. She can understand what other people say to her. Some sentences will be hard to her but if the parents always teach it, it make sure be easy. When a child get out from her home, she will meet other that teach other sentences too, like invitation, command or prohibition from her friends or her neighbor. With this way, a child will get many new sentences. It can be result she/he can apply those words in her daily activity. And then do active communication with other or her family. This two ways can be taught to children in language learning, even though maybe there are some mistakes that do by the child. Like grammatical error and pronunciation, because the child don’t know about what she/he is doing wrong or right in say the sentences, but it can be repaired by helping from her family. The mistake from the child make are cute and repeated endlessly to anyone who will listen it.
    When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Based on my mom opinions, she told me that, she always do communicate after I was born in the world. She talked to me every time even though I did not understand about what she talked. When I could not say anything word, I just crying to get something, like hungry or pee. When I was 10 month I could say one word “bu”, it means “mom”. If my mom taught me, she also showed about that things, like taught me about where is my left and right of my hand. My mom said that, if she talked to me, I always attention and imitation her with make sound between my mouth. If she was smile to me I also smile to her again. When I was almost three years old, I was fussy and talked everything that I found in every where even though I have a brother. My mom always took me and my brother to walking around our home. If my brother and I stay at home I would talk with my brother. When I was four years old, my parents entered me to kindergarten, because I always ask to my mom to study in there. In kindergarten, my mom controlled me and saw me talk to my friends like adult each other. My mom said that I always talked about my want to future, I talked that I want to be a teacher to her and my friends. If my family and I get holiday, my parents took my brother and I to go to new place like zoo and in there my mom talked about kinds of the animal in the zoo. My mom said, it can be add my knowledge if I was taken there. Because the real example easier than just say about it.

  33. NOFIRALINA / 1314050632
    TBI- B ( MIDTERM )
    Answer No. 1:
    The first stages of language acquisition that is derived from the English term acquisition, namely, the process of language acquisition done by children naturally when children learn their first language or mother tongue. The process of the child begin to recognize verbal communication with its surroundings. According Kiparsky (Tarin, 1986: 243). Language acquisition is a process used by children to customize a series of hypotheses which increasingly complicated. Or theories that are still hidden or concealed that probably caused by his words and his parents until he chose based on a size or of the language.
    While the first language is the language that was first obtained by the child since birth, why to be called by the mother tongue? So, the mother tongue was taken because in childhood was looked after by his mother. That is why it is called the mother tongue. First child acquire the language between infancy approximately one year.
    A child does not suddenly have a grammar in the brain and complete with all the rule. The first language (Acquisition) the child was obtained through several stages: such as snoring phase or stage of vocal sounds. Snoring is ekspresional baby explores produce vowel sounds. The next stage of feeling or chattering. At this stage the new kid babbling containing consonant and vowel sounds, such as: brrr, eeeekk. Later stages of greeting one word at this stage already started babbling the words that have meaning. Such as: Mama, Papa, Milk and others. The next phase of the two words, at this stage the child is issued a language composed of two words, such as mama Mam, Mam NCU. Then start telegraphic chatter. Telegraphic chatter this is the incorporation of one word into two words even more.
    So, the first language or the acquisition was obtained not by time. But, the first language of the child obtained through several stages. And in each of these stages are interrelated, with the purpose of association was to create a language that is commonplace played at the present time.

    Answer No.2 :
    About 21 years ago I was born from the womb of my mother named ARLISNAIRI, I was born in the Padang Laweh (Sijunjung) on 11-November-1994 at 12:15 hours Thursday evening my mother said. At that time my mother was very happy because the girls that he craved finally born safely and normal birth. At that point I just can sound loud crying and my mother said she was very touched and happy at the birth of his first daughter. Because her daughter was born with a clean, pretty, cute, and very perfect in her eyes, even then my mother said, and I was the first child of the couple FIRMANSYAH and ARLISNAIRI.
    Since I was born on a beautiful day, date and month for my mom and dad, so they gave the name pretty well for me that NOFIRALINA. In the past 0-6 months I was still groping language and sound. Furthermore, at the age of 6-12 months before I began to distinguish sounds and language. Then at the age of 12-18 months before my tongue out, and even then a new word by word, such as: mma, Mamam. Then at the age of 18-20 months before the utterances which consists of two words. As mma mam, num ncu. It was only after the age of the start of many words that most closely matches what I said.
    Said my mother, I began talking to the right in accordance with what is spoken at my age of 3 years. But at my age I was still a lot that I don’t understand or I was hesitant and asked each of my talk with my mother. Even then, I still taught by the mother language, well it speaks with a mother and father as well as with others. At the age of 5-10 years, I’ve started to understand about the language and speak to other people who deserve to talk to other people, because at that age I’ve started school. Starting from my kindergarten and later on continued to Elementary school.
    With the interactions from outside could I begin to understand language with my friends at school. But at that age my mother and father still reminds me how to speak well, and my mother reminded not to talk dirty with their peers. After periods of my elementary school continue on to junior high and even then I still remind you again by my parents when he speaks it must be with an courteous and kind. Because at the time of the junior high school my mother told the start times of puberty to a person, usually the words of one who is puberty was not in accordance with the level of courtesy and kindness in the language. I wonder what was the purpose of my mother from the beginning I already know about the language but I have always given a good referral for speaking polite and kind to others.
    And during my senior high school I already started growing up and I also gained already know many of my friends, and my parents still reminds me, to always speak well again among friends, whether it’s talking to a male friend as well as with a female friend. So, bumper her time development of my age from infancy to the present, so I know what the purpose of landing or words that are always given by my parents, because my mother told me the more nagging me, my mother told me never to speak dirty to others and speaking was fine, though people who talked to us it was smaller than we are, here the role of language is very important that we use in everyday life.

  34. NAMA/ NIM: ERSISMITA/ 1314050136

    1. Language Acquisition Language is a cognition that truly makes us human,. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations, or even with partially learned systems, there is no other species known to date that can express infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech sounds and words).
    There are several ways in which children in acquiring the language that children acquire it by imitating, repeating, analogy by imitating and repeating the words were heard by the children of those that exist in the environment of her in according to automatically he will imitate and repeat the words until they can speak like parents.
    After more than 60 years of research into child language development, the mechanism that enables children to segment syllables and words out of the strings of sounds they hear, and to acquire grammar to understand and produce language is still quite an enigma.
    language acquisition in children begin with the ability to hear, then imitate the sound or sounds available in the environment, in this process the child will not be able to language and speech if a child was not given an opportunity to express things you heard, therefore, the family is very important in this case, the family must give children the opportunity to learn and speak through experience that he heard, then, gradually when the children have been able to express experience good of an experience to hear, see, read and so forth, and he express language oral.

    2. In the early years, when I can speak word I say is still limited, and word say is still it to it as well, if i don’t understand about word which I say, I will not think about that, so, therefore, first word umak, when I say with word mak, mak, mak, and word ayah, and after that, I asked and said something with crying, if I want something I will cry, because I cannot who say that, and I don’t know how to pronounce, language and speech is the expression of a person to show ability to express something, because it was obtained through the learning process which every child, the language used is also quite unique, because of language and speech are used in everyday life, it was called language acquisition, and increasingly grow its age, vocabulary and word I hear more and more and I say was only increasing, and when I spoke with my mother can already be typing although only slightly, and if I did not understand a word of it, I would began to think of what exactly is meant, because I want to better know the words mean, and in the end I can speak oral about word I mean.

  35. Name : Elvi Rahmi
    Reg Number : 1314050390
    Class : Tbi-b
    Mid Test : Psycholinguistic

    Answer for number 1:
    According to me about how a child adjust his or her language ability into the environment . I am not sure that the children can adjust their language well. I think they (children) can not influence their language into environment but the most influence can be come from their environment. So, they have good or bad language depend on their own environment. Because last week we have discussed about language acquisition that exactly about how can the child acquire the language. In the last meeting we have discussed so, i got information that the child acquire of complete language through some process, habitual. This fact, because human that often hear many kind of sound, from young till adult automatic she or he will be use sound like they hear before, to communication with other people in the their environment. For example: Indonesian that live or grow in English so, he will be used English language to communication. It’s my reason said like that. And speech sound that had they got will be has changes for example “book’’ be come bu’, “art” become “a” so we as a teacher and parents should know about that. After the child can to express words, the next step is language process, to get it’s, they construct communication than form of language. After they begin to know about grammatical, they will input and output language with a way it is Filter. It’s that child had know about information of language that he input, so the child had know to different good or bad thing, for example Islamic religion, he know that it’s important and good thing. After all of this the children will be has performance such as speaking, writing, etc then competence like grammar. So the lesson last week i think is good and important to know and thanks to the lecturer “Mr. syayid” that had explain to me and my friends, may it useful to me as a teacher Amiiiin.
    In the last meeting I got information also, that children can’t be taught by telling something but also we should showing them by our own action. Because in the reality we have known that the child can be easier to understand something by action than telling. For example: when we show the kind of colors to the child. Sometime they are not able to differentiate the color between blue and green, so we can show them by our own action to show where is blue and green.
    Answer for number 2:
    When I was child exactly six until eighteen months age, based on my mother’s explanation and I remember that my first words are so bad but it’s make my parents happy such as; I began to said string vowels together when babbling “ah, eh, oh”, responds to my name, and call my father ‘’ah” not ayah, and call my mother “umma’’ but my parents always taught me when my words wrong. And when I need something I said “nah-nah”, if they not understand they showed me some something and said “do you need it”? And they showed me until I got something that I need. Then, I often said similar word to different meaning also, for example: I often used word “Boh” (melayu language) when I want to gave and request something, whereas it’s should be used to request something only. And sometime my pronunciation not appropriate example: I want said “the cat eat” but I don’t said like that, I said “eat the cat”. I think it’s so fun .
    Then, when I was two till three years old, I had begun to said sentence with 2 to 4 words for example: I want bought that (jajan ma..itu..itu…) but on the pronouncing not clear, although like that my parents always correct my words. And I almost understanding that my parents said also. I almost can called my father and my mother clear. Then, in the same time I had begun to know shown affection to my friends without prompting by my mother, for example: when one of my friends has sick or ill , I will ask to another, where Elsa, why is she not here? This statement indicate that my affection to all people around me. But all of this change step by step when I have grown up as I’m today. If I remember that I always laugh alone . I think that’s all that can I describe about my first word or language acquisition. Thanks!!!

  36. Name :Imelia Reska
    Reg. Number :1314050139
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    As we know that the child has the talent to speak, they acquire the language from their family, especially mother, because the mother is always interacting with the children for two years. Inside he developed language skills, environment take an important role. This case caused a child not only interact with his family, but also with the environment In the process of interaction like that he acquired a new vocabulary that later he will remove it again as the language. However, when he produced the language was not as good as what was mentioned others. Examples of adults say “Where’s mama?”, The child will answer “Ma, Ma”. From these examples it can be said that a child do not know whether it was a question or a statement, and when he said “Ma”, he could only say “ma”. And when he wanted to repeat what was said the person, he can only say “Ma”.
    When we talk about the first word that is issued by the child, most said that they see themselves say is “Ma”. This is due to that the mother have an attachment that is closest to the child. increasing age of the child, the more developed the structure of the language that he uses, like a child saying “Ma” to call his mother, by increasing his or her age, she has been able to say mama well and he understands what meaning mama he says. Compared to name their little brother or sister is hard to say the name of the call. Therefore, the family is an important factor in the development of children’s language support.
    Environment is also a determining factor in the development of children’s language in addition to parents who taught them to speak, the environment which consists of people who rampart will affect the language that has been set up by the child’s family, for example, a child who develops in families with language that polite however in their environment hear foreign languages with rough that they, in their minds will wonder about the foreign language. They will also digest what the environment said, it will be affect to the development of children’s language. The child can only absorb a language he had never heard from the family, and it is so proved that it good or bad an environment greatly affects language development of the child.
    Sometimes they make nothing of the language which he absorbed from the environment, but he still wanted to say something new that he heard without sorting out the language that well. This has proved that the child has the ability to express what he hears without thinking about the meaning of the words he heard. So it can be concluded that the child can adjust the language skills in an environment where the child was getting the initial language from the the family so that the child can know the exact language used for the family and neighborhood.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    When I was child, I included child cute and fun. Mama told me that I was fluent when I was about 2 or 3 years. When I was using language which is the language of my hometown Inderapura the language in every letter Vocal plus Ing, for example “mandi” become ”Manding”, “pergi” to be “Paing”. The first sentence that I fluent speak is “Paeng Raon naik bumbum” which it means ” go sight riding a motorcycle”. This language is a unique language that I’ve ever seen.
    My mama told me when I was a kid I really like sightseeing. Therefore, mama always bring me wherenever she go. When I was a child my mom invited to visit the famil’s home in the desert. in the journey I heard people around me talking in a language I do not understand. I’m curious about what is being said by these people, and oddly mama and my papa participates followup utter strange language I do not understand it. Arriving at the family home, I headache again because of the language they use a mixture of Minang language and Indonesian.
    To listen Indonesian I was not too surprised. Because I’ve been listening the language in TV and favorite phrase I use when little use traditional Indonesian is “belubah”, (akulah penguasa alam) “I am the Lord of the World”. but I sometimes say it wrong “I’m the power of nature”. The sentence I get in my favorite movie as a child of “Power Rangers”. Whenever I utter the sentence people always laugh at my pronunciation. Unlike the Minang language. I am not too familiar with this language because of my family and my neighbor I never use this language at home. But over time, about 5 years old I was already familiar with the language minang because of my aunt just moved and he always uses Minang language when it communicates with its surroundings. And language minang the first time I’ve ingested “pae kama tu?”. That is the information I got from my parents. And this time I think that the parents and the environment are very important in the process of language acquisition.

  37. NAME :ELLA JULIANA
    BP :1314050275 (TBI.A)
    PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    The answer:
    1. Environment really regard ability a child in adjust its language. althought, the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents, And environmentally . so, childs lingual ability begin from child communication with her or his parent. From uttering that most ambivalent and imitates father and mother utterance it. Until gets to utter word. If her parent use minang language or indonesia language. So, the child will use minang language or indonesia language too. Example, the mother use minang language like “lalok” so, the child will say “lalok” until a child find new language by friend when a child get education. When a child often listen her friend use indonesia language so, the child will reflect to follow her friend. The child always follow listen anything. But, the first language child use ofcours her parent language. Because , a child will often will mother in house. Anything doing a child with mother. So, enviroment influence very near with what doing every activity. Like, if a child cry, eat, take a bathe, and else. All doing with her parents. But, usually if a child get school so, education environmentally will influence how to child speak or say something. If the first a child use minang language sometime, when a child get education so she will use indonesia language. Because her teacher or her friend use indonesia language in school. So, environment very influence to language ability.

    2. The first my language when a child using minang language. When i child, i just cry if i want something. i don’t say anything but i just cry because, i can’t speak with my mother. After that,when i can speak something like “amma” “abak”. it is minang language wich the meaning is parent like ‘ayah, ibu” in indonesia language. After that i can say “jiblat” jiblat is jilbab or hijab in indonesia language. but, because i can’t so i say “jiblat”. That always make my parent laught because of me. And i can’t say all alfabet like “R”. Example, if i say “baru” i just can say “balu” all about “R” i can not.
    And my parent always care and give knowledge about something to me. My parent teach me about word by word. Until i can to say anything. I say “mamam”, mmaa.. mamam. The meaning is want eat. I say “ mmaa.. nndii, the meaning is i want take a bathe. sometimes i like follow my mother if speak with father. So, i always using minang language if in my house. After that, when i get education the first in TK, I begin using indonesia language. Any different when i in my home and if i in school. If with my friend and teacher i using indonesia language altought just litle knowing indonesia language. Now i know, any many language in our environment.

  38. Name : Mahrufi Ikhsan
    Reg. Number : 1314050121
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition ?
    Answer :
    Chomsky’s linguistics theory states that we are born with an innate ability to learn language. And just with little guidance, children naturally learn language. The process where a child is usually developed become proficient language users without having to make some difficult efforts is called Language Acquisition. Every child goes through several stages before she/he began to speak. Immadietly this language acquisition begin after birth. When children experience language acquisition stages that come from environment, can be described by the following periods :
    At the age of new born, baby will produce sound of crying who is still a reflex sound. So, the baby was not crying because she wanted to cry, but it was done without knowing it. It is happened naturally. When the baby is hungry or feel uncomfort, she would pull the sound of crying. Unlike before, the cry has been issued can be distinguished according to the wishes or feelings of the baby. By the time infants are three until four months old they begin babbling stage of language. Infants make seemingly random and spontaneous sounds, cooing, squeling, and gurgling.They have started to laugh and understood our expression we gave to them. When we do “cilukba games” they will laugh and it is because they want to communicate with us by their own way. At the age of ten months till one year, baby began to utter sounds that have meaning like ‘ma’ for mom, ‘pa’ for dad ‘nam’ for want to drink, and ‘mamam’ for want to eat. They begin to speak in simple words, like ‘mak’ or ‘yah’. At this age, baby also began to imitate the voices pronouced by the closest environment, baby began to speak a few words but the pronounciation is not perfect as an adult. And sometimes they use facial expressions or body gestures when they want to ask for something and mother usually understand it. The one year stage also called the one word stage. By the time the child has reached their second birthday or around 2 years of age they usually have elements of the two word stage. Around two years of age, the sentences created are short and direct. Babies might indicate their wants like, ‘mak mamam’(mom I am hungry), or ‘nam cucu’ ( I want to drink milk).
    By the age of three years old, babies have started to communicate fluently. They were able producing language, she can produce any words people ask her but still have a little mistakes in utterances. Usually it is difficult for the three years old to pronounce a word with letter ‘r’. For example they produce ‘lumah’ for rumah(house), ‘bulung’ for burung(bird), and ‘lancak’ for rancak (beautiful). But, By the age of four and five years old, children do not have problem in producing language anymore, they have been able to tell and answer questions fluenty, However they have started to memorize a songs and sing them.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words ? you can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this questions.
    Answer :
    When I was a child, I produce language like another normal children. I include a child which have an big curiosity about new things around me. I also belong to the children which fluent at the age of two to three years old. Actually I don’t know what should I write about my first words in this paper. So, I phoned home to get informations. I was born in minangkabau ethnic family where both of my parents speak minang. Minang is my first language and of course the first words i produced is in minang forms. Because I was born in Minang My mother told me that my first word is “Mak” and “Yah”. Everyone can not denies that every newborn baby will produce mother and father as their first words. But the pronounciation is difference depends on where the children are born. That was beacuse parents are the closest person and nearest environment to their children. Mother as the angle of child almost spending all times for her children. Another first words I produce beside “mak” and “yah” is ‘mamam’ where it means I want to eat, ‘minam’ for want to drink and ‘pis’ for piss. I have two sisters and no brother, so when I was a child I also spend my time with both of my sisters especially my secondth sister which have big difference age with me, 11 years difference. I asked about my first words to my secondth sister. She can not remember detail by detail of my first utterances in producing words. She just told me some funnies sentences I produced such as “Ni ma mak?” ‘Sis, where is mother?’ , ”Ni cak cing” Sis, ‘I want to piss’, and many other sentences that can not be written one by one. This happened when i was three years old where I can produce minang sentences but not perfect like an adult did. The other funnies experience happened when i was still two years one month old when my sister invited me to go the Bukittinggi Zoo. When we stopped at the cage of monkeys, there were so many monkeys hanged on at the fence of the cage. Then my sister started to tell me a sentence,’ do you know ruf, it names is ‘karo’ then I said ‘kalo’( with cute pronounciation and wonder face). My sister laughed out loud and correct me ‘karo’ not ‘kalo’. The same mistake is happened again when my I produce ‘ajah’ for ‘gajah’(elephant) and ‘fol de kok’ for fort de kock. There was some mistakes and error occurs in producing my first words. At the age of school, I started to learn indonesian language at school and home. I can easily understand Indonesian because it was my secondth language after Minangkabau. And in the class four of elementery school it was my first time to learn english as an international language untill now I still learn this important language.
    I am very happy because my parents and family never pressured me to be a proficient language user. It was a better way for letting child to construct their own words and sentences because children are going through stages of language acquisition so that they really understand what they are talking about.

  39. NAMA: PUTRI MARDIANI
    NIM: 1314050016

    1. Process of language acquisition in children is fast,but is not instantaneous.the children acquire their first words for a few months and begin to put words together into sentence.the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries keot by parents.it’s like a recordings,videotapes,and controlled exsperiments.children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentence.it’s because the words and sentence the child produces come form the phonology,morphology,and syntax.children will not respon what they are saying.but the children understand what are the people around their say.environment is one important things,where it can influence of language.language in children that happened in they are environment.like as,if they are mother using a minang language,they will be fast to respon it and they are will be saving it in their heads.in early,the children only heard what are the people around their say.then,the children will be look at what are the respon of language them.they are will try to say it with construct grammar.they are will not care about what are their say to people around them.like as,if children ask for the bootle of milk,they are will say”cu..”mah”.they are talk what they mind,althought it’s wrong,or grammar error,they are not care.they are will be saying it repeat,repeat and repeat.sometimes,everything that the children say,often making their parents doesn’t understand,but they are will be using their body(gestures) to say it.they are will always imitate and listen what the people do it.the children try to do it and respon of that in their mind.most children go through a stage in which their utterance consist of only one word.they are will be proccessing their grammar and say it repeat.

    2. I’m still remember,what are the word i can”t say. the word is”R”.i really can’t say that,i don’t know why.but when i say”R”it’s like i say a word of”L”hahahah.i try to say it so much.but my parents always laught to me when i say that.i think is not funny,but i’m only can’t utter it.which is i know,i say it and i dont’ care everything that,is true or wrong.i often spell of the word.i spell word,where i can’t say it or difficult to say it.i’m not shy,but i think everything that i say,is true.i’m sure that everybody around me will be understanding about what i say.if i wrong to say it,my parents will teach me and repeat to say that to me,until i can to say it again.at the last,when i child,i’m always look at and listening what are the people saying to me or to the another people.i’m always think,everything that people say,it’s like a new things in my mind.i thinking it so much until i know,wht are the meaning of that.i learn from everything i heard.i’m always want to know and i listen what are the respon from that.ex if someone say to me”don’t do it,and she say that to me like a angry person,i will understand,it that may not do it.i learn from many peole around me,i look at the gesture or respon,and i try to say it to do it.sometimes,i can’t imitate of that,but i can understand it in my mind.

  40. UMAR /1314050122
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition..?
    Many linguists said that a child has an ability to speak (innateness hypothesis), but it needs a long process. Family is the place for the children to catch the language, especially mother. It is because mother is the person who always takes care for him/her for 2 years. In developing the language acquisition, environment takes a role too. It means that a child do not just stay at home, he/she is playing with his or her environment where they live. As long as they play with their own environment , of course they will do the interaction. In interaction process they get many new vocabularies and they usually imitate what the people said around them and try to produce them. It is normal of the children, because they love imitating. But while they produce the word, they can not produce it well. For example, when his/her mother said “makan” , a child can not say it well, he /she just can say “mam”. It evidences that a child can not produce the word well, but it needs process.
    If we talking about the first word that goes out from their mouth, most of them said “ma”. It means that a mother is an important person in their life. progressively increases the age of a child therefore their developing of language will be progress too.. The early of age they just can say “ma” but when they has grown up they can say “mama” completely and they understand what the meaning of that word.
    When a child faces the environment where he/she lives, they will hear what they never hear before in their family. The environment that consists of a variety of humans will take a role play in developing of a child’s language. they do not care about what people utterances, they will just imitate it even right or wrong is not problem for them. For example a child who grows up in a educated family, but in his environment he /she hears a rude words that he /she never hears before he will imitate it automatically without think that is right or wrong. It proves that environment takes a role play in developing the language of a child.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today. Can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father , or siblings for this question.

    Based on the interview that I have done last night to my mother Ratnailis. I asked her about my childhood. My first language is mandailing language, and the second is Indonesian language. My mom told me that my progress on language was really good. It was evidenced when i was 1 year old, I just could say Umak (mama) with “mak”, but when I was 2 years old, i have already said umak in a better pronunciation. The first word that i said is “mak”. It means that I am calling my mom. When I was child, I always tried to speak what people are speaking around me. When I heard my father called my name by saying umar, I tried to imitate it by saying “mal” .
    My father tried to reinforce my pronunciation, but I could not say such as my father said. It means that the process in language acquisition is running. And then my mom told me that I always say “cucu” when I wanted the milk. Talking about making a sentence, i have already can say a sentence such as “au ciong dom mak, ( I wanna sleep, mom) . It means that I could use a good grammatical. My mother also uses motherese technique while she was speaking to me. My mom tends to speak more slowly and more clearly, I ask my mom why she speaks slow and clear to me, she tells me that I will cry if my mother speaks louder to me. And it is because my ears is still on progress and if someone speaks louder, you will cry then.
    It can be concluded that I had a progress on my language acquisition adjust with my age, when I was 1 years old is different with 2 years old. by growing my age up makes my developing of language. And actually a child has a innateness to get the language, but it should be practice everyday so the innateness of language that they had will increase. Because of that, now I have already understand about language itself.

  41. NAME :ELLA JULIANA
    BP :1314050275 (TBI.A)
    PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    The answer:
    1. Environment really regard ability a child in adjust its language. althought, the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents, And environmentally . so, childs lingual ability begin from child communication with her or his parent. From uttering that most ambivalent and imitates father and mother utterance it. Until gets to utter word. If her parent use minang language or indonesia language. So, the child will use minang language or indonesia language too. Example, the mother use minang language like “lalok” so, the child will say “lalok” until a child find new language by friend when a child get education. When a child often listen her friend use indonesia language so, the child will reflect to follow her friend. The child always follow listen anything. But, the first language child use ofcours her parent language. Because , a child will often will mother in house. Anything doing a child with mother. So, enviromental influence very near with what doing every activity. Like, if a child cry, eat, take a bathe, and else. All doing with her parents. But, usually if a child get school so, education environmentally will influence how to child speak or say something. If the first a child use minang language sometime, when a child get education so she will use indonesia language. Because her teacher or her friend use indonesia language in school. So, environment very influence to language ability.

    2. The first my language when a child using minang language. When i child, i just cry if i want something. i don’t say anything but i just cry because, i can’t speak with my mother. After that,when i can speak something like “amma” “abak”. it is minang language wich the meaning is parent like ‘ayah, ibu” in indonesia language. After that i can say “jiblat” jiblat is jilbab or hijab in indonesia language. but, because i can’t so i say “jiblat”. That always make my parent laught because of me. And i can’t say all alfabet like “R”. Example, if i say “baru” i just can say “balu” all about “R” i can not.
    And my parent always care and give knowledge about something to me. My parent teach me about word by word. Until i can to say anything. I say “mamam”, mmaa.. mamam. The meaning is want eat. I say “ mmaa.. nndii, the meaning is i want take a bathe. sometimes i like follow my mother if speak with father. So, i always using minang language if in my house. After that, when i get education the first in TK, I begin using indonesia language. Any different when i in my home and if i in school. If with my friend and teacher i using indonesia language altought just litle knowing indonesia language. Now i know, any many language in our enviroment.

  42. Name : Abdul Latif
    Bp : 1314050412
    TBI (B)
    Subject : Psycho linguistic ( midterm)

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.

    Answer :
    1. I just describe like this, I think the child can not adjust her or his language ability into the environment. instead, the environment which will be adjusted their language. Because of what? Because from copy of the book the title psycholinguistic exactly that we have accepted from you sir. That this book in page 347 says that language is not really something that the child does. But it is something that happens to the child placed in appropriate environment. And I think the child not aware that environment will influence their language. Because environmental has a good power to influence child’s language not only language but it will also influence their behavior. And then their language ability can be also described by the process like this, it just my opinion sir.
    Language is great tool which can be used to communicate or making interaction with another people. Some languages can be acquired from our mother tongue, even language can be acquired by your environment. And some languages can be learnd. For example learning English, korean, french and so on. And today we are talking how the language acquired and we are going to discuss it by language acquisition. Well, a children can acquire their first word from the speech sounds and they will enter it into their brain and process it. so that, what we have said it always make different sound. I think it happens because they are too young to produce the words, although they can speak it, but it does not clear to hear. Like we say book, perhaps they will say bu’ because they can’t pronounce the letter well except the vowel.
    And after that, they will process the language through children construct grammar and making interaction by language. So language acquisition can be showed by performance and competence. And I am strongly disagree with this statement “ the children are insisted to get the champion in elementary school their parents” because childhood is their heaven and their time to play each other and then childhood is their first time to build character in order do not lazy at adolescence. So let them play and doing whatever they want as long as it still good thing and do not insist them because teaching child through hard way is not good idea, just teach them by gentle technique. And the last If you want to teach a child just show it do not tell. The point in this answer is teaching children is not only by telling them but also teach them by showing them by doing something. Caused their understanding will be easier to teach by doing something than just telling, specially to acquire language.
    An example of first question is the child who lives around pious people and polite, that child must be also pious and speak politely and it will be different if we compare with child who lives around bad environment or it has much bad people surrendering them I am sure that child must be bad too, especially his or her language acquisition. or it called his or her not taught to speak produce language well. So that, that is why I say environment has big influence for children’s language ability.

    2. I think this question is very interesting for me. Well, based on my lovely mother’s explanation about my first words is not running from the context of child or characteristic of child that who wants eat, eat and eat. Yeah that is one of the characteristics of children. Therefore, my mother says that my first words are mamam and eek. Hehe it sounds strange right? Ok I will explain one by one. And the first is mamam. My mother says that mamam has meaning to get food or eating. In my language ( mandailing language) mangan has meaning eating that is why I say mamam if I fell hungry. Because when I was child to pronounce “ng” was very difficult and pronouncing mamam was easier than mangan. Not all, in my village every mothers who has a baby or child, when they want to give some food to their child, they usually use word mamam. And so does my mother. My mother gave me that word and the people who around me at the time said the same word if they want give me some food.
    And the second is eek, eek means indicates something that very dirty. So, when I hold something that make me dirty or something has bad smell my mother always say eek. So, my mother wants me to avoid eek. And my mother always say like this “ latif do not eat it , it is eek son ok?, ih it is very bad smell son, throw it, throw it.
    For example : my mom always say latif it’s time to mamam, oh my son .. please throw it is dirty and bad smell.. throw it son.
    I think that’s all about my short story about my first words and this question based on my mother’s explanation.

  43. Name : RADIAN MAULIDA
    Bp : 1314050236
    MID TEST PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
    TBI A

    Question :
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into environment if we view it through the ideas on stage of language acquisition

    Answer :
    Language constitutes child applicable media to get culture points, moral, religion, and other points in society. In passes off effort to get language, child led by principle or philosophy ‘ becomes others meagrely difference ’, or even ‘ gets or get a social id and in it, and develops Your person id alone .
    On early age, learned beginning child develop language and social ability it. That gold age coming for once and can’t recurring again on next phase. Therefore, childhood constitutes term that momentously to increase all its intelligence potency. Child on this age has to get input medley that stimulates it, its main is developmental configurational and potency self good psikis and physical that cover moral and religion points, emotional social, kognitif, language, physical / motorik, independence and art corresponds to child . Developing phase. child applies its language into its environment which is by plays by one age it,and child trick develop its language which is in accordance with what do at thinks up it as when she wants to ask for something,and plays by his friend . development pralinguistik marked by marks sense go interchange among oldster in particular mother) with child. On pralinguistik’s formative term child develops her concept. It tries to differentiate her with subjek, her is with other people and subjective with object and action on phase one child word pierces through and through to get effort gathers object and person name that it meets. Word is first to be gotten its this phase is its prevalent is say one to declare for conduct, say socialization, say one declares for place, and word that declares for application. parents shall also keep company child language developing its and how to she applies it into his development .and applies language in environmental it is not easily since child shall also bethink what does have at says it to its friend.developing language to child he can play with his friend. Base ability development child, including gets language, can be done by strategy plays. There is some types game which can back up most composes it excitement on child in gets language for example display tool as pictured as available on book or poster, listening song or song, watching film or listens cassette voice, reading story (story reading / story telling) or tale even.
    2. When you have grown up as your are today,can you please briefly inform what you remember about your first word? You can get the information from your mother, father or siblings for the question.
    Answer : when I was Still old 0 3 years,I issue cry that as refleks.stelah is surrounding aged 3 weeks if I starve therefore I issue cries that brbeda juga.dan while I at age 3 weeks until two months I can say ba ba ma ma.dan at age 10 months I can say num cu cu. When I hear someone said Indonesian language. He said ” apa ini ?, ini apa? “. so it seemed. Then I continued eating and suddenly I instinctively said, pointing something from my distant objects. The first words I said in Indonesian is “ini apa itu ,?”.
    Hearing words like that, my father and mother laughed. They are not to blame nor to correct what I said. They just laughed and told me to continue eating.
    When entering school age, I have taught Indonesian language at home and at school. In a mature age they absorb everything, I can easily and smoothly understand Indonesian.
    I can learn that when a child is learning to say what he likes, do not be refuted or blame.
    Because there are times when the child is ready to be taught and told. As evidence that this time I have fluent Indonesian as usual. Since I have been through the stages of introduction and also the stages of learning in my life in a familiarlanguage. Finally, I can take some conclusion about the first word when I was child I think this is important thing and we have should know about that. And it is amazing for me how children to discover words. Sometimes after the age of one, children begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing to mean the same thing.

  44. NAMA : Weni Maryani
    NIM : 1314050166
    MIDTERM TEST : Psycholinguistic

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his or her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stage of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    A child adjust her or his language into environment with imitate, listening sounds and spelling word that have her heard. It can building language ability and to develop her language as well. A child building language ability with imitate, it means a child imitate what the people says, it can make a child want to try it, because a child always want to know. A child has high knowing about something. I think a child when they listen new things, they always to think that and find out what is the meaning of the word that.
    Not only that, a child adjust language ability into environment with spelling words. Because they stil a child, not really can to speak clearly. Then a child building her language with listen sounds. When he or she in outdoor he will listen many word from another people. We know if a child always said honestly, when they listen sound they will to repeat it. So don’t ever speak bad thing to them. It can make a child received and save in their mind. We as a society in their environment, don’t try to damage their brain because they are next generation. We as an adult give good knowledge and don’t forget to teach them.
    On the other hand A child adjust his or her language ability into the environment with way to try speaking with her friend surely. In the environment they just know about their friend, because they like to playing with their friend, and laughing together. It is true if the first word of a child come from their parents, star from a child still baby. But we have know that if a child have more time with their environment especially their friend. When a child playing with friend he will get new words and adding his language. So an environment is the best way to make a child improve her language ang get many things from another people, and make them enjoy to received new words in their mind.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefy inform what can you remember about you first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question?
    Answer :
    After I have asked my mother, when I grown up the first words that I have said is “aaaaaaaaaaa” until I take a breath and then repeat again. My mother when I was born always teaches me how to said “bu” it means ibu. Everything I always said ‘’bu’’, because i want to say something but I did not know how to said it, so I always said ‘bu’. And then my mother always try to many times to invite me to interact with my mom, using the simple word for example, mama, papa. When I 2 years old, I have said susu, but not clear, for example when I want milk or ‘’susu” I said “tutu”. When I was crying I always said “tutu” that is a mark if I am hungry. I did not take by another people I just want with my mother and my father. Because I just know and meet with my parents. And when I was 4 until 5 years old I have can talking more, and I have can play with my friend.
    My mother have important rule for me because she always teaches me when I was baby until I have adult. My mother have the best way to make me understand about language. For example my mother have listened sound or voice to me. Because the baby has learned the language in uterus since they can hear the voice or sound, because many people said that when my mother is pregnant, my mother need to say the good things to make me say the good things when I was born. By this way they can understand when the mother is sad, afraid or worry about something when my mother are in uterus although my mother and I has something that make them can feeling what happened to each other. So the language that they learn first is feeling. Many people saying that the baby very suspended with the mother. It’s true, because everybody through their day with the baby. The baby can stop crying if the mother beside them or the mother hold them and we can call that as language. Because it’s like an interaction heart to heart from the mother to the infant and just both of them understand that. By using tape recordings or videotapes it can sniggle the baby’s brain to learn language.

  45. MISBAKHUL MUNIR
    1314050343
    TBI-A
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    A child will adjust its language with their environment through special language first language, a child learns to become a member of society. The first language became one of the means to express their feelings, desires, and the establishment in the form-shape which is unacceptable lingkunganya. If the child uses speech – speech that is true or grammatical form, does not mean that he has mastered the language first. A child will be able to imitate the language or speech what they hear, especially on their parents or siblings. Expression laugh they can already do naturally when anyone asked her laugh from the age of 2.5 months. At the age of 14 months a baby is able to say “mam”, which means he wants to eat. The process of catching language proficiency level or said he got when his parents picked him and told to open his mouth and say “a’a’a aemmm” awful right .. 2 years of age a child is able to imitate and apply the language properly even if one, for example on when I was a small time “tuku el” in Javanese language, which means “buy ice”. It was appropriate to the circumstances or phenomena that exist, such as ice traders were passing. And will be attached for approximately 3.5 years. Then the child is able to answer questions such as “what youre eat” then the child will respond according to what the mothers often say when cooking or eating to their children being “condiment anchovies” would spontaneously answer he had said without thinking first. From this statement that the language skills of children when still a toddler more frequent higher on what he heard and parents teach, it will make the child can adjust or control the language to their environment.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer:
    When I child, about 1 year old and my mother always took me to go into the fields, but not for work. Because the location of the fields not far from my house then because my mother took me to go to the paddy. And I put down in shacks or houses home to keep the rice from pests birds. I’m in biarkanya sleep in the hut, and then my mother worked to plant rice paddy fields. When I was crying my mother instantly came to see my name when it is ‘Khoirul Anam’ because at that time I often cry then my name is replaced with ‘misbakhul Munir’, probably because of the myth of Javanese people that I do not know. As a child I was often mocked sister – my sister. My mother said a word – first word that comes up is ‘kal’ the mean are ‘naughty’ because I am often in tease my brother. I do not know why, maybe because I’m funny. Since childhood I have always taught in the Java language and Indonesian. Because my family transmigration of Central Java that is not lost traditions and Javanese language. I often teach the Java language. for example when people ask me “wes mangan urong nir ???” then my mother taught me to say “Sampon mbah” “. Among the four brothers who are good at Java language smooth just me and my first brother. My third child but was born in western Sumatra and was raised in the neighborhood between Java and Minang. I often use the Java language even though the Minang people. For Minang people are already proficient in Java. We live in harmony for neighbors not untu language. Although sometimes also never imitate Minang language such as “apo” it spontaneously imitated. Age is very difficult to pronounce the letter ‘s’ is the third year my brother said. And the speech was like ‘tuku el’ by which he meant buy ‘s’.

  46. MIDTERM
    AYUTI ELVIRA
    1314050142

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:

    The first all children listen, they listen the word from the people around them. For example their parents said “ibu, bu” or mom the children can listen it. For the first they just listen and they imitate. Whereas they did not understand the language that people use around them but they imitate it, keep pace with their old, they start to adjust the language.

    In this stage they start understand with the language that they used. Every child has two brain, right. They have two brain, those are left brain and right brain. Usually left brain comprise of analysis, write, speak, logic, and right brain comprise of music, creactive, emotion and so on. All children have the both section. So every word that they listen around them will put and adhere in their brain. For example : this a child learn the language, she speak little by little with not clear words, they speak continue, again and again, and finally she can. All of those are process by her brain.

    When the child old 2 years six months. He or she can speak depends on her or his heart. Child construct grammar, the child say “tak ma?” the right one is “dimana letaknya? / where is it ?, in this occasion start to interaction, so must there must input and output, do not allow the bad words are listened by her, because she can imitate and use it in interaction. In this stage the child can speak with her or his environment. When the child was 3, 4, and 5 years the child really well and adjust her/his language.

    And finally the child successget language acquisition. Why l say like that ? because the children learn speak through imitate. Children learn language from their family, especially with their mother and father. They the language again and again, they always interaction with their environment. The key of language is interaction. So that the children can use the language with well. They continue correct their grammers and then they success in language acquisition.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answere:
    I asked my family, especially my mother and my father. What is the first words that have been said by me 20 years ago. My mother answered you said “ma” may be it means mama. Whereas my father said, the first words l said last 20 years was “yah” may be it means ayah or father. But l don’t know which one the true. May be there is one of the both statements is true. We know last 20 years, it is not short time remind it anymore. I can speak since l’m 2 years old, meanwhile I was born in 1994. They said the first langauge are said by me when I’m 2 years old is “mak” mother “yah” father, “abak” it means grandpa.
    When my old 4 years l can speak and use thinking like an adult think.for example: 18 years ago, my mother talked, my mother asked me, which one do you love? Your mother or your father? I answered I love the both, why? My mother asked, why do you choose the both? Choose one, please!. I answered anymore I love the both, I love mother and father. I can not choose one of them, because if I say I love my mother, l afraid the father will be sad, if I say I love father, may be my mother feel ssad. And then my father, mother, my family laughed.
    Untill right now, they still retell me about my tender age. So the point is the first words that l can say is the subject or the terms for my family and l can say some name of foods, it is when I’m 2 years. For example : l said “yah,ama,ngku,akan,num”, it is mean father or dady, mother, grandfather, eat, drink. We can conclude that the first word that said by child is the terms of her family, may be child’s heart lean with her family since he or she still young child.

  47. NAME/NIM/CLASS/ : FATIMAH /1314050246/TBI-A

    1. When is child nascenting to just universalize can cry in consequence thing which its first time child available its speech sound. Language learning so krusial happens on age before six years. Therefore early age child education constitute thing most importantly deep develop child language, so can develop skill gets language on child. Child gets language of environmentally family and environmentally neighbour. With vocabulary that they has vocabulary growth will grow quickly their afters starts speaking. Environmentally child around for example coeval friend, playfellow, and at its school environment childs lingual ability be gotten and studied by child by nature to conform with its environment so child will can get socialization and gets interaction to others. And language for child is that of tool to develop intellectual ability and child basic ability. And to get is first language also so hand in glove relationship it kognitif’s developing, if child gets to result basics utterances on grammatic good one. And child processes its language efficiency. its example gets beginning of hear and observe language sound looked around by it without erranded.then so long too long what does be heard and be observed effloresce. And its first language is lingual of its mother. The firsts language special language, a child studies to become society member. Its example is soulful or wish that be accepted of society. And if child utilizes ujaran grammatical was meaning that it has gained control first language. And pralinguistik’s developing child develops her concept. Child tries to differentiate her with subjek and gathers object names. Child can develop its language ability via something that be seen. And can also interlace social that relationship healthy. And child conforms with nature environment. And the child can learn language from cultural. And child can learn language when their with us friends. And then the child can developing her language with good.

    2. I come into the world 11th February 1994. While is age the time of day 5.00 am with body weight 3,9 kg. My little time its child fret likes to cry evenless at midnight. while is age 5 months was clever laid face down alone. Age 5 months that merangka sendri can friskily. Age 8 months was clever sitting alone. My mother is astonished and perceiving pleasantly once. While are i am old 1 year I can converse. Say first that voiced is while want food asking with mamam’s word. While are I also potion asking with my mother with num num’s utterance. While is age 2 year have can own walk. I like to run friend mess front me. Then while age 3 years was beginning smooth speaking. And my word utters have rather pronounciation’s lovely beginning. i am its hobby joget and warbling, while is heard da muski’s voice. and food that I likes is brown and bread. While is age 4 years can use alone cloths still to be helped by mothers for memperbaikiya. And while I play most bad blood discomfited. and while age 5 years can wash alone saucers go to water. My mother lets it just because mother me not very indulge me, my mother wants I independent. I also can own stay behind my mother go to field rice, and my mother happy to look my developing.

  48. NAME : FITRI NENGSIH
    NIM : 1314050367
    1. how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition
    Language acquisition is a creative process. Children are not given explicit infomation about the rules, by either instruction or correction. They must somehow extract the rules of the language acquisition and grammar from the language they hear around them, and their linguistic environment does not need to be special in any way for them to do this. Children can get language acquisition form children learn through imitation from their environment like their parents expecially her mother, when mother often said “Mama” they are will do imitation and say “Maa”, imitation is involved to some extent, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating mother speech. Children do not hear words like Mama they are say ..Maa.
    Then, children can learn through reinforcement. Children learn to produce grammatical sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong. For example mother said ” baby I like you” the child will say “ I don’t like you”.
    The next, children learn language through analogy, it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrase and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences, example so suppose the child has heard the sentence “I painted a red barn”by analogy they child can say “ I painted a barn red”. So, how a child adjust their language ability into the environment depend on how their environment do interaction.
    Children get language acquisition based on the surrounding environment. Let’s say the kids often play outdoors with their peers, surely he would be able to speak quickly and smoothly, but when children are always confined to the house and did not interaction with their friends surely they will lack the words , because maybe they are just listening to what people are talking about her, without follow developments outside. Because I described above children will easily to get language acquisition by imitating someone else, repeating the words of others, and speaking with the same sound.
    2. I can briefly inform what can I remember about my first words
    My name is Fitri Nengsih, I was born 24 August 1994, I don’t remember when i get my first word, but last time I got briefly my first word from my parents, they said I get my first word when I 1,5 year olds. For the first time, my first word is “Mama”. I can say mama because my mother always say mama. After that I can say some words like if I hungry I say “Mam” it mean “makan”, and when I want sleeping I say “bobok” it mean “ingin tidur”.
    At the age of two years I have started well, although not too smooth like an adult talking, because at that time I had started to interact with friends around where I live, the language I use is the Minang language support. we played every day by saying various words let alone when we play with dolls and doll I wanted to borrow my friend I say in Minang language “pinjam boneka nyo lah”. And my friend said “Maleh ma” and finally I was crying because my friend did not want to lend, and then I told my mother, “ma mintak boneka”.
    When I was 3 years old I had a friend of the field name is Dina he use Indonesian as their everyday language, at that time Dina invited me to play by saying “Kita main boneka yuk” I could not understand what he was saying because I was not used and rarely hear people speak Indonesian, because in the neighborhood where I live, in general, we do interaction using Minang language, so difficult to understand what he said, and I could not speak with him.

    At the age of 7 years old I entered elementary school, I already have a lot of friends and have a lot of teachers. We learned in the classroom by using Minang language, but our teachers are often also use Indonesian language, from where I started to understand Indonesian language, although it cannot to say yet. After school I went home to play my friends, we often play dolls, jumping rope, and playing hide and seek, and always use Minang language in everyday life.

  49. MID TERM TEST

    OF

    PSYCHOLINGUISTIC

    By
    VINI ANGGRAINI
    1314050365

    Lecturer
    Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S. S., MA

    ENGLISH TADRIS DEPARTMENT (TBI.A)
    FACULTY OF TARBIYAH
    INSTITUTE OF ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN)
    IMAM BONJOL PADANG
    1437 H/ 2016 M

     Answer the following questions:
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjusts his/ her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    If we view about the child language ability into the environment through the stages of language acquisition, so we can find the process of language acquisition. In the linguistic stage, the child begins to acquire the first words, and then he/ she begins to make a sentence from the words that he/she gets. The children language acquisition is a creative process that they get or hear around them. They can get many words from their environment, and then they will do the process acquisition to create the first word, so we can view the children language ability into environment automatically because they do not need the special of process to create it. The stage of language acquisition will begin to view in the three to four years old, because in this time the child begins to speak her/ his first word. The child will do the perception and production of speech sound before to create the first words. The child can do it through the mechanisms of language acquisition, like the child imitate that his/ her mothers said. For example her/ his mother said “mama” and then the child says “maa”, although her/his spelling or grammar is wrong. After imitation the child also learn through reinforcement, it means her/ his mother should be helped her child to speak the true word. And then learn through analogy, by doing it the child is far easier to know the words. And last is learning the structured input, that mother give the simple grammar to make the child uses the grammar when he/she speak up. The mechanisms of language acquisition are the steps of perceptions child to make a production that is the first words. After the child have been finished to do mechanisms of language acquisition, so the child will begins to product the first words. The child the age of one begins to use what he/ she hear through repeated or imitated. At this stage child realize that sounds are related to meanings. They have produced their first true words. When the child speaks the first words who do not uses the true grammatical of the sentences. The child just speaks a word not the sentence, after that he/ she can speak a phrase although she/ he can speak a sentence that is not by using the true grammatical because they have grammatical by their selves.
    So, the children language acquisition into environment depends on the situations or culture. It means if the child has been in the environment that has hard of culture, so the child will product the language acquisition like that.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words?
    Answer:
    I want to inform about my history that I get from my mother. My mother tells me about my first words or my first language. When I am one year old, I speak faster than I walk. My first word is “maa” that is come from “mama”, while my first language is minang. When I am two years old, I speak something unsuitable with it form, like “makan” to be “ma’am”. Not only unsuitable with it form but also unsuitable with it sound, like when I am requested to say “R” that can be “L”. It is still I done until my five years old. I can not say sentence suitable with the rule of grammatical. I always make a wrong structure in my sentence. While about the language acquisition into environment that I get minang language can be faster because my environment is minang. My environment can be said the good environment because it is in the central of village. So, my minang language is not ancient or hard like the true minang language. When I am four years old, I can speak fluently by using minang language. After I am five years old, I enter to kindergarten or play group. I get my second language in the kindergarten or play group because the teacher speaks Indonesia language. When I hear, my teacher who speaks Indonesia language suddenly I cry because that the first time for me hear it. I feel my language and my teacher’s language is different, so I confuse because sound and structure that is unfamiliar for me. But after always hear it in my school and in TV, so I can know and understand it. My mother also enters me to mosque to learn about religion, there I learn hijaiiyah letter. I can say “a” and “ba” after I learn it three days. I can say peace although only “salamkum”. So, when I am six years old, I can speak minang and Indonesia language fluently. Not only fluent but also I can speak by using true structure and true sound. And I can speak Arabic just peace, pray, and hijaiyah letter.

  50. NAME : VINI ANGGRAINI
    REG. NO : 1314050365
    CLASS : TBI A
    SUBJECT : MID TERM TEST

     Answer the following questions:
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjusts his/ her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    If we view about the child language ability into the environment through the stages of language acquisition, so we can find the process of language acquisition. In the linguistic stage, the child begins to acquire the first words, and then he/ she begins to make a sentence from the words that he/she gets. The children language acquisition is a creative process that they get or hear around them. They can get many words from their environment, and then they will do the process acquisition to create the first word, so we can view the children language ability into environment automatically because they do not need the special of process to create it. The stage of language acquisition will begin to view in the three to four years old, because in this time the child begins to speak her/ his first word. The child will do the perception and production of speech sound before to create the first words. The child can do it through the mechanisms of language acquisition, like the child imitate that his/ her mothers said. For example her/ his mother said “mama” and then the child says “maa”, although her/his spelling or grammar is wrong. After imitation the child also learn through reinforcement, it means her/ his mother should be helped her child to speak the true word. And then learn through analogy, by doing it the child is far easier to know the words. And last is learning the structured input, that mother give the simple grammar to make the child uses the grammar when he/she speak up. The mechanisms of language acquisition are the steps of perceptions child to make a production that is the first words. After the child have been finished to do mechanisms of language acquisition, so the child will begins to product the first words. The child the age of one begins to use what he/ she hear through repeated or imitated. At this stage child realize that sounds are related to meanings. They have produced their first true words. When the child speaks the first words who do not uses the true grammatical of the sentences. The child just speaks a word not the sentence, after that he/ she can speak a phrase although she/ he can speak a sentence that is not by using the true grammatical because they have grammatical by their selves.
    So, the children language acquisition into environment depends on the situations or culture. It means if the child has been in the environment that has hard of culture, so the child will product the language acquisition like that.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words?
    Answer:
    I want to inform about my history that I get from my mother. My mother tells me about my first words or my first language. When I am one year old, I speak faster than I walk. My first word is “maa” that is come from “mama”, while my first language is minang. When I am two years old, I speak something unsuitable with it form, like “makan” to be “ma’am”. Not only unsuitable with it form but also unsuitable with it sound, like when I am requested to say “R” that can be “L”. It is still I done until my five years old. I can not say sentence suitable with the rule of grammatical. I always make a wrong structure in my sentence. While about the language acquisition into environment that I get minang language can be faster because my environment is minang. My environment can be said the good environment because it is in the central of village. So, my minang language is not ancient or hard like the true minang language. When I am four years old, I can speak fluently by using minang language. After I am five years old, I enter to kindergarten or play group. I get my second language in the kindergarten or play group because the teacher speaks Indonesia language. When I hear, my teacher who speaks Indonesia language suddenly I cry because that the first time for me hear it. I feel my language and my teacher’s language is different, so I confuse because sound and structure that is unfamiliar for me. But after always hear it in my school and in TV, so I can know and understand it. My mother also enters me to mosque to learn about religion, there I learn hijaiiyah letter. I can say “a” and “ba” after I learn it three days. I can say peace although only “salamkum”. So, when I am six years old, I can speak minang and Indonesia language fluently. Not only fluent but also I can speak by using true structure and true sound. And I can speak Arabic just peace, pray, and hijaiyah letter.

  51. Name : Yosi Ginestia
    Bp : 1314050263
    Class : TBI-A
    MID TERM EXAMINATION

    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.

    Answer
    1. Base on the fact, a child two years old, she or he just listen what the people say around them. But sometime they can speak after the people speak to them. The child in this age can speak “ma ma ma pa pa pa” if they want something. For example the child two years old, if they want to eat or drink, they just speak “ ma ma ma” and sometime “ma ma mam”. And the other child can speak clearly for one by one word. The child that can speak clearly, it is a child that have strong imitate ability. The child like this have strong imitate from their brain. To the mother that have a child in this age, don’t speak the dirty word in front of them, because they can imitate what we say. And sometime the dirty word, it can be remember for them in the future. This season is a gold season to child imitate and grown their language ability. But a child more than less two years old, they can speak like his or her mother speak. For example, “ makan, minum” and so on that have they hear from her or his mother and the people around them. The child in this age not only imitate some word or information from another people, but also do action what has she or he see around them. And they can do like this to her friend or her mother. So to her or his mother, don’t see to then about action like that. The mother must control the child, control about they see when they watching television. Because a television channel can influence they language ability. If they see about bad something, it can be make them remember until they adult and young people. For this condition they parent must keep their child. Because this condition is gold condition for the child to imitate all around them.
    2. When I was young, I can remember some information or word from my mother, my father, and my sisters. But my mother more give information than my father, my father scarce in our house because his work as fisherman. And my sister do like my mother also. I just have four sister and no brother. So I get some information from my sister when I was young. My mother spoke about something, for example my mother say” makan”, and I spoke “ ma ma mm”. And sometime my mother spoke another word that new to me, like animal, things, and so on. And sometime my mother bring me to another place like my grandmother house. So my mother spoke to me “ nenek”. For the first time, I was shy speak that word, because the word new to me. But my mother and I always went to my grandmother house, so I can speak “ nenek and kakek”. One day my young sister that class 5 elementary school, she given task by her religion teacher to read al-Qur’an. She always read this al-Qur’an every day in front of me. So in short, I can read the al-Qur’an also without see the aal-Qur’an, because I always hear my sister read in front of me. To the condition, if my mother bring me to our neighbor, they asked me to read the al-Qur’an. And if my father bring me another place, my father friend asked me like this also. They always asked me to read al-Qur’an if I meet them. But I never push they request to me. I always read when they asked me to read. And until today I never forget the ayat in al-Qur’an.

  52. Name : Leni Yusnita
    Reg. num : 1314020098
    Class : TBI-A

    1. As we know that, the children can connected to on language it is caused by what they hearing and when the people do speak up in their close. from This statements the child will be try and how they can to express it soon. This is as resource first language to them for can begin expressing language. On This thing, the children will do imitation to express what they know, they can do action to feel and they need, although the word that they said not clear but their action is a suppor ttheir statement and their mother replay it as good language. Which the mother will proude to her/him of this first words that waited before, example : they call BUK like this BU as the first words. In this case will happen children language process exactly communicated between mother and their child. Where the parents always invite the child by joke to make their children laugh and follow their said. By this interaction, every word acceptable by the children and try to express the words and easy know about the language too.
    Language is also a media that use the children to get a filter in society to achieve them own real identity. Since young baby that do interaction on the society environment, an mother often give a chance to the children to follow society communication with her. Why like this, a child very need more information to improve their language. Its why, input very important here not only output from house, If we always do it, brain of the child will be crease and get smart, because interaction among them is aktif and get feed-back. Interaction with environment area can be definite as additional language to children as a add their knowledge. Even the children will be know the first words can be tool to expres feeling, curiousity on the there form. If the children get grammatical in language its cant enter to categories their have full understanding about the first language. Because they don’t understand what are the effeck if happen something. A mind system that find to children build little a little of input, as long as they their brain will perfec. After that, With Their system perfec language, the grammatical will follow it. After the children construct grammar do by interaction, the children will show it by their performance and competence throught their academis like school and ability to do interaction with their friends, they can speak up with the people to explore their ability. They can to proud their parents, From this too language acquisition normally active, and can we value cause their abiliy to language acquisition

    2. When I was child, a unique seem of my style, what I done, how I tolk it, where like my parent, my sister always have funny news to tell to me. I got this information last night when I called my parents. While they have laugh hard when I ask about my the first words, why like that because, these all will be remember us to last history. when I was young girls if I need or wanted something the name of them always different of exactly. This time can said as nice happy, cause we are there in our parent side. My mother said there are many funny expression I expressed when I want something.To can be real I do something that my parents given it to me. On this thing, the people in my area hard laugh to hear it. I began my firs words in age 9-10 years with vocal /a/, this word always arrive as a clue if I need something. Here my mother have confuse what I want something, my language not clear only /a/ souds. Its real to happened in other side I got cray if I need that nothing. About age 12-18 years 1 can speak up not more perfec and ability ask about something. My language here is rational to understang. After in age 1-2 years 1 can call my parent, I tolk to them and often happen communication among us. From here also I show my imitation what my parent do and said. In this type is where language process have development of stabil , about something has my parent said I save in my memories. Yeah, although what I said is not more clear my mother claim as a miracle and a perfec language and proud of me. We often don communicated with my grandmother, my sister and the people that visited my house. These below are my first language exactly That often I associated with them such as “mak mak” “Yah Yah” (use mandailing language ) that I used to called my mother and my father,” bang “ called my brother. Other hand, if I want something like baby doll I call it “eka” “ eka”, drink “num” “num” bread “oti”. These all are my unique language seem clear my mother said to me last night. In this season also, I got a power naughty, I always bite the child my neighboard until cry. I always feel afraid if I meet my new friends mother, such as if them want to hold me suddenly I cry, its all that I never saw before. You know too my mother everyting for me. In Other hand, I scared if my parent leave me a second. If my mother went to market to bought something or went to my neighboard I always im her side. My parent said too when them talking with other people I always repeat again and again.

  53. Name : Sri Milfa Yetti, 1314050261 TBI-A
    1. A child require language naturally. A child get language through many mechanism from environment. So, from the environment they will grow up, if they have bad environment so they will get bad language also because the people around of child will not give filter about the language that they hear so they receive all the language and they will construct it after they adult.
    Actually, a child born in the word did not know what is the language, the parents and people around child will recognize language it based on all utterance that said by people.
    For instance, the child grow through mechanism that impossible avoided like:
    The first, Children learn through imitation. The child will receive all utterance, the parents help them to encourage their language for example the parents say something and the child will imitation what the parents said “ he’s going out” and the children will imitation that utterance “he go out” , the children have able to say the word but they can not use grammar rightly.
    The second, the learn through reinforcement. A child will construct all utterance but they have not used good grammar yet. so the parents will do reinforcement when the child have bad grammar, the parents will correct it with reinforcement same sentence, like the child said “nobody don’t like me” and the parents will give reinforcement ” nobody likes me”. Actually the children can not say what the parents say so they will receive it and they will construct again.
    The third, The child learn through analogy. The child get the language through hear. Next the child will adversity quotient by self through environment and they will construct it with say words that not perfect. after that they start to interaction from their receive of language and do performance.
    The four, The child learn through structured input. The child have known the kinds of words and sentence but they use it with wrong grammar so the act of parents is important to encourage their language by using good grammar, for example the child say utterance but their utterance have bad grammar so the parents will instruct them with input the structure. For example “mam, chicken” so the parents will give input structure by saying “ I want chicken” so they will reinforcement again.
    Environment is the place to grow up language. Especially our mother and family, they always encourage us to require our language, through of the that mechanism the child will be easy to get it.

    2. When I was child, I have mechanism in requiring my language. My mother have told to me I just heard all utterance that my mother said to me. Next I will show how grow up toward language that received and I out again. So there were steps when I got my language.
    The first When I have one year age, i just give expression to asked what i want I use gesture to show all I wanted. for instance if I felt hungry so i will cry to get it. Actually at that year I did know what my mother say to me. I just showed toward them by gesture. Almost near one year, I have said word by word but it was not clearly.
    Next, when I have 1-2 years age. I started to say what I want, for instance “ ma, pa, mamam, nunum, cucu”. My mother have known what I mean so they will take what I want, my mother often said something that I did not know what her said.
    After that, when I have 2-3 years age. I have spoken, at that age I was so active, I always said what I saw and I directed asking to my mother what I saw. Actually I have fluent in speaking but I have been still many mistake in grammar, so my mother will correct it and give the true grammar.
    When I have 3 years ages. I started to say sentence but did not know what is true grammar, I stared to instruction with people. the parents give filter it with religion and appropriate culture.
    The next years, I have done interaction with people and my friends. My mother always kept every word that I said, for example my mother is very angry if I spoke ‘’dog and another bad word’’ to anybody. So I always remember what word that can I say and what word I can not say. The next year ages, I have fluent in speaking to another people by considering religion and culture. I can do performance and brave to out my competence in my life.

  54. Name : yuni putri hamida
    Reg. no : 1314050374
    Mid term : psycholinguistic

    1. The process of language acquisition was first experienced by a child from the environment, especially from her mother. Words used to say at the time of his usual child says “mama,” “papa”, “drink”, “eat. language acquisition in children is a natural process in a person the child to master the language. Language acquisition usually obtained from verbal contact with native speakers of the environment. Thus, the term refers to the acquisition of language proficiency unconsciously. The development of children’s language acquisition can be divided into three main parts, namely: family environment, school environment and social environment.

    Language acquisition in children in their environment can be done in various ways: first in the acquisition of language by observing or imitating what others are saying. Normally this way can be found for the first time within their families, for example, when her mother taught her to say “mama” or say “papa,” the child will start imitating them. And also when members her family say “thanks” if you give something to others and if you ask something to others say ” please” then the child will imitate what is taught by the range to it. Then over time the child will become accustomed though he was only imitating and do not understand its meaning.
    The second way to do that is by taking children to interact with others, how is common among school or social environment. Interacting with others will train knowledge, values and attitudes of children. Children have limited cognitive development at certain ages, but through social interaction will increase its ability to think. His influence in language learning is the child will be able to learn if given the optimal activity while children should be encouraged to communicate frequently. The presence of older children or adults age that accompany learning and invite conversation will help your child to use language skills or jump-start a higher potential intelligence already owned subsidiary of languages.
    Invite children to interact with others can be done in linkgkungan social or school environment. Games that can support the creation of stimuli in children with language such as props in the form of images that are on the books or posters, listen to songs or singing, watching movies or listening to tapes, reading stories (story reading / storytelling) or storytelling. Any activity that can stimulate a child’s ability in speaking such as:
    1) The game “Pick One Thing” performed by dividing the children into groups. Each group gets 10 kinds of objects. Children were then asked to choose 5 of the 10 objects. Children can think of where things are more important. After a while, the children were asked to choose 3 of their last 5, finally asked to select one object only. Then each group was asked to speak to why they chose these objects. The aim of the game is to train speaking skills.
    2) The game “Guess the Animal Sound”: done by writing / drawing to each child and can not be opened before instructed tutor. Then each child should have a voice like an animal that is in the paper obtained (the child can not speak, just speak up only) and looking for a pair of the same voice. “Who does not find a partner? Guess the name of the beast! “. The goal is to read simple words on behalf of animals and recognize sounds.
    3) Games “Moving family”: performed by positioning the children sit in a circle and give them a piece of paper with his father, mother, brother, sister. Then we mention the title, such as “father”, the boy’s father could take up writing. When educators say “mother”, the child’s mother brought the writing stand, and when the educator mentions “family”, then all the good that has the words “father”, “mother”, “boy” stood nearby. The goal is to introduce the paper to read, listen to the sound.

    2. when I get mid test, I telephoned my mother in the village and asked the first sentence that I used to say when I was child. My mother told me once when I was a child who is very fussy and like to cry so my mother confused understand sign language of tears me if indeed I want something like drinking milk, diapers I wet or indeed, because I really like crying. By the time the child is still a baby has begun to interact with the environment like her mother. Language she used when the baby is still crying, and also difficult to understand. Language crying is the language used by the infant in the express will. Next time run continuously enters I get 7 months of age, at this age I also can not say anything but I’ve got to know those around me of people with such a mother, father ,and aunt and uncle. At the age of 7 months, when people want to hold me, I would cry because I felt I did not recognize the person. At my age 7-14 months I have been using sign language is like when I want something I will appoint my hand towards that direction. And also when I want to sleep I will appoint collar of my bed. In this age when I started using your movement to interact with my environment.

    Then my mother told me that word out of my mouth is the first time the word “mama” at that time I 15 month old, my mother very happy, he said, though not so clearly sound like stammering. When mothers know I can say the word “mama” my mother told my father and he was happy to hear my development. They began to teach the word “papa”. A few days later I was able to say the word “papa” although with a stammering tone also. The first two words that I say at the age of 20 months. Day increased the vocabulary I would multiply like when I want a drink, I said the word “num-num” and also when you want to eat I speak “mam-mam”. And when I want to buy something or want something I will point toward and said (tu-tu) it’s mean I want to buy it. when I fall or when I feel the pain I said (atit-atit). That’s the word coming out of my mouth, only one word and difficult to understand. The next day I started to grow already have started to combine the words that I speak as when I want to drink milk, I said to my mother “ma-ma cu-cu”. And when I want to pick her up by my father, I said “papa endong-endong” although the words that I say are hard to understand but I keep saying the words of my mouth. Since I’ve been able to combine words, my mother continued to teach words like “papa go to work to earn money to buy milk and I say” pa-ja-li -Gi cu-cu”. And so on, up to 4 years old, language that say has begun to clear and not difficult to understand.
    Language development in children can not be separated from environmental influences especially both parents. Child is mandated by the hands of his parents and his heart still kept a precious jewel. If he is accustomed to do good (in the household environment and social environment), surely he would grow up to be good and be happy in this world and in the hereafter. Conversely, when familiarized with evil (in the household environment and social environment) as well as neglect, surely he will be wretched and have dire consequences for the development of physical, mental, and spiritual child. Therefore, we must teach the things that are good from an early age, because the period of the children is the most important time in the form of a human being useful for the nation, the State and its religion.

  55. PUTRI RAHMA DANI
    1314050120
    TBI-A
    MIDTERM – PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    1. Describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    Children language acquisition is important to paid attention by every parents. At the first time, the children do not create the one word or more, but they will recognize some sounds such as ; ah, m, ma, ee. The process begin by knowing about the communication with their environment verbally, it called as language acquisition. the first language that is gotten by children is more direct to function of communication than language form. There are most scientists give view that wherever children are, they keep to acquisition mother tongue with the same strategy.
    In the syntax field, children begin to speak by saying one word, this word for them is full sentence because they can not say more than one word, they only use one word from all that sentence. Mother tongue as the first language that has been gotten by human since be born through interaction with environment like family and society. The language that used by adult to children who processing acquisition a mother tongue. Children is fifteen years old will speaking to their young brother who is two years old will use mother tounge too. As we know a child does not direct have grammar and form in the first language. A language will be gotten through some stages like imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. What are people say too much, so the children will imitate about it. There are some kinds imitate like spontaneous imitation, elicited imitation, immediate imitation, act. For example parents say susu in Indonesian, so the children will say cu-cu. It will be happened when children are two years. After that, children will repeat that word when they want it.
    The children’ Ability for can speak is a potential that has been had by children which that ability can be gotten without through special learning. A language that will be gotten by children involve two skills, they are produce expression spontaneously and understanding another people’s expression. In this context, language acquisition is process ability for have a language as communication. Besides that, the role of parents is do correction whether is the children say about something right or something false. It is very useful for them because it will improve language ability. After that, children are five years old the parents introduce about grammatical rules.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first word ? you can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this questions.
    Answer :
    I got information from my mother about my language acquisition when I was a child. My family and I live in minang. My mother explained that when I was 18 months old, I can say cu-cu in Indonesian and it is my first word because my mother always said it every time when I was crying. I am the first child in my family, so I just did communication with my father, my mother, and my grandma. They always said many new vocabularies when did communication with me. There are some vocabularies that can I understand what they meant, nevertheless I could not said it. In fact, I have stopped to drink milk at 20 months old, so I was never listen again my mother said the word “ susu”. Therefore, I was never said it again. When I was 2 years old, I had some new vocabularies like I can call my mother by saying ma, when I was hungry I said mam, and when I was thirsty I said num. Every word my mother said, I could not imitate it completely. I only said in the last phonetics of word. And I was 3 – 4 years old, I had many vocabularies and I started to say it word by word. After that, my mother always talked with me by using long sentence, I could understand what she meant, but I could not say it yet. When my mother gift some questions for me, I always answered it with incomplete words. Example my mother asked “ maa nenek?”, and then I just answered nek mam pu, it means nenek sedang makan di dapur. I was 5 years old, I could produce some sentence, but sometimes others people still did not understand yet what I said because every sentence that I said still did not use the rule of grammatical yet. when someone asked me, he said “ mama maa?” I answered ama pasa. Actually, it is wrong grammar. It must be answered ama pai ka pasa. I was be taught by my mother for grammar development through imitate, after my mother said something by using grammatical correct, I was asked to imitate it. Finally, I can speak by using good grammar in age 5 years.

  56. PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
    MIDTERM
    AHSANUL HUSNA
    1314050063
    TBI-A
    Lecturer :
    Syayid Sandi Sukandi,S.S,M.A

    1. Describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :

    Language is very important in social life because It is the basic form for children to learn another knowledge in their life. A child acquires language since the baby, it can be shown that the child are able to cry, laugh, and understand with simple command, although they have not produce a word yet. Children do not learn language from grammar’s book, teacher, or dictionary, but they acquire language from people around them. The first step they do is listening to what people are said around them. After they listen they will imitate the speech they hear. Children is not like adult in the process of imitating, they imitate people around them without pay attention in grammatical correct. They also can not hear completely what people are said, for example : if adult people said “ I will call you later “, the child maybe say “ I call you letter”. Furthermore they like reinforce what people are said, but it is in incorrect pronounciation or grammatical. They will repeat what they belief it is right. For example: children said “ want in bad sleep, mom “ mother said ”you want to slepp in bad ?”, children said: “yes, I want in bad sleep mom”, mother said “ can you say “want to sleep in bad”, children said “ I want in bad sleep mom”. Based on the example above, we see that children make a nice mistakes, although the mother said the correct one. A child also learn language from analogy and structured input. The most important that children are able to learn language because adult speak to them by using special way. In many cases, the children are able to produce the first word at after age of one. After the children are able to produce some words, they will spontaneously will improve their grammatical correct they get from their environment.
    When a child are able to speak up, they will bring it out to get interaction with people around them. In this case, the children will develop their language . Children also acquire language from their environment, included: family environment, society, and friendship. Children language development will increase by environment where they lived, so that the children are able to produce more than one language in their environment. It means that the process of acquire language in environment will give special characteristic in language behaviorism.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first word ? you can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this wuestions.
    Answer :

    I was born in Solok at Januari, 16 th 1996. Almost all of my family use Minang language as our communication. So that , Minang language becomes my first language. When I was become a baby, my mother said that I was a “ crying person”, it was because I often crying all night. My parents speak with me by using Minang language also. In that age , I have not produced word yet. When I was 7 years old, my father moved to Mentawai for his job. As we know that Mentawai is an island that full of immigrants, of course there are so many people bring different language. By the age of one year, I can produce some words. The first word I was said are “ Ma”, “ma-ma, and Mama. I could say the word that shown around me, such as my family, my house, my body, and some act verbs. I could not produce word such as “ mandi “ yet, because it was so difficult to say. After I was 1,5 years old, I can speak up clearly. I can make sentences when I did interaction with my family and people around me, but it was not in correct grammatical. For example : I was able to say “mama mandi” ,“nak bobok kasur”, “ cari pitih lanjo “, etc.
    Although I have lived in around people that use different language, my mother did not teach me the second language. As a native language ( mentawai language ), I was not able to use it, because many people around me just use minang or Indonesia language. When I spoke with my neighbor sometimes I used Indonesia language, sometimes I used minang language. I got Indonesia language from my environment. Since I moved to Solok by the age of 10 until now I have used minang language as my daily language. If people ask me to speak Indonesia language now, it is a little difficult for me to do it .

  57. NAMA/ NIM: ERSISMITA/ 1314050136

    1. Language Acquisition Language is a cognition that truly makes us human,. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations, or even with partially learned systems, there is no other species known to date that can express infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech sounds and words).
    There are several ways in which children in acquiring the language that children acquire it by imitating, repeating, analogy by imitating and repeating the words were heard by the children of those that exist in the environment of her in according to automatically he will imitate and repeat the words until they can speak like parents.
    After more than 60 years of research into child language development, the mechanism that enables children to segment syllables and words out of the strings of sounds they hear, and to acquire grammar to understand and produce language is still quite an enigma.
    language acquisition in children begin with the ability to hear, then imitate the sound or sounds available in the environment, in this process the child will not be able to language and speech if a child was not given an opportunity to express things you heard, therefore, the family is very important in this case, the family must give children the opportunity to learn and speak through experience that he heard, then, gradually when the children have been able to express experience good of an experience to hear, see, read and so forth, and he express language oral.

    2. In the early years, when I can speak word I say is still limited, and word say is still it to it as well, if i don’t understand about word which I say, I will not think about that, so, therefore, first word umak, when I say with word mak, mak, mak, and word ayah, and after that, I asked and said something with crying, if I want something I will cry, because I cannot who say that, and I don’t know how to pronounce, language and speech is the expression of a person to show ability to express something, because it was obtained through the learning process which every child, the language used is also quite unique, because of language and speech are used in everyday life, it was called language acquisition, and increasingly grow its age, vocabulary and word I hear more and more and I say was only increasing, and when I spoke with my mother can already be typing although only slightly, and if I did not understand a word of it, I would began to think of what exactly is meant, because I want to better know the words mean, and in the end I can speak oral about word I mean.

  58. Gustia Rahmi
    1314050032/ Tbi.A
    1. When a child try to speak they will first talked to the close person like her mother, her father, her sister or brother etc. she will try to adjust what she wanted to say with the situation. For example when she want to go with her father to some place they will say “ I wanna go” its not true it just in our mind right? She can not say the complete word may be she just say “go”. If we explain it in Minang language when she wanted to go with her father she will say “ai” which means go.
    Then when she in a community or her mother bought she to a group of people she will also try to speak with the people there. For example when people laugh she will also laugh but some times she don’t understand what she laugh for. Then when someone asked she about something she will try to answer what they are asked about. For example they asked have you get breakfast? She will answer may be “yes” or “no”.
    When she look at someone were crying she will come close to them and may be give them what she have or may be a candy because she think that someone want what she has or a candy.
    Children adjust their own language to the environment by looking around them and try to imitated what people do. If they see people scream they will also scream, but when they see people friendly she will also friendly. they like to speak with the people around them. They will what ever they found around them because they are addicted to speak because they are the beginner so they want to speak speak and speak. They will ask what we are going to do, why do we do that, when we will finish it, how do we do that, etc. we can conclude that children adjust their language ability into the environment by many way its depend on the situation and their environment.
    2. My mother told me that my first language is “yah”. Its means dad in English. I like my father very much so I always call my father. At the first I just can say “ya” then it can be “yah”. I always want to go with my father everywhere he go. Then I can say “bu” its means mom in English. When I am not able yet to speak I just cry when I want to go with my Father. The next word I can say is “da” which means big brother.
    Then I can say “akan” that’s means eat when I am hungry. Then I say “ai” or go when I want to go to some place. Then I also said “ pek lah” when I ask someone to be hurry. It is because my mother like to ask my brother to be hurry when he will go to school, because he always let to go to school so every morning my mother always said “capek lah”. Then I also get the word “go lai” when my mother ask my brother to get up.
    When my mother go to work I always leaved with my brother so I play and grow with he. I learn more from he. Star from language, walking, eating, etc. my brother is like my second mother for me sometimes I also sleep together with my brother so I become boyish when I was children. The word or language that I get also the word for a boy. Like “ketapel, kelereng, bird”, etc. not like my other girl friend they know the word for the girls like doll, frying pan, plate, glass, etc.

    thank you🙂

  59. NAMA : IRA MEDIAWATI
    BP :1314050156
    CLASS : TBI-A
    SUBJECT : PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    1. Language development is one of the indicators in the cognitive development of children, which is related to the success or delay in communicating in their environment. delays in language children can affect communication skills in everyday personal or social environment. In this case can make it difficult to learn, socialize, and other work activities adulthood. Environmental factors are very influential in growing and children development. The environment also affect the language in children, we can detect what the child by its environment. for example, such as children who are in a tough environment, the child will use harsh language and is not good because of the environment that uses a language which is not good. Conversely, children who live in the environment is good then the child will be a good personality as well as the influence of the environment. Children acquire language gradually and boys differ in achieving various stages in different times, although they do have one thing in common they both learn the same language. When the age of a child directly increases the physical growth has matured well, then experiences a child can grow and increase as well his needs. Language skills a child can grow in line with increasing experience and needs of the child. The environment is a place where a child grows and develops. Environment can give a big influence in the ability to speak. Ability in language development in the urban environment will be different from the environment in the countryside. Similarly, the development of language in mountainous areas, remote areas, in coastal areas, as well as in social groups other. Environment that affects the development of children’s language and speech is a good playing environment from neighbors and from school. Therefore the environment affect children’s language, then the environment wherever the child shall be the environment that can cause a child to communicate interest. Children’s language acquisition process begins with the ability to hear and then imitate voice is heard from the environment. Such a process, the child will not be able to speak and speak up if she is not given a chance to reveal that she had ever heard. Therefore, families must provide an opportunity for children to learn from the experience he had ever heard. Then gradually as the child is able to express the experience, either from experience to hear, see, read and re-expressed in the spoken language.

    2. when infancy, humans first learned or introduced with an atmosphere entirely “new” Compared to earlier times in the womb. During the first 3 days of normal infant still more sleep. About 80 percent of the time in use for sleeping. After two weeks the baby begins to be able to do a variety of activities without the help of others, melai turned around, sitting, crawling and others. By the age of 7-8 months, feeling or emotion baby began to emerge, although the ratio or her mind is not functioning at all. At the age of 12-14 months, babies begin to recognize its environment, both the physical environment and social environment. Gradually, babies begin to understand the relationship between “the word” with anything or anyone that is around. And for that, the baby began to require a means of expression called “language”. I asked my mother about how I after birth. My mother laughingly said that after I was born, I was mostly silent, Different from babies in general are where most of them were weeping. My mother said I was born a week after then I started to fuss and cry frequently. If I cry, it will be difficult to make me silent. I also asked what the first word I said, and my mother said that I used to say the word “NEN-NEN” when I’m hungry. For example, I’m hungry and I told my mother with a touching way that is near me while say NEN NEN, this indicates that I am hungry and want to drink milk. My mother also said, if I was sleepy I would cry and say AUMHH. My mother sometimes confused when I was sleepy why should cry first. After such frequency that my mother finally learned that if I can not sleep if left alone because I often awake at night. And finally my mother said that if I felt sick I often say EHHE while squirming and crying. My mother confused what caused me to cry because I say the word is different from the previous. My mother gives me milk and food but I do not want to eat and drink the milk. after he examined my body obviously I was not feeling well and my body feels hot, so I say the word EHHE not indicate that I’m not feeling well.

  60. NAMA : ASSRIMALONA
    NIM : 1314050183
    KELAS : TBI-A
    TUGAS : MID-SEMESTER OF PSYCHOLINGUISTICS
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition

    Through the ideas on stages of language acquisition, the child can adjust their language by imitation from their environment. Because the child need the process to get a fully formed grammar in their heads. Sometimes the process of language acquisition is fast, but it is not instantaneous. As we know that from first words to virtual adult competences takes three to four years, during which time children pass through linguistic stages. The child begin with by babbling, in babbling they leaning to scream and make a noisy without words. Then they can say first words like “mama”, “papa” and “dada”. In just a few months they begin to put words together into sentences. The sentences from the child may be not complete, but we can understand that. This is because the words or the sentences of the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology and syntax that they has developed to that point. This may be why children do not respond to the correction. Example, when they said “want other one spoon” and the we correct that “the other spoon” but they still say “other one spoon”. Because some stages may overlap for a short period, though the transition between stages is often sudden. Talking about imitation, when the child imitate the language, it’s easy to them to say the words that appropriate with their environment. As we know, the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. By language that said by parents, the child can adjust their language ability into the environment. The studies show that child language is not just a degenerate form of adult language. At each stage of development the child’s language conforms to a set of rules, a grammar. Although child grammar and adult grammar differ in certain respects but they also share many formal properties. Like adult, children have grammatical categories such as NP and VP, rules for building phrase structures and more moving constituents, as well as phonological rules, morphological rules, and semantic rules, and they adhere to universal principles such as structure dependency. Actually to adjust child language ability, they just need to follow the process. Because the process will make them understand the rules in sentences and using that as polite as possible. Although sometime the process is not fast but by the keeping from the family and environment the child can adjust their language ability.

    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Based on my mom’s opinion, the first language that I can said when I was a year old is “mha”. Before I can say that, I liked to babble every time like “aaaaaaa”, “ooooooooo” said “aaaaaaa” or “oooooooo” while scream. My mom was glad when she heard that. Day by day I through the day with babble and scream until I can said “mha”. My mom and my father was so exited to hear that. Then, day by day my mom told me that I can say three words like ”dada” and “mama” and “ah”. At this age I can understand a request or instruction to do something, because when my mom said that something is dirty, I will not touch that thing. When I was about 15 months, I can said words like “ma,, mam”. It means that I said (ma, mau makan) and I can said “ndak” for refuse something. In this age, I can understand angry and sad expression, because when my mom was angry to my sister, I was crying when I was watching her and she made a play for me. When I was two years old, I often to asked my mom about something like “ a tu ?” or “baa kok betu?”(apa itu?/ kenapa?) and my mom always answered my question nicely . Beside that, I liked to talk for my self when I played with my doll. My mom told me that because she ever watched me when I was playing with my doll and I said to my doll “bobok lai” (it means that I asked my doll to sleep). At this age I can called and knew the name of the people who familiar with me, like my sisters, brother, my parents and my neighbor although I can not say it clearly. Then, I can knew and mentioned the part of body like eye, head, nose, mount and so on. Beside that I can counted the number 1 until 10. After that, I can did simple conversation, by using 2 until 4 words and I repeated the word in conversation or imitated the word that my mom said when we was communicating. And my mom was happy when she saw many people always asked me and laughed when they listened to my words. By simple conversation I learned many words while I was interacting with the people. Now when I am twenty years old, I speak very well and I can speak foreign language nicely.

  61. Genta/1314050449
    1. We have discussed about mechanisms of language acquisition and we know that children learn through imitation, re-inforcement, analogy, and similar processes. In last assignment we have discussed about some example of language acquisition, we found many ways of children’s language acquisition and that is right what have mentioned in the book that children learn through several ways.
    First, children learn through imitation, children tried to copy what the others said exactly their parents, but they can not select what is right and what is wrong, they just trying to communicate, so that as their parents or their environment, we should be careful to say the words, there are some words that we can’t say in front of them, because it will make some bad effects. It’s better to us to say something good like what our religion tough.
    Second, children learn through re-inforcement, children can say the word after we help them to mention and remember the words, and they can say that by re-inforcement too, like when we teach them about do’a, in this case I have a nephew her name is felxee, she is 4 years old, her mommy always teach her about several do’a like before eating, parents do’a, before going to sleep and others, her mommy always teach her by many times until she can remember one or two ayat at one time, as a result she become a good student in her kindergarten class. I think that is a good way, since it is not make them sick and tired.
    Third, children learn through analogy, I have a student, his name is Maulana Malik Ibrahim, his nick name is Lana. Lana is 7 years old , he is a student of one of elementary schools in kalawi, padang.I taught him to read a passage which has a picture, in the picture there is a family tree. I asked him to read the sentences but he looked lazy to read but he tried to read. Nenek saya namanya ratna dan kakek saya anto, ibu saya ani dan ayah saya dimas, bibi saya tina dan paman saya joni, sepupu saya sinta dan budi, finished. But, when I told that “ibu adalah istri ayah dan ayah adalah suami ibu”, suddenly he continued my words until he said that “ sinta adalah istri budi dan budi adalah suami sinta, actually sinta and budi are sister and brother, , it was just because budi’s foto was beside sinta’s, I can’t stop laughed to see his plain face. Lana learn language through analogy, because he put words together to form phases and sentences by analogy and by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences.
    In conclusion, we know that children learn through many ways, and it has their own style and steps. We just help them to grow become a good and useful person.
    2. Well, I’ll tell you about my childhood, it is a beautiful time I think because I just can remember when I asked my mother to give me a bottle of milk, but you know it is not milk exactly, it is just a bottle of water cooked rice, you know that, I really loved it, when I was crying my mother would gave me that and I’ll stopped cry, I still remember that because I still did that until when i was 7 years old, my first word is mak, and I called my mother that way, but the one that I can’t forgot is the way i called my young brother, I called him adiak, when my father wanted to give him a name I will cry loudly and I said namonyo adiak, indak buliah dituka. Finally, they called him adik, my mother and I always called him that way, but the others called him adit, because now his real name is Aditya. Yesterday I called my mom to ask about my childhood, she said that I was a stubborn girl but I was a brave girl, and now I am, but I am not longer stubborn. She said when i asked something and if I didn’t get it I will never interacted with the others in the house for one week. But my mother always made me calm by said “bisuak wak bali, nabuang lah lu bia wak bali yang rancak” and I will always followed what my mother’s said. But if it was my father, I wouldn’t calm, because I knew that my father had the money, anyway, my mother and my father separated when I was 2 years old, but I was not sad, and until now I can stand alone, Insya Allah by my mother’s pray. I had a desire to be a lecturer, I said that for long time ago, since I was in elementary school, my mom said that I always imitate how a teacher act in front of the class by hold a big yellow ruler, and my father gave me that, a mini white board, ruler, marker until the shoes like high heel, and I was so excited to be a teacher or lecturer, I will said “ anak-anak sekarang kita belajar bahasa indonesia” and I will copied what my teacher said in the class, until now i can remember that, and my friends would be the students who sat in front of me.
    In fact till now I learn English through imitation and analogy too, because I always copy what is this mentioned in the book and what the native said in the film, I learn through that. But I am quite difficult to learn through re-inforcement, I don’t know why, my brain will refuse that.
    Thank You .

  62. Genta/1314050449
    1. We have discussed about mechanisms of language acquisition and we know that children learn through imitation, re-Inforcement, analogy, and similar processes. In last assignment we have discussed about some example of language acquisition, we found many ways of children’s language acquisition and that is right what have mentioned in the book that children learn through several ways.
    First, children learn through imitation, children tried to copy what the others said exactly their parents, but they can not select what is right and what is wrong, they just trying to communicate, so that as their parents or their environment, we should be careful to say the words, there are some words that we can’t say in front of them, because it will make some bad effects. It’s better to us to say something good like what our religion tough.
    Second, children learn through re-Inforcement, children can say the word after we help them to mention and remember the words, and they can say that by re-Inforcement too, like when we teach them about do’a, in this case I have a nephew her name is felxee, she is 4 years old, her mommy always teach her about several do’a like before eating, parents do’a, before going to sleep and others, her mommy always teach her by many times until she can remember one or two ayat at one time, as a result she become a good student in her kindergarten class. I think that is a good way, since it is not make them sick and tired.
    Third, children learn through analogy, I have a student, his name is Maulana Malik Ibrahim, his nick name is Lana. Lana is 7 years old , he is a student of one of elementary schools in kalawi, padang.I taught him to read a passage which has a picture, in the picture there is a family tree. I asked him to read the sentences but he looked lazy to read but he tried to read. Nenek saya namanya ratna dan kakek saya anto, ibu saya ani dan ayah saya dimas, bibi saya tina dan paman saya joni, sepupu saya sinta dan budi, finished. But, when I told that “ibu adalah istri ayah dan ayah adalah suami ibu”, suddenly he continued my words until he said that “ sinta adalah istri budi dan budi adalah suami sinta, actually sinta and budi are sister and brother, , it was just because budi’s photo was beside sinta’s, I can’t stop laughed to see his plain face. Lana learn language through analogy, because he put words together to form phases and sentences by analogy and by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences.
    In conclusion, we know that children learn through many ways, and it has their own style and steps. We just help them to grow become a good and useful person.
    2. Well, I’ll tell you about my childhood, it is a beautiful time I think because I just can remember when I asked my mother to give me a bottle of milk, but you know it is not milk exactly, it is just a bottle of water cooked rice, you know that, I really loved it, when I was crying my mother would gave me that and I’ll stopped cry, I still remember that because I still did that until when i was 7 years old, my first word is mak, and I called my mother that way, but the one that I can’t forgot is the way i called my young brother, I called him adiak, when my father wanted to give him a name I will cry loudly and I said namonyo adiak, indak buliah dituka. Finally, they called him adik, my mother and I always called him that way, but the others called him adit, because now his real name is Aditya. Yesterday I called my mom to ask about my childhood, she said that I was a stubborn girl but I was a brave girl, and now I am, but I am not longer stubborn. She said when i asked something and if I didn’t get it I will never interacted with the others in the house for one week. But my mother always made me calm by said “bisuak wak bali, nabuang lah lu bia wak bali yang rancak” and I will always followed what my mother’s said. But if it was my father, I wouldn’t calm, because I knew that my father had the money, anyway, my mother and my father separated when I was 2 years old, but I was not sad, and until now I can stand alone, Insya Allah by my mother’s pray. I had a desire to be a lecturer, I said that for long time ago, since I was in elementary school, my mom said that I always imitate how a teacher act in front of the class by hold a big yellow ruler, and my father gave me that, a mini white board, ruler, marker until the shoes like high heel, and I was so excited to be a teacher or lecturer, I will said “ anak-anak sekarang kita belajar bahasa indonesia” and I will copied what my teacher said in the class, until now i can remember that, and my friends would be the students who sat in front of me.
    In fact till now I learn English through imitation and analogy too, because I always copy what is this mentioned in the book and what the native said in the film, I learn through that. But I am quite difficult to learn through re-inforcement, I don’t know why, my brain will refuse that.
    Thank You .

  63. DIAN ANESTI : 1314050269
    ETD A
    1. Children acquire language in stages and different children reach various stages at different times, although they have one thing in common and that is that children learning the same language will follow an almost identical pattern in the sequence of stages they go through. The stages usually consist of : 1) Phase prelinguistic, at the age of 3-4 months babies can distinguish the sound of men – men and women. Kids started to get closer and sounds – vowel sounds mixed with sounds – sounds like consonants. This sound usually appears as a response to a smile or greeting her mother or others. At the age of 4-7 months, the child begins to emit sounds somewhat intact with duration (time span) long. Sounds like a consonant or vowel resemble more varied. Nasal consonants / m / n have started to emerge. Age 6-12 months, children begin to pay attention to intonation and rhythm of speech. At this stage the child can communicate and chattering. The form of reduplication or repetition of the same consonants and vowels, such as / ba ba ba /, ma ma ma /, da da da /. Vowel that appears is the basic / a / with a resistor labial consonants / p, b / nasal / m, n, g /, and alveolar / t, d /. Her vocals have already started heading vowel / u / and / i /, and any fricative consonant, such as / s / has begun to appear.
    At this stage the child starts. Physically he had already started doing the movement. How to communicate at this stage is more varied, not only turned around, smiling and crying but coupled with a holding, or appoint. 2) Phase Linguistics stage of language development of children aged 1-5 years. At this stage the child begins to pronounce a language like adults. (a) Speech word. Example: Akut! ! (Pointing the dog). b) Speech Two Words. Example: Mamah, makan. Ajar, bobo !. (c) Development of Grammar. This development is characterized by the use of words with more than two words. This stage is generally experienced by children aged 2 to 5 years About a. (d) Grammar Toward Adults. Phase fourth child language development is usually experienced by children who are aged between 5-10 years. At this stage the child – the child has started to implement a complex grammatical structures and are able to arrange a more complicated sentences. The stage of developments, it also develops their control over the system language studies.
    2. The first word I say probably not much different from most first word that revealed of most babies. Based on the information I received from my family, at the age of 3 weeks, when I was hungry or uncomfortable I put out the sound of crying. At the age of 3 weeks to 2 months began to hear the sound but it is not yet clear. I began to hear at the age of 2 s / d 6 months so that I began to utter my first words with syllables that are repeated, such as: ” ba … .ba …, ma..ma ….”. At the age of 10 months I began to imitate the voices heard from the environment, and I will also use facial expressions or hand gestures when I want to ask for something. I began to say the first word when I was 6 months. The first word I say is ‘maa maa’. When I was younger than 1 year, nursed by my grandmother, not my mother. When I taught to say the word ’makan’, I say ‘ma mam’. When pronouncing the word ‘abang’ I say ‘Aban’. Although my parents call her ‘mother’, but I was only able to utter the word ‘ma’. The others words that I said are ‘Mimi ‘ = minum, atit = sakit..

  64. NAME : MANJA MULAYANI SIREGAR
    NIM : 1314050235
    CLASS : TBI-A

    Answer Midterm Examination Number 1:
    we can describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition is when we observation and interview result i hit language developing that her first time utter and language that she utilize to get communication in ask for or name sesuatu.dia is male cousin of my mother sister. marwah’s name is primordial. its age is present 5 years. active boy that issue first language while old 6 months. secretory language which is “ba… ba…” and “ma… ma…”. one can not yet utter that language, if mengingiinkan her something more utilizes cry. as cries to drink attention, peckish, or wants pipis.
    While step on age 10 months my cousin starts mimic voice which be heard of its environmental or ones at teach by dann’s aunt my grandmother while she eats, bath, and easy going. hereafter age 12 months marwah can name word “mamma” and “yaya” for father, and “aek” to mak gae one call for grandmother. in tapanuli’s vernacular intermediates.
    Age 18 moon she can two words that at connective with and makes sentence with two sederhana.seperti name names she herself with word “wawa” to marwah. was perfect. but was kindred. “manner” to walk, “tutu” to ask for milk, wield sign language which is by points what do she like and bad blood. purpose says “yes” to accept and crying to cry down.
    Age 24 her moon start to recognize words any other. its language lexicon getting amends. she can say “allo” kketika there is that calls up, say “oti” to ask for bread. at age 36 her moons was speaking with passably with string up sentence as “aek wawa wants grandchild” or sentence as “allo, accost yes”? and is still a lot of again. word as “drug” sticking out while she utters separate greeting to someone.

    Answer Midterm Examination Number 2 :
    When i have grown up as today, the information that can I remember about my first words is information that I gets from family I am first hit it of my mother. my mother say first one word I utters is “ma” secondly which is “yaa”. If is seen from my family background that constitute family of two latar culturizes, language, custom, and a long cry religion so ascendant to developing and my childhood growth. family of its paternal constitutes custom “ROB TAPANULI SOUTH / MANDAILING”, meanwhile family of my mother party ethnical” NIAS”. my mother is tribal “MENDROFA”, my father is tribal” SIREGAR”. besides family of mother party plays favorites to get christian religion, of paternal moslem majority. of this difference big family agreement utilizes neutral language which is indonesian as colloquial me. besides for mutually respects both of cleft party also glib utilize indonesian.
    while can I utter word “ma” and “yes” I start can utter word any other at age 13 moons or 1 years 1 month. say it is “tutu” (milk). while am I ask for milk usually I cry, but that time I can say “tutu” on whom only. say next is mengucapakan says “aek” ( “mak is old” its mean is grandmother). since my family stays close to grandmother of mother family, the naming that for grandmother of mother. to utter word “Old father” I can’t yet because lingual rumit.umur’s one 1 year 8 months my language structure to utter word was beginning lovely despite of still a lot of incorrect one. age 2 years 5 months my vocabulary experience quick developings. it because family I move go to TAPSEL, I start to adopt 2 languages which is language Mandailing and indonesian. at school and at pergualan with my friend gets Mandailing’s languages but on the house I get interactions with indonesian.

  65. Nama : Wira Afriani
    Bp : 412.083
    Answer for number 1:
    At first the children getting to know the language based on the parents when first introduced to the environment in which he lived . That was when he first heard what he’ll say. In the preliminary stages of language acquisition, usually children produce words of adults are simplified as follows: for example the word “ibu”, he will be heard as the example of his brother or from people older than him and he would eliminate consonants finally , so they will enter the first sound she heard that word and he could only say the word “bu” or the word “u” she will follow the movement of the mouth of the person is not of what he has heard. and also reduces consonant clusters into a single segment: batere “bate”, bring “bin” or it can also remove the syllable unstressed as kunci “ti” semut”emut” and also reduplicated syllable is simple:
    pergi “gigi”, nakal “kakal”.
    First language acquisition is closely connected with the development of cognitive development: first, if the child can produce fundamental remarks on grammar neat, does not automatically imply that the child has mastered the language in question well. Second, speakers must acquire cognitive categories-categories that underlie the various meanings expressive natural languages, such as words, space, modalities, quality, and so on. Cognitive requirements of the procurement of more required language on second language acquisition than in the first language acquisition.
    The child would not be the same as desired by adults. If an adult asks the child to name “He’s going out”, the child will recite “He go out”. There is another theory which says that a child learns by reinforcement (reinforcement), meaning that if a child learns the correct utterances, he got reinforcement in the form of praise, such a nice, smart, and so on. However, if his speech is wrong, he gets a “negative reinforcement”, for example, again, wrong, not nice. This view assumes that the child must be continuously improved if the wrong language and praised if they utterance it right. truth is that a child establish rules and devise its own grammar. Not all children show the same progress despite all showed progress regularly.
    Thus, we can understand that the steps undertaken by the children was noticeable that both developed and developing language development in a pattern and rules gradually. This means that the layout appearance discuss these children can be said to remain constant within a certain period of time. That is, any change of age, then there is also a change in the ability of children. The changes running continuously for the better in line with their age change toward higher anyway. Another thing that participated that language changes are physical changes of their own, of not been able to say anything until he could say and convey thoughts or an intent. associated with the interaction between input and internal capabilities possessed learners. Every child has LAD since birth. However, without the appropriate input may not be a child can master the specific language automatically.

    Answer for number 2:

    According to information I received on my first language acquisition of both my parents, I spend remark first made the parents feel confused because they do not understand. but dealing with the situation with the direction they begin to understand what purpose. the first word they hear is “nen”. because it is related at that time my own mother breast-fed me. It came out of my mouth when I’m hungry or thirsty. then my mother will understand the purpose of my remarks such.
    Within a few months I started to learn to talk and try to make my own words, ask for something, to speak words that are not clear. if my parents do not understand the words they taught me to speak clearly. Day-by-day my speech that change according to the progress of my age. To be able to teach me to speak said they have to wait for the process of learning to talk very long, I need help from them to connect the words. can also pass my cry then my words would come out. I started to make a sound “rounds”. the beginning of words that will make verbatim.
    The word for the first time really melt your heart. When they teach me to talk, I try to imitate it.
    if I hurt a language the first time I spend is a cry to show what sick to my parents. they would instantly know that I feel something sick on me. then they would blow what I feel. if I hurt a language the first time I spend is a cry to show what sick to my parents. they would instantly know that I feel something sick on me. then they would blow what I feel. so whatever I say I am definitely a mother will understand what we mean. That’s because there is a bond between mother and child.

  66. Azilah Octavia
    1314050588
    TBI. B
    Midterm psycholinguistics

    Answer
    1. The children begin to recognize language through verbal environment that language acquisition. During language acquisition, children aged 0-7 year leads to a communication function rather than the form of the language. When children say what he heard as the word “book” she could only say the word ‘bu’ ‘, a child will say what he heard because he could not say with a straight and true. Language acquisition children can be said to have continuity characteristics, have a continuum, moving from greeting one simple word to the combination of words is more complicated. Another example of her as a mother saying “lamp” then the child will say “lem” and when her mother said, “art” and the child would say “a”. Because it can only be accepted by the child and that was also recorded in his brain. In the process of understanding speech, in fact there has been a mental process inside the listener. Listeners are not just passively registering these sounds, but it is an active process in his mind. There are easy to understand children’s speech and some speech elusive children. They process the sounds that are active, look at the various possibilities that sound message by using background knowledge of the language. Structural language by reason. Children’s language development should be based on a more fundamental change and more common in cognition. So is the child’s language environment. Language must be acquired naturally, so the language is easy to understand children and he responded quickly about the language taught by the mother. From birth to 18 months a language considered yet. Kids only recognize objects seen directly. At the end of one year of age, children are able to understand that objects have a permanent nature so that the child begins to use symbols to represent objects that are not present in front of him. The symbol was later developed into the first words spoken child. The language acquisition associated with the interaction between the input “input” and internal capabilities possessed learners. Every child has LAD since birth. However, without the appropriate input may not be a child can master the specific language automatically.
    2. According to my mother, the first word I say is the word “baba” is not the word “ma”. Because at that time I could only say the word “baba” and the word “ach”. Not only that the words “uh oh” is also my first word. After it had the word “ma” can I say. Because at that time that is near my house mama. Whereas my father at that time to wander until I was 2 years old. Words that I often say is the word “ma or ama”. According to my Mom another word I say is the word “yah”. Because at that time my father had just returned from overseas and my mama taught me to call my father to father. But the word which I speak is the word “yah” is not the father. Not only that, another word I say is the word eat. At that time I could only pronounce the word “Mamam” and so does the drinking. I say that the word “num”. Who also frequently spoken word is the word “governance”. At that moment we are in a connecting word spoken word is very difficult. Cannot surf the adults talk. My mother in me taught in speaking that is by looking objects. So I can say it, even if only a single word I say. Words can also be spoken through the cries and also through laughter. Word we speak is limited, because the vocabulary that we get just that. Cries and also through laughter. Word we speak is limited, because the vocabulary that we get just that.

  67. Name : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject : Psycholinguistics-B
    Task : Psycholinguistics’ midterm test
    Question and answer:
    1. What can you describe about how a child adjusts his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer:
    As we know childhood is the first step when a human starts to know a language. On this process a child gets every language that he hears from his environment without filters all of it. The child will save all of these sentences that he hears, it’s could be in unstructured shape, at the first stage the child just accept and save on his brain.
    In general there are four mechanisms of language acquiring process for the children, they are imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. At the first stage, a child adjusts his language ability trough imitate the language that spoke by the people around him. Everything that the child hears will be imitated eventhough it is good or bad. When a child heard a new word for him, he will save that word on his brain and utter that word on his environment. On this stage is so dangerous if a child hears bad words or rude cause he will imitate those instead. A child just such a record machine that records and say what have he heard.
    At the second stage of mechanism language acquisition when a child trays to say something to other people around her he says it in unconstructed sentence. For example, when he wants to get food and says “I hungry dad” it is an unconstructed sentence. But it is not a big problem for his language ability development cause the people around them usually show him the correct sentence through reinforcement way. People around him may will say “I am hungry dad, let’s say I am hungry dad, I am hungry, I am, I am”. They will say those words in many times till the child say the right word. Through reinforcement from the people around him a child will accustomed to say a constructed sentence.
    A child also acquires the language trough analogy and structured input. In analogy, a child acquires the language trough compare between two sentences could be have same meaning but different use. For example when his father said “I am tired, are you tired too mom?”. The children will compare between these two sentences in his mind. Based on the time if the child still hears sentences like that he will start to understand the meaning and function of that sentence. In structured input, a child adjusts his language ability trough the people around him help. The way when an adult speaks to a baby it must be different with his way to speak to other adult man. An adult may says it more slowly and softly. It enables the child to hear and understand what did the adult said. A child will try to get the reason why the adult do this, is the meaning still same and why he says different structures? As we know a child has strong memory, he will save every different structure that he hears for every day and based on the time he will understand the structure of sentence and start to use it in his daily conversation.
    In conclusion, a child adjusts his language ability based on the stimulant of the environment. What do the people around him say will be saved in his memory and used in his daily conversation for the other days. Language ability of the child will develop based the stimulant has been given by the environment. Based on the time child’s brain become smarter and enables him to adjust his language ability and understand what the people around him say.
    2. When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    I was born in Air Talang Pasaman Barat at 19th September 1994. I live with my small family in a simple house. My first language is Mandailing Language cause most of people in my home town are Mandailing people. In acquiring language process in my childhood I got Mandailing as my first language. This language is so much different with Indonesian and Minang language.
    I called my mother and asked her about my first word in my childhood when I started to speak in my native language. My mother said that the first word that I said is “aak”. Aak was not a word in my native language, it has no meaning. May be I just said it cause my speak organ has not been function yet. It is a simple word that I say for every day whatever and whenever is it. My mother said when I wanted to get food, feel afraid, happy and crying I still uttered the same word.
    When my big brother and I got fight in having a toy, as usual a younger brother always be the loser and crying, or when I got some troubles like little accident, it would make me crying too. Sound “aak” would be heard from my mouth during I crying. In other condition when I feel hungry I would call my mother to give me some food by using word “aak” too.
    Several months later, my acquiring language process got progress. My first word little bite changed into more perfect shape. I plus “M” in my first word, it was become “maak”. It was a simple word too but it was better from before, and the most important thing that word “mak” has meaning in my native language. The meaning of that word is mom. Based on my mother story I just able to plus “m” but seem as before I still used seem word for everything whatever is this in my environment. I called my big brother, my father using word “maak” too. May be it was funny for the people around me but it was the fact that my speak organ still in progress. My mother said that several months later, my language starts can be understood by other people around me. I was able to differentiate several simple Mandailing word and its function like word “mak, yah, and bang”.
    In conclusion, based on my mother story my first word is “aak” and “maak”. I used these words for everything and whenever I mean in first stage of my childhood.

  68. Name : Azizah Kh
    Reg. Number : 1314050602
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics

    1.What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    A newborn child does not have any interaction in language acquisition, but only cry that they could do when hungry, sick and so forth. Acquisition of the language environment is very important for a child, which is where we know that from a baby to a child finds themselves, children are more likely to copy what is around her. The environment is also very important in a child’s growth.
    At the age of 3 months of a baby had begun to acquire a new language such as laughing. They obtain it from seeing people who surround them mainly family and a baby started to pay attention when the time to laugh and imitate. When happy then he’ll laugh and when sad then a baby will cry. I think a baby who love and have a good growth tends to be easier in the acquisition of language. I have a neighbor who has a son who is 4 years old, was named Dika. Lack of education acquired by parents, Dika cause as the victim, the child becomes less get a good affection, overlooked and neglected, so the boys are always wandering the streets until midnight. With the lack of compassion and growth of the less well earned by Dika, led to the acquisition of its own language is still far behind on his child’s age. Dika tend to talk like children who were aged 2years. So he is offensive and ostracized by playmates.
    A baby in acquiring the language must go through a couple of stages like babies as young as 9 months. He would call mama with “mam..mam.mmmammm ..” with concomitant age and with the help of the surrounding families. Infants who are headed to the toddler began a little catch by little language heard and noticed how the pronunciation of words they hear, and so the word “mmamm .. mmmamm” had been able pronounced perfectly into “mama”. Children who are 1-5 years old tend to have a high sense of want to know about something in front of him. Like I have a cousin named ‘Shay “in a few months he will be entering the age of 1 year, but the curiosity to know against what he saw had him Show me the like, the sound issued by a fan who was near, he would crawl to fan them and looking for where the sound was coming from, I also have a cousin who was 5 years old, and is now studying in kindergarten, she also has a sense wants to know which is great, but the difference he would not seek to know itself from where the sound came from, where the big cats from dogs, and others, he would be inclined to give the question “Suara apa itu Eji kak ?, kenapa bisa berbunyi ? “,” Kucing itu ngapain? , Where the big cats than dogs? “, And when he saw a cat or a dog he would spontaneously say” guk..guk / meow “, and when she heard the rain he would spontaneously sing” tik..tik..tik .., bunyi hujan diatas genteng “.
    So, from the analysis of the child’s language acquisition can we esteem that the child is a linguist who could develop its own language, without having to learn first, that language acquisition is not another child obtained through interactions in the environment. language obtained by the spontaneous language of children, including words that are good, however not well ordered, and children who lack affection are generally weak in language acquisition.
    2.When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer :
    When I was child, I am including child obedient and quiet, I am not a bad child and agile as my sister Rahilva, I included a good daughter, polite, do not like to play outside and spoiled. I also did not include children who are fluent in the language, for example, I am always end the word with the suffix “ng” like “eat = makang”, as well as by calling the name of a cousin, at the end of the call the name I always add the “ng”, for example I has a sister and a cousin who is close to me, my sister Rahilva.kh , cousin of my brother abdul and my sister kak deni, they are close relatives and very fond of me, because of the close and the little time I included it difficult to call the title name them, so I created a separate call for them “Aink, abang Adung, and kak igeng” and until now it is still attached to the calls themselves.
    I grew up in the desert and always speak Minang, but I also have a cousin who is in Dumai and Pekanbaru who speak Indonesian, because little time and each time the school holidays, my parents always took me and my sister to go visit my cousins who was there, I got confused and overwhelmed to understand their language, so I tend to be a silent child for me there, as time went on I began little by little to understand their language, such as “nio = Mau, Sleep = Lalok” and other, even though the language is still not well ordered.
    As the running time that I spent with him my cousin who speak Indonesian I started up the courage to start that language, although every time I speak Indonesian my cousins laughed at the funny language that I mentioned, like when my cousin asked me to go to the park to play and I answered “Indak mau pai do” and it does when we eat together in one place, my brother was saying “this is it?” to my parents, but my parents laugh heard those languages, I am not too young to understand the language and hear my brother say that I tend to imitate it and also say the wrong word.
    I had a childhood that was very pleasant, where I live with a loving and education that both of my parents, for example, when my brother and I wrong in pronunciation for the first we’ve heard my parents never blame any new language that came out of my mouth, but they just drive to the right direction, so after returning from there, and a few months later I became fluent in Indonesian.
    Before I entered elementary school, I’m already fluent in both languages and Indonesian Minang, when I was in elementary school, I also included a smart kid and easily capture any new languages that I learned as Arabic and English. from the little experience that I went through I can see that when I was little I was a child who likes creating new languages that I like, even though it was wrong, but the people closest to me do not ever blame , so quickly I could easily learn languages I just heard.
    Every child has a world of its own in every language that comes out from within himself, for that we as older people do not scold or blame every word that comes out of these children, but we guided the children so that they understand and improve language one had been, so that children can understand and acquire the language well.

  69. Name : Rahilva Kh
    Reg. Number : 1314050601
    Midterm : Psycholinguistics

    1.What can you describe about how a child adjust his/her language ability into the environment if we view it through the ideas on stages of language acquisition?
    Answer :
    There is a critical time period in which a child should be exposed to the environment of linguistic or other forms of communication. When children experience language acquisition stages that come from the environment, can be described by the following time line:
    When entering the age of 3 months, they’ve started to laugh and watch how our expression as she spoke. We laugh when they laughed. That’s because they want to communicate their way.
    When it enters the age of one year, babies begin to understand words, and began to produce it. They absorb what they hear and say what they hear from their immediate environment. This one-word can last from two months to one year. About 18 months of age, mastering the language and their curiosity is increasing. It should be mentioned that the continuous tracking of language acquisition is a difficult task: Between the ages of 2 to 3 years, the child’s language grammar in conversation already started fluent. They have already begun to call sentences like “dad’s car,” my shoes “and so on, at the age of 3 years they have started to communicate fluently, although not every word they said was true and correct. At the age of 4 years, they started asking questions about what their minds. They wonder why, what, when, where, who, where and so on associated with the phenomena they witnessed. They’ve been able to tell and answer questions fluently. They also have started to absorb and memorize the songs he often heard from parents and their environment. For example, when I was sitting with my cousin in the living room, and then she saw a lizard, in that moment Immediately she sang, “cicak didindinding” (so he said it) and repeating that phrase until repeat many times. Because just a new phrase that yes memorized.
    For children, language acquisition refers to the process where a child is usually developed to become proficient language users without having to make an effort that seems difficult. Acquisition, therefore, is different from the ‘learn’ which refers to the process where a deliberate effort must be made in order to become proficient with the use of language, for example, the ability to write and read.
    From the analysis of the child’s acquisition of language, it seems that the child is ‘linguists’ him / herself that the child is able to build his / her ‘grammar’ of the language, the ‘little linguists’ theory. Every child goes through several stages before he began to speak. Language acquisition begins immediately after birth. child’s vocabulary includes some some kind words, but does not include grammatical words, or the end of the grammar.

    2.When you have grown up as you are today, can you please briefly inform what can you remember about your first words? You can get the information from your mother, father, or siblings for this question.
    Answer :
    When I was child, I included a child that is agile, mischievous, and versatile want to know about anything. I also include children who are fluent at the age of about 2 to 3 years. I also do not understand, but the father, mother and brother in the environment around talking like that. I’m from a small Minang language, while my cousin who lives in Pekanbaru all Indonesian language since they were little. Whenever togethers with family father, I always try to learn what they are saying. But still I can not.
    At that time, our family ate at a restaurant. We stopped for a rest on the way to return home. When I hear someone said Indonesian language. He said ” apa ini ?, ini apa? “. so it seemed. Then I continued eating and suddenly I instinctively said, pointing something from my distant objects. The first words I said in Indonesian is “ini apa itu ,?”. Hearing words like that, my father and mother laughed. They are not to blame nor to correct what I said. They just laughed and told me to continue eating.
    When entering school age, I have taught Indonesian language at home and at school. In a mature age they absorb everything, I can easily and smoothly understand Indonesian. I can learn that when a child is learning to say what he likes, do not be refuted or blame. Because there are times when the child is ready to be taught and told. As evidence that this time I have fluent Indonesian as usual. Since I have been through the stages of introduction and also the stages of learning in my life in a familiar language.
    Hearing that story I think the way my parents it was a better time, for letting a child who is new to a language other than their mother tongue speak words that their minds. I think it includes the stages of language acquisition a children until they understand how the language is spoken.

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