Psycholinguistics – Students’ Writing Responses (Part 1)

Assignment 1

Please write and type your brief summary of what we have learned in the first and second meeting in the comment session below. (Please write only within 300 words. Exceeding those numbers will reduce your score).

Assignment 2

Please write your response about what you have learned so far about Language Acquisition, especially about the Mechanisms of Language Acquisition in one paragraph only (between 10-15 sentences). You can quote one or two sentences from the passage that we read together in the class in your response, but your sentences should be more than what you quoted!

Assignment 3

Please write your feedback or argument or evaluation about the following statement from the book we read in the class:

The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352).

The way you type your written response:

Name/ NIM: _________/ _____

Assignment 1.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (300 words)

Assignment 2.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (300 words)

Assignment 3.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx (400 words)

Hope you could do this assignment individually. Plagiarized response will automatically reduce your score for these three assignments. Your written should responses for these assignments whould also be printed and submitted in hardcopies form in the class to me ontime or at the designed schedule. Please contact your class coordinator if you need more information regarding these assignments.  

Good Luck with your Studies!

110 thoughts on “Psycholinguistics – Students’ Writing Responses (Part 1)

  1. All comments are closed by Saturday, May 29, 2016 at 11.00 pm. Therefore, any other comments that are posted after that date can no longer be acceptable.

    Please be ontime in submitting your assignment.

  2. NAME : VINI ANGGRAINI
    REG. NO : 1314050365
    CLASS : TBI. A

    A. ASSIGNMENT 1
    Based on the first and second meeting we have learned about introduction language acquisition. Language acquisition is something that should be learned to know or to get it. It is different with the first language because it does not need to learn, like reading or writing. The first language is something that we get without learn, but we get that pervade automatically. Language acquisition can be named descriptive linguistic while the first language can be named prescriptive linguistic. For example, the children do not study about the eating because it is impossible, so the first language is same with it. The children not yet learn about the grammatical, morphology, and others because they get data or language from they hear around the environment, but someone never saying their grammatical is error. It is because the grammatical that they use based on they hear.
    But language acquisition constitutes the second language that the children should be learned. Based on the theory, if the children get or know the second language fast, so they can be easy to master the next language after it. In the language acquisition we should learn anything, like grammar, semantic, syntactic, morphology, etc. We should master it to get the language, but in the first language that is not problem, because no one teaches the rules. The children receive that they hear only, and they make a creative construction in the language that they hear. The children can get the language acquisition that revealed a great deal if they study about the grammars of human language. We can see the children’s improvement of language acquisition such an intricate system so quickly. We will know if they are difficult to get acquisition, so we can make something wrong with their pronunciation because what they hear with they speak is different. The important a point in first language we get something naturally although we make a mistake, but the language acquisition that should be learned and we always be careful to make a mistake.

    B. ASSIGNMENT 2
    The mechanisms of language acquisition have three steps to get language acquisition or to view learning acquisition there are, the first is Imitation, It means the children imitate what they hear around them, but the imitation that they produce to make word or sentence that is not same with the adult produce. When the children imitate who always imitate that word they hear because it is a language that they use to speak. The second is Reinforcement. It means we give helping to the children when they speak something but the pronoun or grammar is wrong. The reinforcement discuss about the correction to bad grammar, and the reward to good grammar. It means the parents should do the correction when the children speak, but they make a mistake. And the parents should give the reward when they speak correctly. The third is Analogy. It means the children sometimes speak something that is the same sound or kinds with what they hear because they do not know what they speak, so it is called by analogy that is same, like when we speak blue book, and then they speak book blue, or red blue. And the last is structured input. It means the children learn a language from the sentence that they are input. When the children begin to speak like baby talk, they have been structured that they input from the environment language, but their structured input is suitable with the environment of facilitating language acquisition. So, we can conclude that the imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input are the steps that can we use to help the children to learn the language, but the imitation, reinforcement, and analogy that cannot account to develop their language because based on the theory the structured input that they get in the environment rather than on the grammar-making ability.

    C. ASSIGNMENT 3
    My argument is sometimes the tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments that are done by parents are good because the parents can control the experience or learning that the children should know. It can make something positive in the language acquisition because the children just know or get something that the parents give for them. Not only the positive respond but also the children can produce something from the recordings better than something that they get from the environment because they always hear the recording, and they are comprehension about the recording, so they can study about it spontaneously. The method have been done by much parents in the word, for example in the Islam we should listen the holy Al- Qur’an when the baby still unborn child, because the baby can hear, and we can produce that when they became born. So, it can we do to the children that can make their language perfect. And the recording can make our purpose successfully, because the children can speak or produce what they hear from the recording. It is just to children’s audio if we want to improve the children’s visual, so we can use the videotapes. The videotapes include the movie that has moral value and learning because it can give positive experience. The control experiment that is when the parents give simulation or activity to the children, they should control because the children can imitate what they hear, and what they see. So we can concluded that I agree with this theory but I think that also have the weakness because if the children just listen what the parents recording, so their language acquisition are not development. It can make difficult to adapt with their environment. But if the parents do both, I think it is very perfect because it can balance their experience and knowledge about the language, and their ability is perfect because they get the language from the parents and the environment. So when the children begin to speak, they can speak suitable with the context, it means they can speak suitable with the environments’ utterances when they are there, and they can speak suitable with the parents’ utterances when they are together. The tape recordings, videotapes not only to language acquisition but also to make the good behaviorism because the aphorism said “if someone hears good something, so we will have good speaking, and good doing”.

  3. Name : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject : Psycholinguistics-B
    Assignment : Six (VI)
    Acquisition of Phonology
    In acquiring phonology, a baby through slow stage from simple sound till complex sound that can be understood by the adults. This stage gets progress based on the baby speech’s organs development. In our environment we always find all babies who trays to speak utters peace of words such as cucu to say susu, mam to say makan, and utters mma to cal their mother. Actually the babies want to say as perfect as what an adult says but their speech organ has not perfect enough to utter it. So that sometime, it is so funny when the children try to say something.
    In acquiring process of phonology, it is begun from place articulation of manner that easiest to say. Based on the book, place articulation of manner, nasal is acquired first, then glides, stops, liquids, fricatives, and affricatives. It is clear that for every baby around the world word “mma” and “mama” is the easiest word that the baby says. For the next process the baby will able to say other word which more difficult and complex like “pa”, “ba”, and the like. When the baby’s speech organ has ripe enough the baby will able to distinguish several characters that have close articulation of manner such as /p/ and /b/, /t/ and /d/ and the like.
    In conclusion, acquiring process of phonology has straight equivalent with babies’ speech organ that gets better based on the babies’ age.

  4. Neme : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject : Psycholinguistics-B
    Assignment : V
    Mechanism of Language Acquisition
    In acquiring the language brain and ear are the most important part of human body, ear is an organ that has function to receive the information through speech sound and brain is an organ which processes the information from the ear and sent the information to other organs of human body.
    During the childhood when a baby has been introduced on language by his parent or environment, he will hear word by word like how the people utter it, he will not know how the spelling but he just know the sound how the people utter it even what does he hear is little bite different with the really word in daily life. Such as word “book” the children will hear word “buk”, word “lamp” become “lem” and “art” become “n”.
    Language process in childhood stars with input that the children get from their environment, it could be like conversation that they hear or when the adult people try to speak to them, the children will memorize these words. If they hear so many sentences for every day the will start to construct the grammar of word, the final process of this process is language acquisition process will be done by the children.

  5. Name : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject: Psycholinguistics-B
    Iqbal is seven years old now, he is a child of a widow. His parent has divorced since Iqbal get two years of his age. He is a cheerful child but some time his speak so rude unlike a child this is because he always associates with adult men in his grandmother dormitory. It brings a bad influence for his personality development.
    When I asked his mother about his language in Iqbal’s childhood, his mother said that Iqbal has a problem with speak ability process. Unlike a unusual baby who starts to speak since three years of his age, Iqbal starts to speak longer than it, till now he gets a problem in uttering several characters such as “r” and the like. When he spoke it is so difficult to understand what does he say some time. His mother also said when Iqbal tray to speak the first word that he said is “mma”. She use this word for everything such as to call his mother, to show that he is hungry, and call his father and people around him.
    I asked several question to Iqbal, I do it like a joke to make him fells comfortable with me. My first question is do you love your mother? He answered yes, I love her because he is a mother that born and take care of me, every day my mother always pick me up to my school, he answered smoothly. My second question is do your mother ever getting angry to you, what do you fell? My mother gets angry to me every day she is so fussy but I am not afraid to her, if she gets angry I just mock him and run away and she never hit me. We can conclude that in acquiring the language Iqbal through same way that though by the other babies although his progress little bit low.

  6. Name : Tari Rahman
    Reg. Number : 1314050557

    I have interviewed the child from my rent house. She is 6 years old and second child from my sister in my rent house. She has two sisters. They are Khairani Rahman and Raisa Kabila Rahman. Her name is Keyla Lutfia Rahman.

    Her parents said that she is unique child, because when she was arround 2 years old she speak like adult people. The first language have learned to her is Indonesia language. So, when we speak with minang language she will ask what the meaning. The first words from minang language is’’bayo lae..”. So, if we want to ask her about her hobbies, she will said ”hai.. bayo lae..” because this words stay on her mind. She like beach and playing in the water. When I call dog, she will cry and go to behind me. She said” dog will bite me”.

    Children will remember about the words they hear for the first time. They will repeat again and again. So, if you want to speak with children you should to say positive meaning. They will imitate what did we say to them. Children will remember they first experience.

    NB:
    I am sorry Mr. Because I sent my assignment late, that is because you said before you will sent your email to me, so I wait it.

  7. Nama : Ayung Mahendra
    Reg NO : 1314050586
    Class : Tadris Bahasa Inggris B (TBI-B)
    IMPROVING PSYCHOLINGUISTIC OF CHILD
    At this time the task is to conduct research on children aged 1.5 years-eight years. And observe whatever the language used by the child. After that we have to ask what the child’s mother language spoken by the child when he was a kid, those aged under 5 years.
    After we complete the existing requirements, we were told to do research on the child, while the child that I researched was a 2 year old child. The boy was named Adkan. Adkan is the figure of an active child, but adkan bit shy when meeting new people he knew, at that moment adkan chance was with her mother, and I was instantly meet and ask directly to his mother.
    I immediately asked her mother, a short conversation I was immediately asked his mother was to be, “sorry mom,, what is the name of your child ?? Then the mother was to be answered “. I was to be, Why kid. ?? I immediately replied “like books, I want to ask you some questions about the child’s mother, related to the language used by the child’s mother, when she was 1-2 years ago, what is the first language he uses,,? But before buk sorry, if I may know? What is the name of its mother ?? The mother was immediately answered my question, “the child’s name was to be the mother of her 2-year-old, who was to be related to language use, was to be at the age of 2 years was to be saying” Mama (mother), pa .. pa (father) .., when to eat was to be used to say “mamam .. (eat).
    For the present time, will be able to count and can already say a lot of things, but the mother said adkan, adkan including slow to speak. So, the conclusion is adkan a little longer to talk and words removed adkan are common words said by a child age

  8. Name : Wardah Nasution
    Nim : 1314050004
    TBI-A
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition. First language refers to the first language which is heard by infant. In this case, children try to express their mother tongue into ungrammatical rules because they still hear from people say and imitate them. First language acquisition is always collateral with second language acquisition. It means that first language acquisition study about mother tongue or native language whereas second language acquisition study about additional language.
    Najwa Khaira Ridwan Nasution, she is my niece, 3 years old. Her first words is “mak” (umak) when she is 6 month “yah” for “:ayah”. And when she is 8 month she could say “akan” for “makan”, “u’num” for “minum”, and “cucu” for “susu”. And at the time she can sing a song “cicak-cicak di dinding, tik-tik-tik, naik kereta api, and so on” even though there are the missing words like for song “tik-tik-tik” “tik-tik-tik bunyi hujan….genting” but we can know which song she sing by heard the rhythm or tone that she produce. “She can say “nenek” fluently and clearly when she is 10 month and she could say letter “r”. When she is 1 years old she had watched TV. According to her mother, she is quarrelsome child by often telling what she has done or what happened.
    She can talk clearly when she 1,3 years old and she had know which one a goat, a cat, a duck, a chicken, cow, deer, and so on. Of course a moment before there animals has shown to her while her parent or family taking her for traveling. When she 2 years old the feel wants to know begin to appear by many asking, what, what, and what. When she play with her friends that use mandailing language she will be did adaptation by using mix language, mandailing language and Bahasa. And now she is 3,5 years old her asking of something have deep by asking why. She have difficulty to say words that has suffix and combination words like “kepanasan” “kepanas-an”, minta maaf” “minta naap”. And still same as she 1 years old when she watch a TV she just enjoy the advertisement than the movie she watch. Now she begin to dream about be a police and that great is she know task of the police and the other profession.

  9.   NAMA : SETRI YENTI
      BP :1314050551
      ASSIGNMENT : PHYSCHOLINGUISTICS
      
      After my talk, listen, and Observe the words of a children named Della and 3 years old. So can I conclude. He is the figure of a brave boy and a little naughty. She’s not afraid of people and chatty. He should talk to be heard otherwise that he was angry and cry and say we are evil. But he is talking about is not clear. If she wants something she take us toward the things he wants. And if he wants to eat he says Same mama ma ma mam mam said. And if he wants to drink his milk he of toll mama cu ma num while providing drink a glass of milk he used to wear.
      If he invited the same people he’d like to. If not brought him crying and difficult to persuade .kalau she was eating and holding his toys do not hassled. If distrub he can be angry and slamming and throwing what he was holding. What he was doing or he was taking hard prohibited. If barred him upset and crying. Her active people do not want to be silent and always running here and here while screaming.
      When he saw something he asked, pointing toward the sound. For example her she saw the cat we said it was a cat, and he answered meow Because he’s just absorbing the sound she hears. And he Gave the name of the cat meow name. And she likes to imitate what we do. If we love something to him and he had a damaged Immediately store for fear she is beautiful

  10. Name : Ayu Windari/1314050432
    I have a brother that handsome. At the age of 2 months, the baby was already distinguish the sound of each other, and to respond with a smile or a laugh. Until the age of 6 months babies can already issued babble or a burst of sound. At the age of 8 months, she understood some of the sounds and words. It is very useful to foster understanding. He began to shout to get attention, to respond when his name was called, and interested when there are people talking though not directly fixed on him.Mastery of the child will develop according to the natural law, to follow the talent, the nature and rhythm of natural development. But the development was greatly influenced by the environment or by external stimuli (environmental). Besides, the child’s language is closely combined with the natural particularly with emotions / feelings.This is clearly expressed in the song,rhythm and voice of the child when he uttered the words and sentences.
    The results of the various investigations showed that the language development of children in accordance with the norms of grammar can not be completed in 12-18 months of age. Therefore, children should learn to speak a lot better by using refined language. While conversing children train speech function. As well as training yourself personality driven by a strong desire to communicate with other human beings (for dialogue and seek Me Understand the others and to the world around). In the process of learning to master the language, there is a period of stagnation in which children are faced with many difficulties in mastering the language and the child’s progress takes place very slowly. when he was 1 year old he could only call mama and when he wants something he should be immediately and a sense of ownership is very high.
    At the time of this emerging awareness that every object has a name. So there is an awaress of language support.Children experience the events of “hunger word” is willing to continuously memorize words and want to understand the new word.Child’s vocabulary so increasig rapidly and the child will always feel “thirsty asked” by asking questions as much as possible. The child is able to record the word of the people around him. The child like imitate people around him. So Talking is the largest part of the language that we use everyday. But the language is more than just talk. Language composed of elements of communication such as body language, gestures and eye contact. A child uses language to communicate.

  11. YUYUT KEMALA SARI/ 1314050384

    I have a little nephew in my big family. His name is Yogi Satria Anggara. He is very handsome. He is 3 years old right now. He can speak but not clear. When he say something, somestimes i don’t understand what he says, but her parent can understand. I think my little nephew use the the mars planet language. Sometimes i need to translate his language by ask the meaning from his mother, if i don’t understand it. He call his mother”mama” and his father “papa”. He can call “incim, ante, uncu, ayah, nenek” clearly.
    He like asking about everything that he wants to know. When he sees something, he will ask “what is that?”. If we answer his question, so, he will ask more and more untill he feels satisfied with our answer because children have a sense want to know. He will ask “ how “ or “why”. We should give the best answer to him and we should be passion for his all qustion. My nehew like to imitate what he heard in around him. Example when he see her mother wash his clothes, he will imitate and wash his clothes without we commond him, or when he see his grandmother is cooking, he will help his grandmather, or he can fold his clothes neatly.
    My nephew have the ownership. He will be angry if we keep taking his ownership such as his favourite plate, his toys, his pillows, etc. I ever take his pillow. Then He will be angry to me. He cries and ask to his mother. So, we can’t take children’s ownership because nobody can take his favourite ownership. The other side, he has some favourite films suc as upin&ipn, doraemon, kancil,boboboy,etc. He knows when the time that films will be presented. He will remind us about that films and ask us to turn on the television. When he watchs the favourite films, he can’t change the channel. If we do it, he will be angry and cry. Children like to imitate everything inaround us. So, be careful to speak to your children. Don’t never angry to children. We have to undertand children’s language. We have to be passion to confront them. Because they are just children.

  12. NAME/NIM : SUCI SYAHRIYANTI/1314050532
    DEVELOPING CHILDREN LANGUAGE
    I have a beautiful niece. Her name is Khairunnisa Salsabila, I always call him “icha”. She is 18 months old. When she was 0-3 months she learn to turn to me when i speak, and smile when they hear my voice. In fact, they seem to recognise our familiar voice, and will quieten at the sound of it if they are crying. Tiny babies under three months will also stop their activity and attend closely to the sound of an unfamiliar voice. They will often respond to comforting tones whether the voice is familiar or not.
    At the age of 12-15 months, he was able to respond to what she likes or not. for example, when we give the cooky, she was able to respond if she loves this cooky or not. They are also responsive to changes in your tone of voice, and to sounds other than speech. For example, they can be fascinated by toys and other objects that make sounds, enjoy music and rhythm.
    At 18 months, she’s been able to mention his name and already has a sense of ownership, for example, when I took her doll, she immediately responded “this is my doll” and usually my nephew always said “nyo cha to tak” (punyo cha ko kak) , she can ask something that she wants, for example,, when she want to drink a cup of tea and the funny thing is she says “num tatek” means she want to drinking a cup of tea that drinking my grandfather every morning, so when she want to drink a cup of tea, she always says “num tatek”. She’s able to recognize the voice that interesting sound. For example, when she hear the sound of ice cream with a sound like “ting tong” she already knew that it was the sound of the ice cream and its expression was very happy when I heard seemed to give out to the people around him if she wants ice cream. So, we should know everything and what children wants. Don’t be angry to children and we should be passion confront them.

  13. Name : Maratus Shalihah
    BP : 1314050643

    How mother talks about the children language developments?

    Mother is the first person who communicated with a baby, and they know how baby grew up, especially language. As we know “mother language” or “mother tongue” notes us how mother has important role in babies development. Not only mother, father or family also influences baby talks, but the most is mother.
    The baby just was born, crying is sound was came from the kind of response to the new environment. Mother as controller and filter the other person speak with baby, she also chosen what word will communicate with her baby. Babies learn to speak by imitating the sounds they hear around them. So the more you talk to your baby, the faster he will acquire speech and language skills. Baby starts with communicate preverbal, and continued communication with facial expressions, body movements, and ultimately with using words or verbal communication For example when baby at 8-11 month, they trying to speak “dada” or “mama” it such as the first word baby talks. And mother followed what baby said by mimic. The next month the baby will improve any word, the will called thing or point something which actually what they want to say. The gestures are baby makes it’s a way babies try to communicate, and mother should imitates baby’s gestures, as well. Baby likes to hear mother talks, especially in a warm, happy voice
    Children will be quickly understand the language or anything if they get the language in the gold or ideal period (critical age) at less 5 years. The parents are complementary to their children’s language learning.

  14. NAME : VINI ANGGRAINI
    REG.NO : 1314050365
    CLASS : TBI. A

    “IMPROVING PSYCHOLINGUISTIC OF CHILD”

    I have done interview with Mrs. Elda Marlina who has the child. She has a son who is 4 years old. His name is Muhammad Zidan. The summary of my interview is amazing, because Zidan includes the child that speak faster than walk. Zidan begins to know about the word when he is 9 months old. He hears his mother said “mama” and then he talk “ma” although he sometimes is wrong. Zidan always shows of his speaking ability, like his mama said “makan” so he follows her, but he is wrong in the spelling. He says “mamam”, so his mother is laugh.
    In the 1 and 2 years old Zidan can speak up better. Sometimes he does a mistake, but he can imitate what he hears with good pronounciation. The first zidan’s language is minang, because his parents is minang. Zidan have used minang language when speak up, but sometimes zidan can speak Indonesia language. Because his mother is teacher, so she teaches him Indonesia language when she brings him in the school. So that, we can get something that interested that is Zidan haz second language when he 2 years old.
    In the 3 years old Zidan can speak clearly and fluently. He can says mama, makan, main, kue, and other by good spelling and pronounciation although a little bit of wrong. Zidan can improve his language because his mother always pay attention for that, when he is at home his mother speaks minang and when he is at school so they speak Indonesia. I have something that make me surprised that is Zidan can imitate something faster than I think, because he can get third language through he hearing and watching. He always watch the cartoon upin and ipin that is used Melayu language everyday, so he can be permeable that. In the first he can imitate the ipin said “ betul, betul,betul” after that he follows another words.
    So, in the 4 years old Zidan can speak minang, Indonesia, and melayu although that is not perfect, but he is amazing for me. Sometimes when I speak with him he will say “ vini cantik sangat lah, nak tak?, jump,”. It makes me surprise. Not only melayu but also arabic, because he have read iqra (abatas). So, we can be concluded that improving language skill Zidan is very good, and respont of their brain is faster.

  15. assignment 4 about interview.
    NAME : VINI ANGGRAINI
    REG.NO : 1314050365
    CLASS : TBI. A

    “IMPROVING PSYCHOLINGUISTIC OF CHILD”

    I have done interview with Mrs. Elda Marlina who has the child. She has a son who is 4 years old. His name is Muhammad Zidan. The summary of my interview is amazing, because Zidan includes the child that speak faster than walk. Zidan begins to know about the word when he is 9 months old. He hears his mother said “mama” and then he talk “ma” although he sometimes is wrong. Zidan always shows of his speaking ability, like his mama said “makan” so he follows her, but he is wrong in the spelling. He says “mamam”, so his mother is laugh.
    In the 1 and 2 years old Zidan can speak up better. Sometimes he does a mistake, but he can imitate what he hears with good pronounciation. The first zidan’s language is minang, because his parents is minang. Zidan have used minang language when speak up, but sometimes zidan can speak Indonesia language. Because his mother is teacher, so she teaches him Indonesia language when she brings him in the school. So that, we can get something that interested that is Zidan haz second language when he 2 years old.
    In the 3 years old Zidan can speak clearly and fluently. He can says mama, makan, main, kue, and other by good spelling and pronounciation although a little bit of wrong. Zidan can improve his language because his mother always pay attention for that, when he is at home his mother speaks minang and when he is at school so they speak Indonesia. I have something that make me surprised that is Zidan can imitate something faster than I think, because he can get third language through he hearing and watching. He always watch the cartoon upin and ipin that is used Melayu language everyday, so he can be permeable that. In the first he can imitate the ipin said “ betul, betul,betul” after that he follows another words.
    So, in the 4 years old Zidan can speak minang, Indonesia, and melayu although that is not perfect, but he is amazing for me. Sometimes when I speak with him he will say “ vini cantik sangat lah, nak tak?, jump,”. It makes me surprise. Not only melayu but also arabic, because he have read iqra (abatas). So, we can be concluded that improving language skill Zidan is very good, and respont of their brain is faster.

  16. Nama : Weni Maryani
    Nim : 1314050166
    Tugas : Psycholinguistict

    After I was interview mother’s friend, I got the important point about the first word of children when they were child. Her name is Marlaini, he has 3 child, one son and two daughter. His name son is Fauzi, his age is 8 month years old, and his name daughter is Feli, she was 5 years old, and Fani, she was 4 years old. Between us have different something when they was child. What they know when they were child, and what they say something when they interact with their mother, and what the first word that they said when child.
    When I was talking with madam Marlaini about her children, for the first about old child, her name is feli, I got something from that, if feli when she was 1 years old she just know how to say “MA” everything she always said ‘’ma’’, may be she wants to say something but because she did not know how to said it, so she always said ‘ma’. And then her mother always try to many times to invite her children to interact with madam Marlaini, using the simple word for example, mama, papa.
    When feli and fani, 2 years old, they have said susu, but not clear, for example when they want milk or ‘’susu” they said “tutu”, when they were crying they always said “tutu” that is a mark if they hungry. And after that the daughter’s madam marlaini did not want to sister of madam marlaini wants to play with them. they just want with our mother, and their father. Because they just know and meet with their parents. And when they were 4 until 5 years old they have can talking more, and they have can play with their friend and they have know about friendship.
    Finally, I can take some conclusion about the first word when they were child. I think this is important thing and we have should know about that. And it is amazing for me how children to discover words. Sometimes after the age of one, children begin to use repeatedly the same string of sounds to mean the same thing to mean the same thing.

  17. NAME : RADIAN MAULIDA
    BP : 1314050236
    CLASS : TBI-A

    Child name which is adit.adit is child of couple gibran and iyur.when she comes into the world to go to the world,she cries and after next several months age vicinity 3 months she can laughter and seeing,and corresponds to its developing,at the age one year she can begin speaking and calls ma,and she memaanggil its father with the title pa.dan she can also converse if she drinks milk therefore she will say tutu,with oldster help and its environment influence also therefore adit can begin speaking and can say word with every consideration and truth at aged scorpion 3 years,and at the age that she can say what does she want as want eating,want drink,want bath etc..
    On age 4 her years have entered play groups and with marks sense intercourse with temann its therefore most composes good language within mereka.kommunikasi she with its pretty good friend,while at be converses therefore what do at speaks it that was clear,and don’t appear again as time she try 2 tahun.karena environmentally very regards language from a childs and overchanging where she stays behind and mark sense teachings of tuaa’s persons to its child for can get language with baik.dan oldster even has to teach to its child word which is easily at he said and her ordinary one does knockabout,with activity that it do at its life.
    And present at the age 4,5 her years was knowledgeable lexicons and adit now can converse by otherses and its friend also,and adit was wonted deng defies talking and it no longer most ambivalent deep speaking

  18. ELLA JULIANA
    1314050275
    TBI. A
    Many babies during the first year and second, trying to tell us their needs and wants in this way. Type communication is known as “forms pra_speak) usually there are four forms: crying, babbling, gestures, and expressing emotions. Crying is one of the ways babies communicate with the word in general. Althought people are not always right describe what that would be submitted by the baby but, the crying indicates that babies are trying to communicate. With the development of the mechanism of sound, the baby can spend some explosive. Some of them on hold and eventually evolved into a babble. And baby using gestures instead of talking and not as complement to the talks as is done by most wich older children. Adolescents and adults. Even tought the baby can say a few words many babies continue to use gestures wich combined with word to make a sentence.
    Fajar two years old., fajar often follow his father, mother, to say something. Example, fajar always say “Mbah” mbah is fajar’s grandfather. fajar intimate with grandfather, when fajar cry. Fajar will calling mbah. If want something fajar will say to grandfather with say, mbah.. mbah. Just that. Without say what his want, just mbah. But grandfather will understand what wich want fajar. That is first fajar say. After that, fajar say “bu” the meaning “bu” is mother. Bu.. bu.., fajar will say mother with calll “bu”. Usually, if fajar cry. Fajar can not to explain why his cry, just with call buu.. buu… just that.
    After that, fajar always say “itu”. Example, if fajar give question by mother about something so, fajar just say itu.. ituu aa. Without we know what his want right. Anything what his say, fajar just say ituu tuu. And fajar can say, “mamam” mamam is eat. Fajar has understand, if fajar hungry fajar will say mamam.. mamam. And fajar can say, “ucuk” the meaning ucuk is beak. Fajar will follow his uncle if any something beak. That is just kidding but, fajar will touch his nose if uncle say ucuukk. Fajar like understand with situation whereas, fajar dont know what ucuuk or beak. That just follow his uncle.
    Fajar can say “bumbum” the meaning bumbum is car but, fajar say bumbum. Because bumbum to playing. If fajar want a car with his friend so, car will call bumbum. Ofcours, fajar’s mother get understand with her babies. And fajar can say “ayok”. Ayok like invitation to invite about something. And fajar can say “mimik” and “jajan”

  19. ELLA JULIANA
    1314050275
    TBI. A
    Many babies during the first year and second, trying to tell us their needs and wants in this way. Type communication is known as “forms pra_speak) usually there are four forms: crying, babbling, gestures, and expressing emotions. Crying is one of the ways babies communicate with the word in general. Althought people are not always right describe what that would be submitted by the baby but, the crying indicates that babies are trying to communicate. With the development of the mechanism of sound, the baby can spend some explosive. Some of them on hold and eventually evolved into a babble. And baby using gestures instead of talking and not as complement to the talks as is done by most wich older children. Adolescents and adults. Even tought the baby can say a few words many babies continue to use gestures wich combined with word to make a sentence.
    Fajar two years old., fajar often follow his father, mother, to say something. Example, fajar always say “Mbah” mbah is fajar’s grandfather. fajar intimate with grandfather, when fajar cry. Fajar will calling mbah. If want something fajar will say to grandfather with say, mbah.. mbah. Just that. Without say what his want, just mbah. But grandfather will understand what wich want fajar. That is first fajar say. After that, fajar say “bu” the meaning “bu” is mother. Bu.. bu.., fajar will say mother with calll “bu”. Usually, if fajar cry. Fajar can not to explain why his cry, just with call buu.. buu… just that.
    After that, fajar always say “itu”. Example, if fajar give question by mother about something so, fajar just say itu.. ituu aa. Without we know what his want right. Anything what his say, fajar just say ituu tuu. And fajar can say, “mamam” mamam is eat. Fajar has understand, if fajar hungry fajar will say mamam.. mamam. And fajar can say, “ucuk” the meaning ucuk is beak. Fajar will follow his uncle if any something beak. That is just kidding but, fajar will touch his nose if uncle say ucuukk. Fajar like understand with situation whereas, fajar dont know what ucuuk or beak. That just follow his uncle.
    Fajar can say “bumbum” the meaning bumbum is car but, fajar say bumbum. Because bumbum to playing. If fajar want a car with his friend so, car will call bumbum. Ofcours, fajar’s mother get understand with her babies. And fajar can say “ayok”. Ayok like invitation to invite about something. And fajar can say “mimik” and “jajan”

  20. NAMA: PUTRI MARDIANI
    NIM : 1314050016

    Development Speak of Children
    My young sister three years olds.she so beautiful.in the first years old she begin litle speak to her parents.usually,if she want something,she will try to speak.example,if she want to drink a milk,she will be saying”cu..cu..cu..”with funny exspression.she will say something unfluently.something so difficult to understand by all of people around her.if she can’t say something,she will shown that her physical exspression to drink or eat something. or usually she will be crying and her parents will be understanding if her children want something.and in the first years old,development has begin seen.in the first years old,she begin understand what are the parents saying.she know tha exspression from her parents.example,if her parent saying or distrub to doing something,her parent will say that”no,don’t do it”don’t touch it”no is so dirty”.so from her parent saying with physical exspression,she will know and will be understanding and not to do it.
    In the two years old, she begin know who or what are all around her.she know that anything around her.she know who are her family.she begin to interaction with all people around her.she begin know what are the people saying to her.she know that what are the music,and sometimes when she listen or heard the music,she will follow it’s music with her exspression.is so funny.she begin to observation what are the things around her and imitate what are her looks.she will shown that her physical in her body to people around her.and if her parent of somebody want to ask what are the things,she will be answering his question and show that her body.example,if her parent ask”where is that your eyes baby?she will show that her eyes and say that”it this my eyes”.she will be easy to understand what are the things people shown that to her.she will observation it step by step and listen what are people say that to the things,record that and try to say that.
    In the three years old,she can to speak fluent.she can ask what her want without shown that physic exspression and crying.she will repeat or imitate everything that people around her do it or say it.in the three years old,she know that her friend and do communication with her friends.she will try to answering what are her parents asking to her.she answering that question honestly.she record everything that her heard in environment.when she easy to communication with all people,she will easy to know that people and will be play with all people around her.she will saying everything that her looks and everything that her listen.so,the growing children in this period(1-5)is usually say that”gold periode”.because in this period,the children will be record and imitate everything that her parents do it.they are will be give a answer from everything asking.the children will be imitating what are the parents do.exampe”how to eat,how to take a bath,how to talk and how to interaction with all people.
    E_mail: putrimardiani275@yahoo.com

  21. NAMA : MARINI
    BP : 1314050498
    ASSIGNHMENT : PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

    A few days ago, I have been interviewed by a woman named Jasmawati Kurnia, he was 29 years old. He had a son named Rangga Pratama Aidil, children aged 2 years and 7 months. Everyday he spends time with his grandmother while his parents were busy working. According to his mother he is a very active child and agile.
    After that I asked her about how her language acquisition. Said her mother, Rangga meruapakan child language acquisition or absorbency of languages including sluggish. Because at the age of one year more Rangga can not say words as easily as ma, nda, or yah. Then around the age of 1 year and a half she was not able to mimic what was being said by the people around him. Rangga it understand what people are saying and understand aap intent of the words we speak, but imitate what we say he is not capable. After two years old until she just could arrange the words properly but the pronunciation has not been too clear.
    Based on the information I got. According to his mother, Rangga experienced anything like that because he is rarely invited to speak by his grandmother. Rangga often played alone at home while her grandmother was also busy with their own affairs, so there is not time to invite insects to talk. As we know, the little boy tangkapnya power is very strong, and we have to teach children about good things. And more importantly also the child should be encouraged to speak .To that language acquisition goes well

  22. Name : Elvi Rahmi
    Bp : 13141050390
    Assignment : Psycholinguistics

    Last week I had interviewed a mother who named Madya, and he has a daughter named andin, age 5 years. Then I asked about how the acquisition of the first language in children, he replied in his opinion on the child’s language acquisition or language acquisition device is obtaining that goes unnoticed and gradually. he said the language is a tool that has been awarded to every human gods, so the first language acquisition simply by stimulating not teach him. Then he also said that the children have a lot of neurons in their brain that causes the child can catch the language quickly.
    Then i asked again my question is what andin language in speaking at the age of 18 months to be able to acquire the language properly? And he said, at the age of 18 months andin start producing words nearly ten words per day, in the words of snacks, expression, father, and grandmother, grandfather, and eat but the pronunciation is not so perfect and obviously, after the age of 2 years andin start can construct simple sentences and regular in making his sentence bleak example the phrase ” I au atan ” referred to is ” I want to eat ”. If the example is in the English language such as ” i going school ” before you can make a correct sentence ” i am going to school ”. after the age of 2:11 andin been able to master simple sentences and andin at this age are very pleased to say the new words and phrases he had heard from others eg she heard the office, school, money, father willing to work and so on. And at the age of 2 years andin been able to master simple sentences.
    According to the extensive details of mrs. Madya, andin start using complex sentences at the age of 3 years. At this age, andin already using similar compound sentences with conjunctions and compound sentences and storied. Examples of such sentences as “Boni play ball and stick, let Echa drinking milk healthy. Mrs. Madya said that the sentence of Proficiency in use as more and more children acquire word. In age 3:6 andin start forming grammatical constructions more obvious even to strangers. Construction sentences still vary widely. Nonetheless, andin been able to speak well for some topics. At the age of 4-5 years, andin already thoroughly mastered all the sounds that are essential for language development, then the already adept at using complex sentences at the age of 5 years. Andin start can make various sentences using words deiktik like me-you, here and there, right-left and andin began to compose complex sentences correctly.

  23. TUGAS KE-2
    Putri Rahma Dani PSYCOLINGUISTICS
    1314050120
    TBI-A

    I will report about how children’s language improvement since she say the first word until she can do communication. She is six years old right now. Her name is khaira, which she is second child from partner of Rika and Budi. They said that khaira say the first word at age of 18 months. The first word who she said like cu – cu, because khaira’s parents always said susu when khaira want it. Why khaira say cu – cu not susu when she was hungry, because she is processing language improvement. After that, she can also say mi and bi, because she call her parents are ummi and abi. We know that ability in language use as communication asset is innateness from human beings, and then it depends on environmental she lived how people do communication. So, the children generally will imitate at every people said and done.
    Next, khaira was 3 years old. She had many vocabulary in minang language, she could say pai, capek, kasiko, makan, etc. in fact, her parents use minang language as their first language (version of bukittinggi). In that time, she afforded for doing communication with many people, understanding what people said and giving response immediately, but khaira sometimes said something did not use grammar correctly, she often say incomplete sentences. Actually, it is not big problem because she still in process of language development. So, her first language is minang language.
    Then, khaira was 4-5 years old, she often visit her grandma in payakumbuh. In the first time, she felt difficult to do communication because it has a bit different language from minang language (version of Bukittinggi). Actually, It is still minang language, but that both languages have respective style. She was just silent because she did not understand yet what people said and what she will say or respond. In the long process, she tried understand and say something appropriate her friend said. At the end, she can use minang (payakumbuh) language well.
    Finally, khaira is 6 years old. She is coming to kindergarten. All her friends use Indonesian. It is khaira really must use Indonesian in the school. When her parents visit her in the school and pay attention how she did communication with her friends, in surprise she can use Indonesian really good.
    It can I conclude that khaira has master 3 languages, they are minang (bukittinggi version), minang (payakumbuh version), and Indonesian. It is so good language development for child who still six years old.

  24. RESPONSE:
    Name/NIM: Assrimalona / 1314050183

    Assignment 1.

    In the first meeting we (the students) were introducing our self by told name, background of school and address one by one. At this meeting we took many times to speak about introduction . After that were listened to your (lecturer) explanation about your self, you told everything about your self . Actually, at the first time I don’t know more explanation about you sir but finally I know who you are from your way teaching us at this time After that, we were talking about micro linguistics and macro linguistics and we were talking about psycholinguistic. In the second meeting, you gave us the syllabus and wrote it on the whiteboard and then you gave us short explanation for each topic and explained about the tasks for us that we need to do in this subject. At this meeting, we have begun to learn about material so we can use the time as much as possible to learn. And then we learned about “introduction to psychology”. I read the statement from the book that saying by Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner psycholinguistics (1993)”the field of psycholinguistics, or the psychology of language, is concerned with discovering the psychological processes that make it possible for humans to acquire and use language”. So based on this statement I can understand that psycholinguistic is an subject that concern with finding the psychological processes for humans to use language. This topic was inspire me at the time that everybody can use language and acquire that although it English, Arabian, European and so on. And in this meeting sometimes you (lecturer) made a joke or something funny from your explanation to make us interested to attend to you or to take our(the students) attention. I think it was nice explanation about this material.

    Assignment 2

    Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar processes. Talking about children learn language through imitation, the children imitate what we have said or told to them. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. It means that when they imitate what they hear but they cannot make it as like as true. Maybe they change the grammar or say something that has same sound, we can say that they say that based on their tongue ability to say that. As we know that the children to say “S” need to through two letter like want to say “susu” when they can say that they will use “T” become “tutu” and together with their progress they will say “cucu” and when they more acquire ”S” letter they can say “susu”. The children can imitate the sentence but they change the form. For example when adult say he’s going out, and the children answer by saying he go out. Talking about reinforcement, in this topic the adult is very important to give explanation or correction about the children mistake while they are saying something. Sometimes repeating is important to do because children do not know what they are doing wrong. Analogy has been suggested to children to learn language that make them compare the sentence, by hearing the sentence and use it as a sample to form other sentences. Actually it’s same as imitation but in analogy they can make it in other form. Through structure input, we talk to children with special way, we need to observe our intonation, speak more slowly and more clearly and softly. This type called motherese.

    Assignment 3

    Based on this argument we can take the meaning that the baby has learned the language in uterus since they can hear the voice or sound, because many people said that when you are pregnant you need to say the good things to make your child also say the good things when they were born. By this way they can understand when the mother is sad, afraid or worry about something when they are in uterus although the baby and the mother has something that make them can feeling what happened to each other. So the language that they learn first is feeling. Many people saying that the baby very suspended with the mother. It’s true, because everybody through their day with the baby. The baby can stop crying if the mother beside them or the mother hold them and we can call that as language. Because it’s like an interaction heart to heart from the mother to the infant and just both of them understand that. By using tape recordings or videotapes it can sniggle the baby’s brain to learn language. We know that when the infant can say something but when they around six months, they begin to babble. Babbling is not linguistics chaos. Almost every time when they talk they use consonants in their babbling. They like to say “aaaaaaaaaaa” until they take a breath and then repeat again. The early babbles consist mainly of repeated consonants-vowel sequences like, mama and dada. baby hearing a human voice over a loudspeaker saying [pa] [pa] [pa] will slowly decrease her rate of sucking. If the sound changes to [ba] or even [pha], the sucking rate increases dramatically. Controlled experiments show that adults find it difficult to differentiate between allophones of one phoneme, but for infants it becomes naturally. They first utterances of children are not completely like adult sentence but they can convey that for us and we understand that. It cause that the words or sentence that they produced conform to morphology, phonology and syntax. Infants learn language based on what they hear from their parents or their family, they process that for several time and then they say that but it’s not perfect in pronunciation and grammar. They are leaning to say something but they still do not know the meaning. They often to say something that they often hear from their environment although with error grammatical.

  25. NAME : RADIAN MAULIDA
    1314050246
    TBI A

    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Please write and type your brief summary of what we have learned in the first and second meeting in the comment session below. (please write only within 300 words. Exceeding those number numbers will reduce your score).

    Answer :
    in the first meeting we star our study with introduces our self , afterwards our lecturer introduces her self too. After we introduces our self, lecturer have given our material about psycolinguistic. What is the psycholinguistic, and what is the benefit of psycolinguistic. Psycholinguistics is a recent branch of linguistics developed in the sixties. It uses linguistic concepts to describe psychological processes connected with the acquisition and use of language. As a distinct area of interest, psycholinguistics developed in the early sixties, and in its early form covered acoustic phonology and language pathology. But now a days it has been influenced deeply by the development of generative theory. The benefit of studying psycholinguistic is can add the student’s knowledge. It can make the student listen the language with perfectly. The student will be introduced to what we currently know about how the brain processes language. This project present an outsanding opportunity for focusing on how the brain transforms man made symbols such as words into meaningfull concepts. It provides an opportunity to compare how different species of organism communicate and how critical communication is to the progress of our civilization.
    In the second meeting we just talking with our lecturer discuss about macro and micro linguistic. Which between macro and micro linguistic have different. Micro means very small and macro is very large. The micro linguistic is interested in how small changes in a distinct word or other linguistic element may offer clues to larger trends. Micro linguistic explores the ways in which society influence a speaker’s dialect-meaning the specific language of a person and how people communicate with one another in line with different social variables or factor. And then macro linguistic studies major change in language from outside forces the latin language influence on English.came
    ASSIGNMENT 2
    Please write your response about what you have learned so far about language acquisition, especially about the mechanism of language Acquisition in one paragraph only (between 10-15 sentence). You can quote one or two sentences from the passage that we read together in the class in your response, but your sentences should be more than what you quoted.

    Answer :
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language Acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non humans do not communicate by using language. Language Acquisition usually refers to first language Acquisition, which studies infants acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second language acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages.
    The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can be vocalizwd as in speech, or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even though the human language capacity is finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggest that every individual has three recursive mechanism that allow sentences to go indeterminately. These three mechanism are relativization, complementation, and coordination. Furthermore, there are actually two main guiding principles in first language acquisition, that is speech perception always precedes speech production and the gradually evolving system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time, beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.

    Mechanism of language it means the theory that everything in the universe is produced by matter in process, capable of explanation by the laws of chemistry and physics. The theory that a natural process in machine like or is explainable in terms of Newtonian mechanism. The technical aspects of doing something, a mechanism of social control, a mechanism of social control, mechanism of commucation, the mechanics of language same with prose style. Its mean language acquisition especially about mechanism of language.

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    Please write your feedback or argument or evaluation about the following statement from the book we read in the class:

    The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguist record spontaneous utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352)

    Answer :
    I agree with this statement if the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents especially their mother, because when baby still in the body mother, our mother try to interact with baby with talking about whatever. After baby was born in the world not wrong if language acquisition is mother language. What the studies show is that child language is not just a degenerate form of adult language, at each stage of development the child’s language conforms to a set of rules, a grammar. Although child grammars and adults grammar differ in certain respects, they also share many formal properties. Like adults, children have grammatical categories such as NP and VP, rules for building phrases structures and for moving constituents, as well as phonological rules, morphological rules, and semantic rules, and they adhere to universal principles such as structure dependency.
    Children do not wake up one fine morning with a fully formed grammar in their heads, relative to the complexity of the adult grammar that they eventually attain, the process of language acquisition is fast, but it is not instantaneous. From first words to virtual adult competence takes three to four years, during which time children pass through linguistic stages, they begin by babbling, then they acqire their first words, and in just a few months they begin to put words together into sentences.
    Observations of children in different language areas of the world reveal that the stages are similar, possibly universal. Some of the stages last for a short time, other remains longer. Some stages may overlap for a short period, though the transition between stages is often sudden. As we will illustrate, children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the words and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology, and syntax that he has developed to that to that point. This may be why children do not respond to correction. Nobody do not like me and want nother one spoon, daddy may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but they are not errors from the child’s point of view. They reflect his current grammar, indeed, the so called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.

  26. Name : WENI MARYANI
    BP : 1314050236
    TBI A

    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Please write and type your brief summary of what we have learned in the first and second meeting in the comment session below. (please write only within 300 words. Exceeding those number numbers will reduce your score).

    Answer :
    in the first meeting we star our study with introduces our self , afterwards our lecturer introduces her self too. After we introduces our self, lecturer have given our material about psycolinguistic. What is the psycholinguistic, and what is the benefit of psycolinguistic. Psycholinguistics is a recent branch of linguistics developed in the sixties. It uses linguistic concepts to describe psychological processes connected with the acquisition and use of language. As a distinct area of interest, psycholinguistics developed in the early sixties, and in its early form covered acoustic phonology and language pathology. But now a days it has been influenced deeply by the development of generative theory. The benefit of studying psycholinguistic is can add the student’s knowledge. It can make the student listen the language with perfectly. The student will be introduced to what we currently know about how the brain processes language. This project present an outsanding opportunity for focusing on how the brain transforms man made symbols such as words into meaningfull concepts. It provides an opportunity to compare how different species of organism communicate and how critical communication is to the progress of our civilization.
    In the second meeting we just talking with our lecturer discuss about macro and micro linguistic. Which between macro and micro linguistic have different. Micro means very small and macro is very large. The micro linguistic is interested in how small changes in a distinct word or other linguistic element may offer clues to larger trends. Micro linguistic explores the ways in which society influence a speaker’s dialect-meaning the specific language of a person and how people communicate with one another in line with different social variables or factor. And then macro linguistic studies major change in language from outside forces the latin language influence on English.came
    ASSIGNMENT 2
    Please write your response about what you have learned so far about language acquisition, especially about the mechanism of language Acquisition in one paragraph only (between 10-15 sentence). You can quote one or two sentences from the passage that we read together in the class in your response, but your sentences should be more than what you quoted.

    Answer :
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language Acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non humans do not communicate by using language. Language Acquisition usually refers to first language Acquisition, which studies infants acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second language acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages.
    The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can be vocalizwd as in speech, or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even though the human language capacity is finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. Evidence suggest that every individual has three recursive mechanism that allow sentences to go indeterminately. These three mechanism are relativization, complementation, and coordination. Furthermore, there are actually two main guiding principles in first language acquisition, that is speech perception always precedes speech production and the gradually evolving system by which a child learns a language is built up one step at a time, beginning with the distinction between individual phonemes.

    Mechanism of language it means the theory that everything in the universe is produced by matter in process, capable of explanation by the laws of chemistry and physics. The theory that a natural process in machine like or is explainable in terms of Newtonian mechanism. The technical aspects of doing something, a mechanism of social control, a mechanism of social control, mechanism of commucation, the mechanics of language same with prose style. Its mean language acquisition especially about mechanism of language.

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    Please write your feedback or argument or evaluation about the following statement from the book we read in the class:

    The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguist record spontaneous utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352)

    Answer :
    I agree with this statement if the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents especially their mother, because when baby still in the body mother, our mother try to interact with baby with talking about whatever. After baby was born in the world not wrong if language acquisition is mother language. What the studies show is that child language is not just a degenerate form of adult language, at each stage of development the child’s language conforms to a set of rules, a grammar. Although child grammars and adults grammar differ in certain respects, they also share many formal properties. Like adults, children have grammatical categories such as NP and VP, rules for building phrases structures and for moving constituents, as well as phonological rules, morphological rules, and semantic rules, and they adhere to universal principles such as structure dependency.
    Children do not wake up one fine morning with a fully formed grammar in their heads, relative to the complexity of the adult grammar that they eventually attain, the process of language acquisition is fast, but it is not instantaneous. From first words to virtual adult competence takes three to four years, during which time children pass through linguistic stages, they begin by babbling, then they acqire their first words, and in just a few months they begin to put words together into sentences.
    Observations of children in different language areas of the world reveal that the stages are similar, possibly universal. Some of the stages last for a short time, other remains longer. Some stages may overlap for a short period, though the transition between stages is often sudden. As we will illustrate, children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the words and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology, and syntax that he has developed to that to that point. This may be why children do not respond to correction. Nobody do not like me and want nother one spoon, daddy may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but they are not errors from the child’s point of view. They reflect his current grammar, indeed, the so called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.

  27. Name : MANJA MULYANI SIREGAR
    NIM : 1314050235

    ASSIGMENT 1
    What we have learned in the first and second meeting are the defenition about psychology of language that have meaning a science or knowledge about process adapted and used language observe from psychology side (Nan Breinstain Ratner, dkk. 1998). Then, defenition the psychology of language is the field of psycholinguistics, or the psychology of language, is concerned with discovering the psychological processes that make it possible for humans to acquire and use language. ( Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner Psycholinguistics:1993) Temporary while, according to Wikipedia, defenition about psychology of language is a science or knowledge that learned about psychology and neurobiology factors to enable for human to obtain, to use, and understand the language. In general psychology of language learned three components (Clark &Clark, 1977;Tanenhaus,1989) : first is comprehention about how people understand spoken and written languange, second is speech production about how people produce language, and last acquition about how people learn languange.

    ASSIGMENT 2
    What i have learned so far about languange acquisition, first about defenition of languange acquitionis doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is ever required to perform (Leonard Bloomfield, Languange:1933). Every aspect of language is extremely complex. Yet very young children-before tge age of five-already know most of the intricate system we have been calling the grammar of languange. Before they can add 2+2, children are containing sentence, asking and using the syntactic, phonological, morphological, and semantic ruless of the grammar. Then the mechanism of language acquition is there have been various proposals the psychological mecanism involved in acquairing a languange. Early teories of language acquition were heavily influenced by behaviorsm, a school of psychology prevalent in the 1950s. As the name implies, behaviorism focused on people’s behaviors, which are directly observable, rather than on the mental system underlying these behaviors and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process.
    At first glance the questiin of how children acquire language doesnt seem to be such a difficult one to answer. Dont children just listen to what is said around them and imitate the speech they hear? Imitation is invilved to some extent, of course, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech. Children do not hear words like holded or toths or sentences such as cat stand up table or many of the other utterences they produce between the ages of two And three. Imitation cannot account for another important phenomenon; children who are unable to speak for neurological reasons learn the language spoken to them and understand it. When they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use the languagefor speaking.
    ASSIGMENT 3
    My opinion or arguments about language acquition like do children learn through renforcement, do children learn language through analogy,and do children learn about through structure input? First , another proposal is that children learn to produce correct (gramatical0 sentences because they are positively rinforced when they say something right, and negatively reinforced when they something wrong. One kind of reinforcement is correction of “bad grammars” and reward frr “good grammar”. Roger Brown and his colleagues at Harverd University studied parent-child interaction. Their report that reinforcement seldom accures, and when it does it is usually, incorrect pronounciation or incorret inporting. Second, studies of spountaneous speech, as well as experiments, show that children never make mistaks of this sort. Children seem to know about the structure dependency od rules at a very early age. Last, analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account for language development because they are based on the assumption that what the child acquires is a set of sentences or form rather that a set of gramatical rules.

  28. NAME/NIM/CLASS : FATIMAH /1314050246/ TBI.A
    Assignment 1
    • Psycholinguistics is the study of how individuals comprehend, produced, and ac-
    quire language.
    • The study of psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science. Cognitive
    science reflects the insights of psychology, linguistics, and, to a lesser extent, fields such as artificial intelligence, neuroscience, and philosophy.
    • Psycholinguistics stresses the knowledge of language and the cognitive processes involved in ordinary language use.
    • Psycholinguists are also interested in the social rules involved in language use
    and the brain mechanisms associated with language.
    • Contemporary interest in psycholinguistics began in the 1950s, although impor-
    tant precursors existed earlier in the century.
    This book is about how people to use language. Few things play as central a role in our everyday lives as language. It is our most important tool in communicating our thoughts and feelings to each other. Infants cry and laugh, and their facial expression surely give their parents some nation of the kinds of emotions they are experiencing but it is not until children are able to articulated speech that we gain much understanding of their private thoughts.
    As we grow, language comes to serve other functions as well. Most young
    people develop jargon that is more meaningful to those of the same age than to
    older or younger individuals. Such specialized language serves to bind us more
    closely with our peers while at the same times excluding those who are not our peers. Language becomes a badge of sorts, a means of identifying whether a person is within asocial group. Similar processes are at workin gender and social class differences in language use. within a social group. Similar processes are at work in gender and social class
    differences in language used. And it is very important to learn it. Because can add at knowledge that good.

    Assignment 2
    The study of language acquisition is meant the process whereby children achieve a fluent control of their native language. Psycholinguistics have therefore attempt general theory of language acquisition and language use. Some have arqued that learning is entirely product of experience and that our environment effects all of us in the same way. Other have suggested that everybody has an innate language learning mechanism which determines learning of acquisition of language identically for each of us. Language acquisition is the result of stimulus response activities. Imitation, repetition, and memorization. Language learning is process basically a mechanical process of habit formation. Then the child has innate language acquiring device. He learns a language exposure to it in society. Native language acquisition is much less likely to be affected by mental retardation than the acquisition of other intellectual activities. To acquire fluence in a language a child has to be exosed to people who speak that language. A language is not something we know by instinct from our parents. A child a linguist in cradle he acquires a language more easly than adults. He discovers the structures of his native language to use that language. Language acquisition seems to be a process both analogy and application , nature and nature. And when we study language acquisition is very important for us because can increase our language. And then the child can more know about language acquisition more good for the child listened. And when the child listen her mother and the child more understand what us listened. I hope after that study language acquisition the child can language more good again. Their have been various proposal concerning the psychological mechanisms involved in acquiring a language. Early theories of language acquisition were heavily influencedby behaviorism a school of psychology behaviorism focused on people behavior.

    Assignment 3
    I think is very interesting with this sentences in paragraph because the child can learn language in diaries with good, then the child can add words before that. and the child can more active, creative to learn about language, then can to know new words, when the child use tape records that is good because can improving that knowledge. At each stages of development the child language conforms to a set of rulers a grammar. Similarity, newborns respond to phonetic contrasts found in human language when these differences are not phonemic in the language spoken in the that home . the generally accepted view is that humans are born with a predisposition to discover the units that serve to express linguistics meaning, and that can learn about knowledge. With the technique the child can the child can smart, diligent what he to make something.With videotapes the child many experiments and the child can to know what the child listened that. sometimes the child can to think more quickly what the child do that, and more jenious again. There is not enough information in the language samples given to children to account for the richnes and complexity of children’s language The pattern of development is not based on parental speech but on innate language knowledge When I construct a sentence, an isolated concept does not first enter consciousnesscausing me to utter a sound to represent it. That it cannot be this way is shown by the phenomenon of phonetic induction which occurs when a vocal element on the verge of being expressed is already affecting the form of a sound being spoken . And similarly, an articulation that has just occurred influences the succeed-ing sound The sentence is not an image running with precision through consciousness where each single word or single sound appears only momentarily while the preceding and following elements are lost from consciousness. Rather, it stands as a whole at the cognitive level while it is being spoken. If this should ever not be the case, we would irrevocably lose the thread of speech. And more good again when the child learn about whith sentences. Experimental Studi in order to investigate the planning of Language Production in first language and second language Recent studies have used a set of experimental tasks to constrain the words that speakers produce futterances in real time. And language its possible to learn about.

  29. Name/ NIM: Nurrahmi / 1314050149/ TBI-A VI

    Assignment 1
    In the first and second meeting, we have learned about describe psycholinguistics and language acquisition. Psycholinguistics is the study of psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. Then, how someone gets language the first, second, third, and other language and they can utter with different language. Through language we can describe characters of people.
    When we come into being, we do not spontaneously speak like “mama, I am hungry”. It is not logical. We are acquire language in phases likes imitation, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. The first, we get language with imitation. A baby imitate sound vowel like “a, i, u, e, o”. Reinforcement is good or bad grammar. Father and mother correct grammar for their child. Analogy is a child says incorrect grammar but its meaning can understand. Last, structured imput or baby talk. Baby’s grammar will be formed automatically with its environment.

    Assignment 2
    The mechanisms of Language Acquisition are Imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and Structured input. children learn through imitation. when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. Children learn through reinforcement is Correction of bad grammar and reward for good grammar. through analogy, the children is hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentence. For instance, a sentence “I painted a red barn”. The children will says “I painted a barn red”. It is not different, but grammatically is incorrect. children learn structured input on the role of environment. The children learn structured input or grammar is automatically. Wherever his live, he will learn grammar base on his environment.

    Assignment 3
    I think to use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments are good for infants, who are not yet speaking. But, if infant has problem its. Parents should bring to doctor. Because it is one problem why infant is not yet speaking. After that we could taught infants with tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments for start speaking. It will habitual to hear word by word and sentences what it has heard. Then it will trying to say its. First, it will be started with familiar word “mama” because imitate from videotapes with his cartoon likes. But, the parent should control and train to utter words of its mouth.

  30. Name/Class/Nim: Novi oktafani/ TBI.A/1314050243

    Assignment 1
    In the first and second meeting we have learned about learning aquisition, in the first meeting we begun to learned what is language aquisition? In the book that have i readed explain that in the fact we as human have learned language since i was born, where our parents introduce them about language, its can we call with mother language. The first word word that our parents taught with us like “mama” call “mama” or “papa “ call “papa”. Usually the child in the first can’t to say it, however after the child often hear the words he or she can say it altough still halthingly. If the child have could to say word or sentence with awere it is mean they should be learning about grammar.
    In point mechanism of language aquisition told that a theoryof languge a qusition werw heavily influenced by behaviorism. Language was viewed as kind of verbal behavior an d it was proposed that children learn language trough imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar proceses.
    1. Children learned trough imitation
    For example, a baby 2 years old. She or he parents teach her or his about word, her mother said, simon say ” mama, mama,” her mother repeat the word. Simon just see and hear until her can say “mmamma” with hastling. In the fact so many case we found that children on school more easy understand learning with imatation.
    2. Children learned trough reinforcement
    Such conversation between parents and children belllow. This conversation was between a linguist studying child language and his child. Mothers and fathers are usually delighed that their young children are talking and consider every utterence a gem. The “mistakes” children make are cute and repeated endlessly to anyone who will listen. Like example bellow:
    Child: no body don’t like me
    Mother: no, say ‘nobody likes me.”
    Child: no body don’t like me
    (dialogue repeated eight times)
    Mother: now, listen carefully, say “Nobody likes me”.
    Child: oh, nobody don’t likes me.

    One kind of reinforcement is correction of “bad grammar” and reward for “good grammar”.
    3. Learn language trough analogy
    4. Learn trough structured input
    In this topic use CDS (child directed speech) theory, where this teory talk about aquisition places a lot of emphasis on the role of the invironment in facilitating language aqusition.

    Assignment 2
    Can we saw in mechanism of language told about people behavior in language. Before, the first time baby learn to speak they dont learn about sructure but they learn with imitate their parents, what the sentence who their parents speak with them. In learned Mechanisms of Language Acquisition, there are some ways to learn language that is do children learn trough imitation, do children learn trough reinforcement, do children learn language trough anology, do children learn trought structured input.
    The first in point children learn trough imitation, the ways to learn language special fo baby that begin to speak for the firs time, in this theory baby listen what do her or his parents say. And imitate the words, altough still hasthingly. Second point is do children learn trough reinforcement, its special for child begin in 1 to 6 years old. In this theory still need role of thir parents in teach children in learn words or sentences. In reiforcement theory children begin to know about grammar in sentences. The parents say word or sentences in some time and their children repeat words or sentences until be corect sentences. Then learn language trough analogy, it is for children school age. In do this theory need role of parants and teacher in school. The children hope to can analogy the words or sentences. It is mean children shold be can to distingush between wrong and corect words or sentences. And the last one is children trough structured input, same with trhee point above, this theory explain about motheres in use and grammatical begun with structure, language in use, pronunciation, intonation and so on.

    Assignment 3
    When i was reading this book about The perception of speech sound perception and produce can we conclude that, in 0 a infant can not to speak, the infant express theirselve by crying. In hte first month in babie’s age they are learned abouth phoneme by their parents. Example the speaker (parent) saying [pa] [pa] or [ma] [ma], and the babies respond with saying [ba] [pa’], it’s wrong word, it is can be in the reall condition.
    Usually the infant begin to babbling at the first month and six month. The child’s babbles come to include only those sounds and sounds combinations that occur n the target languages. Babbles begin to sounds like words though they may not have any species meaning attached to them. For the next session a infant or child will learne about intonation, vocalization, consonant infant, pronunciation, structures of word, frequent, and so many others.

  31. NAME/ NIM: ISKANDAR DINATA / 1314050381

    Assignment 1.
    Psycholinguistics
    Psycholinguistics it’s mean that discussed about process how to get and using a languange. In general psycholinguistics there are three important things that must we know . First, comprehension it is mean how people understand spoken and written language. Next, speech production, it’s mean how people make, born or produce language. The last acquisition it’s mean how people learn language. In the ohter thing psycholinguistics as mean as a knowledge that discussing psychologi’s factor and also neurobiology that will help human to understand, to get and also to use language. So we as hunting the language must know about the purpose and how to get the language, because whit the language we will know about many thing, such as knowledge, news, situation and others and also language is the first tool to communication. At the same time, we also discuss about Language Acquisition. Language acquisition is a development process ability of human language. In the language acquisition has some strategies to get language for child, such as learn through imitation, reinforcement, and analogy. With language acquisition we can to improve our ability especially for the children, because as a children they have a special ability, so with language acquisition we can improve that.

    Assignment 2
    Language Acquisition
    Language acquisition or how to get a language is a development process ability of human language. In the language acquisition we will study about strategies how to get or how to teach language for child. Because if we want to teach child we must know many thing, we must know the important things and dangerous thing, we can not teach all of the thing to them, because they only can imitate that what we are say, what we are doing. So if we meet them we must save our mount. such as learn through imitation, reinforcement, and analogy. Now I will share about imitation. Imitation is also a form of social learning that lead to development of traditions and ultimate our culture to transfer of information between individuals and down generations. So imitation teach about information but the information explain about tradition and culture, and this way try to make their generation know about their culture.

    Assignment 3
    I think in studies of child language acquisition we must really carefully we must save all of our sensory perception if we want to teach child. I think teach children is more difficult compared adult person, if we teach child every thing must right because they will imitate what we doing. In the teach child we must really patient we must repeat more and more as far as they understand that we say. If we teach our child we must know about this way, first, we can not force our child to know what we mean or what we teach. Because if we force our child to know it he will feel bored and he will indolent to continue and teach again. Second, we can not make loud to them. If we make big sound to them they will afraid and may be they will cry if we teach them, so our voice must be slowly and the important thing about voice is we must speak clearly, if we do not doing it the child wouldn’t know what we say. Next, we must repeat again what we say because some child do not know or don’t hear if we only say one opportunity. Than we must know how the character of our child, because the character of every person is different, may be some child like game and some child don’t like game. Next, if we want to teach children we must give more attention to them, because they need attention especially from their parent, if we don’t give attention to them they will feel blank, they will feel isolate. Today we can see in our life, if child do not get attention from their parents they will different from the other child, they will doing some thing that make their life different, such as they will used drug, drink alcohol, and may be they will suicide, we as a teacher must give same attention to our children, so they will happy if they meet with us.
    So we as a good teacher, we must use our knowledge to educated our people, and increase quality of education in Indonesia.

  32. NAME/REG.NUMBER : Misbakhul Munir/1314050343
    Assignment 1
    Psycholinguistics is derived from the word psycho. Psycho is emotions and empathy. Emotion is a strong feeling came from the state of a person’s mood or an emotion is a state of mental or capability that spontaneous and does not appear by itself or unconscious. Empathy is a feeling that understand the customs or other people’s experiences and emotions or feelings to share with others. Language can sometimes make the behavior or character of a person is good and sometimes it makes people to be the worst. In the first meeting I probably have not been met and studied with the you sir, and I found psycholinguistics is the lesson of mental abilities in it, namely the production, the acquisition of language and perception. and also psycholinguistics is a branch of study that combines the disciplines of psychology and linguistics. This relates to the relationship between human language and thought for assessing the processes that occur in the brain when to produce.
    In the second lesson, I got that model or psycholinguistic theories based on behaviorism. It centered on people’s behavior. Language is seen as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn through imitating, reassurance, analogies, and structured input.
    Children learn by imitating. Children listen to what we say about them, and then they imitate. children imitate us word or speech, but sometimes not in accordance with existing conditions. Imitation repeating something heard. Children learn through reinforcement. the words of the children will be right with the underlying with the correct word (positive) and negative words reinforced when they say something is wrong. Children learn by analogy. Children use words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, to hear the phrase and use it as material to form another sentence. Children learn through structured feedback. Children can learn the language because the adults spoke slowly, quietly, and sometimes remark that du doing in front of or near children.

    Assignment 2
    Mechanism of Language Acquisition
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to receive, interpret and understand the language, and to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants in their native language acquisition. It was markedly different from the acquisition of a second language, which is related to the acquisition in children and adults of additional languages. language acquisition is one kind of psycholinguistics about how people learn to talk and mental processes involved.
    psycholinguistic model or theory based on behaviorism. It centered on people’s behavior. Language is seen as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn through imitating, reassurance, analogies, and structured input.
    Facts prove that many children learn through imitation. Children will listen to what we say about them, and then they will do it too. Therefore, we must keep our words even more around them. Imitation imitate something that is heard. Children learn through reinforcement. Children will learn to make correct sentences because they are reinforced with a positive mind to say something true and negatively reinforced when they say something is wrong. It was influenced also by imitation earlier. Children learn by analogy. Children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, to hear the phrase or word adult and using it to form another sentence. Children learn through structured feedback. Children can learn the language because the adults speak slowly and does not confuse even spontaneously.

    Assignment 3
    Feedback or argument
    I think that the study of books that have been discussed and read is a good and easy way to make the children could speak well and understand the language. Children should exist a special design to listen to the language. In fact, they do not wait to start until they are born. speech can be heard in the womb but will not be easy to say the back of the voice, but clear enough to identify the basic rhythm and certain features of the speaker’s voice. They prefer the language of their parents on other languages.
    Children will easily learn a new language if a adult there are in the behind her , they can say an average of ten new words every day. Children who are learning the language share a common purpose, but a lot of ways to get there. Taking the findings of the word, for example. Although many people do not realize, we do not usually leave a pause between words when we speak. In fact, when we’re talking all the words will feel the same that sometimes it is different. some children initially better than others in finding the words and pronounce clearly. At the age of 18 months, they produced a brief, clearly articulated, saying one word. A children can immitate what can see and say, what they want to know about and what they care about. This is the kind of speech that provide children with the raw materials they need to learn the language to find out what words mean, where the subject or direct object fits into sentences, how to ask questions, and all the other things that make language.
    Language is very important to teach fo children. Therefore, talk to your children about what is important to them. and parents should teach and direct their children to acquire knowledge, a good experience and understanding of language with the ability or mindset of children to be.

  33. Name/NIM : AYU WINDARI/1314050432
    Assessment 1
    Language aquisition is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition (often abbreviated to SLA) is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education.A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage, the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language. The order in which learners acquire features of their new language stays remarkably constant, even for learners with different native languages, and regardless of whether they have had language instruction. However, languages that learners already know can have a significant influence on the process of learning a new one. This influence is known as language transfer.The primary factor driving SLA appears to be the language input that learners receive. Learners become more advanced the longer they are immersed in the language they are learning, and the more time they spend doing free voluntary reading. Interestingly, the Monitor Model, developed by Stephen Krashen, a linguist, makes a distinction between language acquisition and language learning (acquisition-learning distinction), claiming that acquisition is a subconscious process, where learning is a conscious one. According to this hypothesis, the acquisition process in L2 is the same as L1 (Language 1) acquisition. The learning process is consciously learning and inputting the language being learned.[1] However, this goes as far as to state that input is all that is required for acquisition. Subsequent work, such as the interaction hypothesis and the comprehensible output hypothesis, has suggested that opportunities for output and for interaction may also be necessary for learners to reach more advanced levels.Research on how exactly learners acquire a new language spans a number of different areas.
    Assessment 2
    Mechanisms of language acquisition have mostly been studied in isolation. Here, wereview behavioral and imaging evidence concerning the role and the operation of three such mechanisms: statistical learning, rule extraction and perceptual primitives.Statistical learning is a general learning mechanism, found in animals, adults and infants, that tracks the distributional and statistical information in the input. Rule extraction allows the fast mapping of regularities and the positing of generalizations that go beyond actual experience. Perceptual primitives, the least investigated of the three mechanisms, are specific configurations automatically processed and detected as a result of the way perceptual systems function. We present empirical findings suggesting that neither of the three mechanisms alone is sufficient to explain language development. Rather, the most accurate models of language acquisition will probably emerge from the integration of these and other such mechanisms. Such integrative investigations can greatly benefit from recent advances in brain imaging, such as the use of near infrared optical imaging, the developmental applications of which we briefly discuss here.
    Language acquisition is robust and uniform in that children acquire language even if they do not seem to have all the necessary requirements at their disposal. Blind children acquire language and vocabulary at about the same rate seeing children do – though a pointing gesture to identify objects cannot be used. ‘Wild’ children who have suffered extreme deprivation and sometimes have not had any language input at all, are often able to acquire language – if they are recovered during the ‘critical period’. Children of deaf parents acquire language given a minimal input of 5-10 hours of spoken language per week.Deaf children may have difficulties acquiring oral language but go through the normal stages of language acquisition if exposed to a natural sign language. Children acquiring different languages go through the same stages.
    Assessment 3
    Children tend to produce their first words sometime between nine and twelve months. One-year-olds have about 5 words in their vocabulary on average, although individual children may have none or as many as thirty; by two years of age, average vocabulary size is more than 150 words, with a range among individual children from as few as 10 to as many as 450 words. Children possess a vocabulary of about 14,000 words by six years of age; adults have an estimated average of 40,000 words in their working vocabulary at age forty. In order to achieve such a vocabulary, a child must learn to say at least a few new words each day from birth.
    One of the best predictors of a child’s vocabulary development is the amount and diversity of input the child receives. Researchers have found that verbal input can be as great as three times more available in educated families than in less educated families. These facts have led educators to suspect that basic and pervasive differences in the level of social support for language learning lie at the root of many learning problems in the later school years. Social interaction (quality of attachment; parent responsiveness, involvement, sensitivity, and control style) and general intellectual climate (providing enriching toys, reading books, encouraging attention to surroundings) predict developing language competence in children as well. Relatively uneducated and economically disadvantaged mothers talk less frequently to their children compared with more educated and affluent mothers, and correspondingly, children of less educated and less affluent mothers produce less speech. Socioeconomic status relates to both child vocabulary and to maternal vocabulary. Middle-class mothers expose their children to a richer vocabulary, with longer sentences and a greater number of word roots.
    Whereas vocabulary development is marked by spectacular individual variation, the development of grammatical and syntactic skills is highly stable across. children Children’s early one-word utterances do not yet trigger the need for syntactic patterns, because they are still only one-word long. By the middle of the second year, when children’s vocabularies grow to between 50 and 100 words, they begin to combine words in what has been termed “telegraphic speech.”

  34. NAME/NIM : YUYUT KEMALA SARI/ 1314050384
    Assignment 1 :

    When the first meeting, we study about the psycolinguistic. Psycolinguistics is Study of the psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language use of psychological/scientific/experimental methods to study language acquisition, production and processing. Language acquisition is the process by which human acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a hypothetical module of the human mind posited to account for children’s innate predisposition for language acquisition. The LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enablea an infant to acquire and produce language. Children are able to acquire language abilities as well as accounting for the innate understanding of grammar and syntax all children process. There are three characteristics of LAD. The first is conscious mind. The conscious mind is the part of your mind that is responsible for logic and reasoning. The conscious mind also controlls all the actions that you do on intention while being conscious. For examples, when you decide to make any voluntary action like moving your hand or leg it is done by the conscious mind. The second is subconscious mind. The subconscious mind is the part of your mind possible for all your involuntary actions. Yout breathing rate and heart beat are controlled by your subconcious mind. Your emotions are also controlled by your subconscious mind. That’s why you sometimes might feel afraid, anxious or down without wanting to experience such a feeling. The third is unconscious mind. The unconscious mind consisting of the primitive, instinctual wishes as well as the information that we cannot access. We don’t have easy access to the information stored in the unconscious mind.

    Assignment 2
    I think, study about language acquisition is very important for us. We can know about how the language can deVice when we were child. We receive the language by parent’s help. We have learn that Language acquisition is the process by which human acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language throuht imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. The Imitation teory says that children learn grammar by memorizing the words and sentences of their language.before attacking this view, let’s make sure we recognize that language acquisition must involve a lot of memorizing. Children born of Mexican Spanish speaking parents in an Engliah speaking inveronment will learn English, even if they hear only Spanish from their parents. Children product many things not in the adult grammar like ‘nana’ for banana. They product things not produced by adults. Some people maight say that this is simply to consequence of the difficulty how learning to speak and not a problem for the imitation theory. Children make consistent , predictable errors that cannot be attributed to mispronounciation and which still are not ever heard in the adult grammar. Children make errors like saying “goed” instead of “went” or “drawed” instead of “drew”. These errore are important because they indicate that the child cannot simply be memorizing all of the word in her or his language.
    The second is reinforcement theory. The basic idea here is that children larn to speak like adults because they are taught to do so by being praised and otherwise rewarded for doing things right. At the same time, they are helped because parents”correct” them when they make mistakes.

    Assignment 3
    I think, The logical problem of language acquisition of children acquire language are without explicit teaching, on the basis of positive evidence (what they hear) , in a limited amount of time and under varying circumstances and in identical ways across different languages . Acquiring a language without explicit teaching and on the basis of positive evidence . Parents do not teach their babies the rules of language. There may be some correction but this is unsystematic and children seem to ignore it. English children say goed, even if they are often corrected and asked to say went. Irregular verbs, other morphological difficulties or the right pronunciation and forms of words are sometimes corrected by the parents: if the child insists on saying ‘nana, parents will occasionally correct to banana. Corrections on the syntactic level are much rarer and totally misinterpreted by children. The mother aims to correct the double negation which is not allowed in Standard English. The child fails to notice this and finally picks up the 3rd person –s of likes, uses the form incorrectly, however. Such examples show two things: Parents do not try to explain or give a rule , the only thing they might do is provide the correct form and expect the child to imitate this. They might also point out that the form used by the child was wrong. Note that the initial ‘No’ is a metalinguistic comment by the mother and is the equivalent of the star used in linguistics. Note further that this kind of information, the star, is what the child does not understand. Acquiring language in a limited amount of time under varying circumstances and in identical ways across languages. By the age of 5 children have mastered most of the constructions of their language, even if their vocabulary is still growing. By the age of 3, sentences are well formed, verbs are correctly inflected for present and past tenses and subordination is used consistently. Roughly in the space of one year (from the occurrence of the first two word combinations at the age of about 2 years till about the third birthday), the basic syntactic constructions are acquired and used. Given the complexity of the task, this is amazingly fast. Another interesting fact emerging from more and more research on language acquisition is that though variability exists in the rate at which a construction may be acquired or vocabulary grows in a child.

  35. Name/NIM : AYU WINDARI/1314050432
    Assessment 1
    Language aquisition is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition (often abbreviated to SLA) is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education.A central theme in SLA research is that of interlanguage, the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This interlanguage gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language. The order in which learners acquire features of their new language stays remarkably constant, even for learners with different native languages, and regardless of whether they have had language instruction. However, languages that learners already know can have a significant influence on the process of learning a new one. This influence is known as language transfer.The primary factor driving SLA appears to be the language input that learners receive. Learners become more advanced the longer they are immersed in the language they are learning, and the more time they spend doing free voluntary reading. Interestingly, the Monitor Model, developed by Stephen Krashen, a linguist, makes a distinction between language acquisition and language learning (acquisition-learning distinction), claiming that acquisition is a subconscious process, where learning is a conscious one. According to this hypothesis, the acquisition process in L2 is the same as L1 (Language 1) acquisition. The learning process is consciously learning and inputting the language being learned.[1] However, this goes as far as to state that input is all that is required for acquisition. Subsequent work, such as the interaction hypothesis and the comprehensible output hypothesis, has suggested that opportunities for output and for interaction may also be necessary for learners to reach more advanced levels.Research on how exactly learners acquire a new language spans a number of different areas.
    Assessment 2
    Mechanisms of language acquisition have mostly been studied in isolation. Here, wereview behavioral and imaging evidence concerning the role and the operation of three such mechanisms: statistical learning, rule extraction and perceptual primitives.Statistical learning is a general learning mechanism, found in animals, adults and infants, that tracks the distributional and statistical information in the input. Rule extraction allows the fast mapping of regularities and the positing of generalizations that go beyond actual experience. Perceptual primitives, the least investigated of the three mechanisms, are specific configurations automatically processed and detected as a result of the way perceptual systems function. We present empirical findings suggesting that neither of the three mechanisms alone is sufficient to explain language development. Rather, the most accurate models of language acquisition will probably emerge from the integration of these and other such mechanisms. Such integrative investigations can greatly benefit from recent advances in brain imaging, such as the use of near infrared optical imaging, the developmental applications of which we briefly discuss here.
    Language acquisition is robust and uniform in that children acquire language even if they do not seem to have all the necessary requirements at their disposal. Blind children acquire language and vocabulary at about the same rate seeing children do – though a pointing gesture to identify objects cannot be used. ‘Wild’ children who have suffered extreme deprivation and sometimes have not had any language input at all, are often able to acquire language – if they are recovered during the ‘critical period’. Children of deaf parents acquire language given a minimal input of 5-10 hours of spoken language per week.Deaf children may have difficulties acquiring oral language but go through the normal stages of language acquisition if exposed to a natural sign language. Children acquiring different languages go through the same stages.
    Assessment 3
    Children tend to produce their first words sometime between nine and twelve months. One-year-olds have about 5 words in their vocabulary on average, although individual children may have none or as many as thirty; by two years of age, average vocabulary size is more than 150 words, with a range among individual children from as few as 10 to as many as 450 words. Children possess a vocabulary of about 14,000 words by six years of age; adults have an estimated average of 40,000 words in their working vocabulary at age forty. In order to achieve such a vocabulary, a child must learn to say at least a few new words each day from birth.
    One of the best predictors of a child’s vocabulary development is the amount and diversity of input the child receives. Researchers have found that verbal input can be as great as three times more available in educated families than in less educated families. These facts have led educators to suspect that basic and pervasive differences in the level of social support for language learning lie at the root of many learning problems in the later school years. Social interaction (quality of attachment; parent responsiveness, involvement, sensitivity, and control style) and general intellectual climate (providing enriching toys, reading books, encouraging attention to surroundings) predict developing language competence in children as well. Relatively uneducated and economically disadvantaged mothers talk less frequently to their children compared with more educated and affluent mothers, and correspondingly, children of less educated and less affluent mothers produce less speech. Socioeconomic status relates to both child vocabulary and to maternal vocabulary. Middle-class mothers expose their children to a richer vocabulary, with longer sentences and a greater number of word roots.
    Whereas vocabulary development is marked by spectacular individual variation, the development of grammatical and syntactic skills is highly stable across. children Children’s early one-word utterances do not yet trigger the need for syntactic patterns, because they are still only one-word long. By the middle of the second year, when children’s vocabularies grow to between 50 and 100 words, they begin to combine words in what has been termed “telegraphic speech.”

  36. NAME/NIM : YUYUT KEMALA SARI/ 1314050384
    Assignment 1 :

    When the first meeting, we study about the psycolinguistic. Psycolinguistics is Study of the psychological and neurological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, and understand language use of psychological/scientific/experimental methods to study language acquisition, production and processing. Language acquisition is the process by which human acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language Acquisition Device (LAD) is a hypothetical module of the human mind posited to account for children’s innate predisposition for language acquisition. The LAD concept is an instinctive mental capacity which enablea an infant to acquire and produce language. Children are able to acquire language abilities as well as accounting for the innate understanding of grammar and syntax all children process. There are three characteristics of LAD. The first is conscious mind. The conscious mind is the part of your mind that is responsible for logic and reasoning. The conscious mind also controlls all the actions that you do on intention while being conscious. For examples, when you decide to make any voluntary action like moving your hand or leg it is done by the conscious mind. The second is subconscious mind. The subconscious mind is the part of your mind possible for all your involuntary actions. Yout breathing rate and heart beat are controlled by your subconcious mind. Your emotions are also controlled by your subconscious mind. That’s why you sometimes might feel afraid, anxious or down without wanting to experience such a feeling. The third is unconscious mind. The unconscious mind consisting of the primitive, instinctual wishes as well as the information that we cannot access. We don’t have easy access to the information stored in the unconscious mind.

    Assignment 2
    I think, study about language acquisition is very important for us. We can know about how the language can deVice when we were child. We receive the language by parent’s help. We have learn that Language acquisition is the process by which human acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language throuht imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. The Imitation teory says that children learn grammar by memorizing the words and sentences of their language.before attacking this view, let’s make sure we recognize that language acquisition must involve a lot of memorizing. Children born of Mexican Spanish speaking parents in an Engliah speaking inveronment will learn English, even if they hear only Spanish from their parents. Children product many things not in the adult grammar like ‘nana’ for banana. They product things not produced by adults. Some people maight say that this is simply to consequence of the difficulty how learning to speak and not a problem for the imitation theory. Children make consistent , predictable errors that cannot be attributed to mispronounciation and which still are not ever heard in the adult grammar. Children make errors like saying “goed” instead of “went” or “drawed” instead of “drew”. These errore are important because they indicate that the child cannot simply be memorizing all of the word in her or his language.
    The second is reinforcement theory. The basic idea here is that children larn to speak like adults because they are taught to do so by being praised and otherwise rewarded for doing things right. At the same time, they are helped because parents”correct” them when they make mistakes.

    Assignment 3
    I think, The logical problem of language acquisition of children acquire language are without explicit teaching, on the basis of positive evidence (what they hear) , in a limited amount of time and under varying circumstances and in identical ways across different languages . Acquiring a language without explicit teaching and on the basis of positive evidence . Parents do not teach their babies the rules of language. There may be some correction but this is unsystematic and children seem to ignore it. English children say goed, even if they are often corrected and asked to say went. Irregular verbs, other morphological difficulties or the right pronunciation and forms of words are sometimes corrected by the parents: if the child insists on saying ‘nana, parents will occasionally correct to banana. Corrections on the syntactic level are much rarer and totally misinterpreted by children. The mother aims to correct the double negation which is not allowed in Standard English. The child fails to notice this and finally picks up the 3rd person –s of likes, uses the form incorrectly, however. Such examples show two things: Parents do not try to explain or give a rule , the only thing they might do is provide the correct form and expect the child to imitate this. They might also point out that the form used by the child was wrong. Note that the initial ‘No’ is a metalinguistic comment by the mother and is the equivalent of the star used in linguistics. Note further that this kind of information, the star, is what the child does not understand. Acquiring language in a limited amount of time under varying circumstances and in identical ways across languages. By the age of 5 children have mastered most of the constructions of their language, even if their vocabulary is still growing. By the age of 3, sentences are well formed, verbs are correctly inflected for present and past tenses and subordination is used consistently. Roughly in the space of one year (from the occurrence of the first two word combinations at the age of about 2 years till about the third birthday), the basic syntactic constructions are acquired and used. Given the complexity of the task, this is amazingly fast. Another interesting fact emerging from more and more research on language acquisition is that though variability exists in the rate at which a construction may be acquired or vocabulary grows in a child.

  37. Name/NIM : SUCI SYAHRIYANTI/1314050532
    Assignment 1
    First meeting about introduction to linguistics. Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental aspects of language and speech. It is primarily concerned with the ways in which language is represented and processed in the brain. A branch of both linguistics and psychology, psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science. Adjective: psycholinguistic. Psycholinguists study how word meaning, sentence meaning, and discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind. They study how complex words and sentences are composed in speech and how they are broken down into their constituents in the acts of listening and reading. In general, psycholinguistic studies have revealed that many of the concepts employed in the analysis of sound structure, word structure, and sentence structure also play a role in language processing. However, an account of language processing also requires that we understand how these linguistic concepts interact with other aspects of human processing to enable language production and comprehension.
    If you were a psycholinguist, you could choose to work in various subfields including; language acquisition, use, comprehension and the production of language in the mind. For example, a psycholinguist might choose to focus on how a baby develops their specific language to the exclusion of all others. If you were to study psycholinguistics, you might study the process of language acquisition, or how the human mind develops, perceives, and produces both spoken and written communication. The research within the psycholinguistics field can be broken down into specific topics: Phonetics/Phonology: The study of speech sounds , morphology: The study of word structure and relationships between words, syntax: The study of word patterns and how they build sentences, semantics: The study of the actual meanings of words and sentences, pragmatics: The study of the context or interpretation of meaning.

    Assignment 2
    The second meeting, we talk about language acquisition. Language acquisition is robust and uniform in that children acquire language even if they do not seem to have all the necessary requirements at their disposal. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages.
    Many things take place as we learn to speak and understand language. For children, acquiring a language is an effortless achievement that occurs: without explicit teaching, on the basis of positive evidence (i.e., what they hear), under varying circumstances, and in a limited amount of time, in identical ways across different languages. Children achieve linguistic milestones in parallel fashion, regardless of the specific language they are exposed to. For example, at about 6-8 months, all children start to babble . . ., that is, to produce repetitive syllables like bababa. At about 10-12 months they speak their first words, and between 20 and 24 months they begin to put words together. It has been shown that children between 2 and 3 years speaking a wide variety of languages use infinitive verbs in main clauses . . . or omit sentential subjects . . ., although the language they are exposed to may not have this option. Across languages young children also over-regularize the past tense or other tenses of irregular verbs. Interestingly, similarities in language acquisition are observed not only across spoken languages, but also between spoken and signed languages.

    Assignment 3
    Language is a cognition that truly makes us human. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations (e.g. bonobos), or even with partially learned systems (e.g. bird songs), there is no other species known to date that can express infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech sounds and words). This ability is remarkable in itself. Infants as young as 12 months are reported to have sensitivity to the grammar needed to understand causative sentences. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental aspects of language and speech. It is primarily concerned with the ways in which language is represented and processed in the brain. Language acquisition is robust and uniform in that children acquire language even if they do not seem to have all the necessary requirements at their disposal. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently.
    Parents do not teach their babies the rules of language. There may be some correction but this is unsystematic and children seem to ignore it. Such examples show two things: Parents do not try to explain or give a rule (‘Do not use two elements expressing negation’), the only thing they might do is provide the correct form and expect the child to imitate this. They might also point out that the form used by the child was wrong.

    • For your assignment 3, I find it a bit misleading. Perhaps, you could discuss about how infants and children develop their languages as seen by the linguists through parents’ diaries.

  38. Nama : ahmad guntur
    Nim : 1314050544
    TBI-B
    Assignment 1
    Language is not a cultural artifact that we learn the way we learn to tell time Instead, it is a distinct piece of biological makeup of our brains. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. For these reasons.I prefer the admittedly quaint term “instinct”.
    In the following we will concentrate on how children build their lexicon using phonological information to break up the speech stream into words. This process is called phonological bootstrapping (tying your boots getting ready for something with the help of phonology, the term ‘bootstrapping’ is used if some abstract property is acquired by some concrete help in the input, here words are acquired by using phonological information as straps). We will also look at the problem of how the meaning of nouns and verbs are acquired and how, given the lexicon, children bootstrap into syntax. We will see how prosody and photostatic constraints can help the child to build one side of the lexicon, the sound side, and that it is not easy to pair phonological words with meaning as multiple information can be drawn from one given situation. This problem is especially acute for verbs, for which it has been suggested that structural cues are exploited for the assignment of meaning. This raises the question, however, how children come by a structural representation and thus how they acquire syntax.
    The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition are Children acquire language, without explicit teaching, on the basis of positive evidence (what they hear), in a limited amount of time and under varying circumstances, in identical ways across different languages.

    Assignment 2
    Three decades of intensive study of language development have led to an enormous accumulation of descriptive data. But there is still no over-arching theory of language development that can make orderly sense of this huge stockpile of observations. Grand structuralist theories such as those of Chomsky, and Piaget have kept researchers asking the right questions, but they seldom allow us to make detailed experimental predictions or to formulate detailed accounts. The papers collected in this volume attempt to address this gap between data and theory by formulating a series of mechanistic accounts of the acquisition of language.
    In organizing the conference, it was my goal to invite representatives of all major approaches to language acquisition. Unfortunately, there were two areas that could not be included: the study of speech development in infancy and the detailed study of the impact of interaction with parents and siblings on language development. Despite these omissions, we did succeed in assembling an excellent group of speakers representing a great diversity of theoretical positions. Given this diversity, it was quite surprising to find out that virtually all of the speakers agreed on three major and important issues.
    One of the earliest scientific explanations of language acquisition was provided by Skinner (1957). As one of the pioneers of behaviorism, he accounted for language development by means of environmental influence. Skinner argued that children learn language based on behaviorist reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings. Correct utterances are positively reinforced when the child realizes the communicative value of words and phrases. For example, when the child says ‘milk’ and the mother will smile and give her some as a result, the child will find this outcome rewarding, enhancing the child’s language development.

    Assignment 3
    The introduction is devoted to a brief statement of the theory and its implications, for different aspects of second language acquisitions theory and practice. We define acquisition and learning, and present the Monitor Model for adult second language performance. Following this, brief summaries of research results in various areas of second language acquisition serve as both an overview of Monitor Theory research over the last few years and as introduction to the essays that follow.
    Language acquisitions very similar to the process children use in acquiring first and second languages. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language–natural communication–in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. Error correction and explicit teaching of rules are not relevant to language acquisition but caretakers and native speakers can modify their utterances addressed to acquirers to help them understand, and these modifications are thought to help the acquisition process (Snow and Ferguson, 1977). It has been hypothesized that there is a fairly stable order of acquisition of structures in language acquisition, that is, one can see clear similarities across acquirers as to which structures tend to be acquired early and
    which tend to be acquired late Acquirers need not have a conscious awareness of the “rules” they possess, and may self-correct only on the basis of a “feel” for grammatical.
    Conscious language learning, on the other hand, is thought to be helped a great deal by error correction and the presentation of explicit rules Error correction it is maintained, helps the learner come to the correct mental representation of the linguistic generalization.
    Whether such feedback has this effect to a significant degree remains an open question. No invariant order of learning is claimed, although syllabi implicitly claim that learners proceed from simple to complex, a sequence that may not be identical to the acquisition sequence.
    The fundamental claim of Monitor Theory is that conscious learning is available to the performer only as a Monitor. In general, utterances are initiated by the acquired system our fluency in production is based on what we have “picked up” through active communication. Our “formal” knowledge of the second language, our conscious learning, may be used to alter the output of the acquired system, sometimes before and sometimes after the utterance is produced. We make these-changes to improve accuracy, and the use of the Monitor often has this effect. Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of acquisition and learning in adult second language production.

  39. NAMA : AHMAD GUNTUR
    NIM : 1314050544
    CLASS: TBI-B
    Assignment 1
    Language is not a cultural artifact that we learn the way we learn to tell time…. Instead, it is a distinct piece of biological makeup of our brains. Language is a complex, specialized skill, which develops in the child spontaneously, without conscious effort or formal instruction, is deployed without awareness of its underlying logic, is qualitatively the same in every individual, and is distinct from more general abilities to process information or behave intelligently. For these reasons.I prefer the admittedly quaint term “instinct”.
    In the following we will concentrate on how children build their lexicon using phonological information to break up the speech stream into words. This process is called phonological bootstrapping (tying your boots getting ready for something with the help of phonology, the term ‘bootstrapping’ is used if some abstract property is acquired by some concrete help in the input, here words are acquired by using phonological information as straps). We will also look at the problem of how the meaning of nouns and verbs are acquired and how, given the lexicon, children bootstrap into syntax. We will see how prosody and photostatic constraints can help the child to build one side of the lexicon, the sound side, and that it is not easy to pair phonological words with meaning as multiple information can be drawn from one given situation. This problem is especially acute for verbs, for which it has been suggested that structural cues are exploited for the assignment of meaning. This raises the question, however, how children come by a structural representation and thus how they acquire syntax.
    The Logical Problem of Language Acquisition are Children acquire language, without explicit teaching, on the basis of positive evidence (what they hear), in a limited amount of time and under varying circumstances, in identical ways across different languages.

    Assignment 2
    Three decades of intensive study of language development have led to an enormous accumulation of descriptive data. But there is still no over-arching theory of language development that can make orderly sense of this huge stockpile of observations. Grand structuralist theories such as those of Chomsky and Piaget have kept researchers asking the right questions, but they seldom allow us to make detailed experimental predictions or to formulate detailed accounts. The papers collected in this volume attempt to address this gap between data and theory by formulating a series of mechanistic accounts of the acquisition of language.
    In organizing the conference, it was my goal to invite representatives of all major approaches to language acquisition. Unfortunately, there were two areas that could not be included: the study of speech development in infancy and the detailed study of the impact of interaction with parents and siblings on language development. Despite these omissions, we did succeed in assembling an excellent group of speakers representing a great diversity of theoretical positions. Given this diversity, it was quite surprising to find out that virtually all of the speakers agreed on three major and important issues.
    One of the earliest scientific explanations of language acquisition was provided by Skinner (1957). As one of the pioneers of behaviorism, he accounted for language development by means of environmental influence. Skinner argued that children learn language based on behaviorist reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings. Correct utterances are positively reinforced when the child realizes the communicative value of words and phrases. For example, when the child says ‘milk’ and the mother will smile and give her some as a result, the child will find this outcome rewarding, enhancing the child’s language development.

    Assignment 3
    The introduction is devoted to a brief statement of the theory and its implications, for different aspects of second language acquisitions theory and practice. We define acquisition and learning, and present the Monitor Model for adult second language performance. Following this, brief summaries of research results in various areas of second language acquisition serve as both an overview of Monitor Theory research over the last few years and as introduction to the essays that follow.
    Language acquisitions very similar to the process children use in acquiring first and second languages. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language–natural communication–in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. Error correction and explicit teaching of rules are not relevant to language acquisition but caretakers and native speakers can modify their utterances addressed to acquirers to help them understand, and these modifications are thought to help the acquisition process (Snow and Ferguson, 1977). It has been hypothesized that there is a fairly stable order of acquisition of structures in language acquisition, that is, one can see clear similarities across acquirers as to which structures tend to be acquired early and
    which tend to be acquired late Acquirers need not have a conscious awareness of the “rules” they possess, and may self-correct only on the basis of a “feel” for grammatical.
    Conscious language learning, on the other hand, is thought to be helped a great deal by error correction and the presentation of explicit rules Error correction it is maintained, helps the learner come to the correct mental representation of the linguistic generalization.
    Whether such feedback has this effect to a significant degree remains an open question No invariant order of learning is claimed, although syllabi implicitly claim that learners proceed from simple to complex, a sequence that may not be identical to the acquisition sequence.
    The fundamental claim of Monitor Theory is that conscious learning is available to the performer only as a Monitor. In general, utterances are initiated by the acquired system our fluency in production is based on what we have “picked up” through active communication. Our “formal” knowledge of the second language, our conscious learning, may be used to alter the output of the acquired system, sometimes before and sometimes after the utterance is produced. We make these changes to improve accuracy, and the use of the Monitor often has this effect. Figure 1 illustrates the interaction of acquisition and learning in adult second language production.

    • Ahmad Guntur, nice way you wrote your assignment. However, I found out that you used many uncommon words in your response. Perhaps, for the next assignment, you could simplify your writing style? I suggest that you consider your audience more than using words that seem to be difficult for general readers to comprehend. For me, I get what you mean, but in terms of academic assignment, I strongly suggest you to use more common words instead of uncommon ones.

  40. Name : febriyandi putra
    Nim : 1314050479

    Assignment 1

    Language is a cognition that truly makes us human. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations (e.g. booboos), or even with partially learned systems (e.g. bird songs), there is no other species known to date that can express infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech sounds and words).
    This ability is remarkable in itself. What makes it even more remarkable is that researchers are finding evidence for mastery of this complex skill in increasingly younger children. Infants as young as 12 months are reported to have sensitivity to the grammar needed to understand causative sentences (who did what to whom; e.g. the bunny pushed the frog (Rowland & Noble, 2010).
    One of the earliest scientific explanations of language acquisition was provided by Skinner (1957). As one of the pioneers of behaviorism, he accounted for language development by means of environmental influence.
    Universal Grammar is considered to contain all the grammatical information needed to combine these categories, e.g. noun and verb, into phrases. The child’s task is just to learn the words of her language (Am-bridge & Liven). For example, according to the Universal Grammar account, children instinctively know how to combine a noun (e.g. a boy) and a verb (to eat) into a meaningful, correct phrase (A boy eats).
    However, finding a solid answer to the problem of language acquisition is far from being over. Our current understanding of the developmental process is still immature. Investigators of Universal Grammar are still trying to convince that language is a task too demanding to acquire without specific innate equipment, whereas the constructivist researchers are fiercely arguing for the importance of linguistic input.
    The biggest questions, however, are yet unanswered. What is the exact process that transforms the child’s utterances into grammatically correct, adult-like speech? How much does the child need to be exposed to language to achieve the adult-like state?
    What account can explain variation between languages and the language acquisition process in children acquiring very different languages to English? The mystery of language acquisition is granted to keep psychologists and linguists alike astonished a decade after decade.

    Assigment 2
    Second-language acquisition, second-language learning, or L2 (language 2) acquisition, is the process by which people learn a second language. Second-language acquisition (often abbreviated to SLA) is also the scientific discipline devoted to studying that process. The field of second-language acquisition is a sub-discipline of applied linguistics, but also receives research attention from a variety of other disciplines, such as psychology and education.

    A central theme in SLA research is that of inter language, the idea that the language that learners use is not simply the result of differences between the languages that they already know and the language that they are learning, but that it is a complete language system in its own right, with its own systematic rules. This inter language gradually develops as learners are exposed to the targeted language. The order in which learners acquire features of their new language stays remarkably constant, even for learners with different native languages, and regardless of whether they have had language instruction. However, languages that learners already know can have a significant influence on the process of learning a new one. This influence is known as language transfer.
    mechanisms of language acquisition have mostly been studied in isolation. Here, we
    review behavioral and imaging evidence concerning the role and the operation of
    three such mechanisms: statistical learning, rule extraction and perceptual primitives.
    Statistical learning is a general learning mechanism, found in animals, adults and
    infants, that tracks the distributional and statistical information in the input. Rule
    extraction allows the fast mapping of regularities and the positing of generalizations
    that go beyond actual experience. Perceptual primitives, the least investigated of the
    three mechanisms, are specific configurations automatically processed and detected as
    a result of the way perceptual systems function. We present empirical findings
    suggesting that neither of the three mechanisms alone is sufficient to explain language
    development. Rather, the most accurate models of language acquisition will probably
    emerge from the integration of these and other such mechanisms. Such integrative
    investigations can greatly benefit from recent advances in brain imaging, such as the
    use of near infrared optical imaging,

    conclusion

    Language acquisition is a process of speaking skill, in first stage everyone on the world speaks like of them parent speaks because talk is the ability gained from imitating, language could be acquired only within a critical period, extending from early infancy until puberty. In its basic form, the critical period hypothesis need only have consequences for first language acquisition. Nevertheless, it is essential to our understanding of the nature of the hypothesized critical period to determine whether or not it extends as well to second language acquisition. If so, it should be the case that young children are better second language learners than adults and should consequently reach higher levels of final proficiency in the second language. This prediction was tested by comparing the English proficiency attained by 46 native Korean or Chinese speakers who had arrived in the United States between the ages of 3 and 39, and who had lived in the United States between 3 and 26 years by the time of testing. These subjects were tested on a wide variety of structures of English grammar, using a grammatically judgment task. Both correlation and t-test analyses demonstrated a clear and strong advantage for earlier arrivals over the later arrivals. Test performance was linearly related to age of arrival up to puberty; after puberty, performance was low but highly variable and unrelated to age of arrival. This age effect was shown not to be an inadvertent result of differences in amount of experience with English, motivation, self-consciousness, or American identification. The effect also appeared on every grammatical structure tested, although the structures varied markedly in the degree to which they were well mastered by later learners. The results support the conclusion that a critical period for language acquisition extends its effects to second language acquisition.

    • Febriyandi, I hope that you could send your response ontime, but I still appreciate what you have done. Make sure that the response is originally from you. If your response is caught to be pasted from somewhere on internet, you do realize that your score will be reduced, right? You make an effort, but it will be great if you did your own.

  41. Nama : Wira Afriani / 412.083 TBI-B
    Assignment 1
    Language is acquired from everywhere. Start from internal and external. Especially to the children, language can be acquire by what have she or he heard from the sound and then memorizing every the word and sentence of their language. They acquire their language usually from their daily activity about what their parents speak about something and they speak like that again, in this situation the children imitate what have they hear from the dialogue. The their parents try again or teach what the children say, the children correct what are the mistakes from their children. In generally, there are theories/ mechanism of language acquisition to the children : imitation, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. For example, language acquisition starting from children before the age of five. So in this situation, parents must be carefully about their speak and what will they do in the future. If parents speak english language , so the children will speak english too. They imitate the parents do, it can through gesture and mime. Because of the children imitate what their parents do, parents must to show or teach things that are good against children. Children receive positive reinforcement for correct or appropriate attempts to use language and negative reinforcement in response to mistakes. And parents should provide feedback of correct sentences to the child and in accordance with age. Children can use a sentence that they hear as an example “that boy was sleeping” in formulating other sentence. They can only produce one type of sentence. As it happens children can create a huge number of different sentences, so not just sentences with the same structure. And last, for adults do typically talk to young children in a special way, more slowly and clearly, we exaggerate our intonation and sentences are generally grammatical.

    Assignment 2
    Language is acquired not learned. Language is an instinct and not a learned skill like playing a piano. Behaviorism focused on people’s behaviors, which are directly observable, rather than on the mental system underlying these behaviors.There are currently general theories of language acquisition to the children, like (1)imitation is involved to some extent, of course, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech.Imitation by memorizing every the word and sentence of their language. If the children born of Indonesian-malaysia- speaking parents in an Indonesian speaking environment will learn Indonesian. Even if they hear only melayu from their parents. (2) reinforcement, whichthe theory based on reinforcement contends that children receive positive reinforcement for correct or appropriate attempts to use language and negative reinforcement in response to mistakes. Mother and father are usually delighted that they young children are talking and consider every utterance a gem. The “mistakes” children are cute and repeated endlessly to anyone who will listen. This theory does not explain why children enjoy talking to themselves without any feedback or reaction, and it does not address the research that shows many adults tend to reinforce the meaning of a child’s verbal language rather than the grammatical content of the language. (3)analogy, that children can use a sentence that they hear as an example “that boy was sleeping” in formulating other sentence. They can only produce one type of sentence. As it happens children can create a huge number of different sentences, so not just sentences with the same structure. (4) structured input, which in our culture adults do typically talk to young children in a special way, more slowly and clearly, we exaggerate our intonation and sentences are generally grammatical.

    Assignment 3
    In my opinion, I will give a response about it that the newborn child into the world he must have a sound and can speak in the future. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Researchers also show that techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. That the absorption of the language is done with the recording so that children imitate and acquisition what he heard. At the age of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers. Sounds issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. In this stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. First language acquisition is a process of first language acquisition by the child. During this first language acquisition, there are two processes involved, namely the process of competency and process performance. Both these processes are of course obtained by the child unconsciously.
    Several stages traversed by the child during acquiring their first language. Phase question is vocalizations sound, stage one-word or holofrastis, phase two-word, two-word stage, telegraphic utterances. In addition to language support acquisition phase as already mentioned, there are also linguists, such as Aitchison suggests several stages of child language acquisition. The stages he meant was snoring, babble, intonation patterns, speech one word, two-word utterances, the inflection of words, the form of questions and the form of ingratitude rare construction or complex, mature speech.
    So, absorption language from infancy through recording the voice, video tape, and etc. Behaviorism focused on parent’s behaviors, which are directly observable, rather than on the mental system underlying these behaviors. language acquisition starting from children before the age of five. If the children born of Indonesian-malaysia- speaking parents in an Indonesian speaking environment will learn Indonesian. Even if they hear only melayu from their parents. All of parents speak will be imitate by child before enter to the world. Their parents must control their emotion also, because it wil be imitate by child in the future.

  42. Name : Setri yenti
    Reg. Number : 1314050551
    Class : Tbi-b
    Assignment : Phycholinguistics
      ASSIGNMENT 1
      Subjects discussed at the first meeting on the introduction of psycholinguistics. What it is meant by psycholinguistics, the things contained in psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics is penerolehan language, use of language, production language, language processing, the coding process, the relationship between language and human behavior, the relationship between the language of the brain. Psycholinguistics covers acquisition or akuaisisi language, the relationships of the brain, the influence of language acquisition and mastery of the language to the intelligence of thinking, relationships encoding (the encoding) and decoding (interpretation / meaning of the code), the relationship between knowledge of the language with the use of language and language change).
      And Children acquire language through stages that are universally applicable. The beginning stage begins when the child is born as a baby up to the age of 11 years where the age is a ripe old age in the language. At birth, a baby will cry (except those suffering from tunawicara birth). Baby’s crying is seen as the early stages of language acquisition in children because it has meaning instinctive communication that serves as a notification. nak can acquire and develop the ability discouraged because they have what is called the innate language faculty, or better known as the Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
      LAD their brain as well as the effects of genes recognized by the kognitifistik as the default tool that plays a role in language acquisition.In the pronunciation of the language exists in the speech by way of conscious, subconscious and unconscious. And the pronunciation consciously that is lacking spontaneous word pronunciation and spoken was known by those who speak it, and pronunciation of words in the subconscious that what said by that person that he does not know what he said. And so also with the unconscious because of what he said he did.
      ASSIGNMENT 2
        “What do you think abuot the last lessson( language acquisition)”
        
        According to me the last lesson about language acquisition is very interesting. So can I conclude that I can conclude that learning a language in childhood was only an imitation. Because at the time the children were just what are arguably his parents. And if the child at an early age that if you talk like upside down. Example: one of other pants. speak slowly or just plain say those words. For example, when the children would say mama, he initially only told ma. And when we talked to him must be slowly and if we don’t speak slowly so he would not understand what we are talking about.
        At the time of the children when she wants something she only uses sign language and he would not say what and just pointed and pulled toward his parents he wanted. For example he want candy in a shop. He only invites his parents toward the candy stores.
      At the age of 4-5 years, children have thoroughly mastered all the sounds that are essential for language development. At that age range, children not only receive inventory phonetics and phonology system but also develop the ability to determine which sounds are used to distinguish the meaning of the Child has been adept at using complex sentences at the age of 5 years. Kids began to compose complex sentences correctly, and the more often the intensity of their use. However, understanding the child often suffered misinterpretation sentences that require attention. The rabbit is very nice to eat. It was proved that the child was still having difficulty understanding the meaning of a complex sentence adults.
      ASSIGNMENT 3
      These stages are Pre-said stage (pre-speech), the stage of the babble / CHATTERING (babbling stage).knowledge about language acquisition and the very first stages can be from diaries kept by parents who also psycholinguistics science researchers.In studies of more sophisticated, the knowledge gained through the recordings on tape, video tape, and experiments are planned. There while linguists that divides the stage into the stage of language acquisition and linguistic prelinguistic.
      However, this establishment refuted by many people who say that the stage prelinguistic it can not be considered a language that beginning because sounds like a cry and whine controlled by the stimulus (stimulus) solely, the automatic response of children to stimuli hunger, pain, desire to be picked up, and feelings of pleasure. Therefore, the stages of language acquisition is discussed in this paper is a linguistic stage which consists of several stages, namely (1) the stage pengocehan (babbling); (2) the stage of one word (holofrastis); (3) phase two words; (4) The stage resembles a telegram (telegraphic speech).
      At the age of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers, dekur. Sound issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel. However, these sounds could not be ascertained because they do not form jelas.bahwa audible sound produced by this baby is sounds prabahasa / dekur / vocalization language / cooing stage. first. Phase question is vocalizations sound, stage one-word or holofrastis, phase two-word, two-word stage, telegraphic utterances. In addition to language support acquisition phase as already mentioned, there are also linguists, such as Aitchison suggests several stages of child language acquisition. The stages he meant was snoring, babble, intonation patterns, speech one word, two-word utterances, the inflection of words, the form of questions and the form of ingratitude rare construction or complex, mature speech.

      

  43. Name/ NIM : Misbakhul Munir / 1314050343

    Assignment 1 :

    Language Acquisition

    Language acquisition is the process whereby children acquire their first languages. All humans (without exceptional physical or mental disabilities) have an innate capability to acquire language. Children may acquire one or more first languages. For example, children who grow up in an environment in which only English is spoken and heard will acquire only English as their first language. However, children who grow up in an environment in which both German and English are spoken and heard equally will acquire both German and English as their first languages. Acquisition occurs passively and unconsciously through implicit learning. In other words, children do not need explicit instruction to learn their first languages but rather seem to just “pick up” language in the same way they learn to roll over, crawl, and walk. Language acquisition in children just seems to happen.
    Acquisition (as opposed to learning) depends on children receiving linguistic input during the critical period. The critical period is defined as the window of time, up to about the age of twelve or puberty, in which humans can acquire first languages. Children must receive adequate linguistic input including phonology (speech sounds), semantics (vocabulary and meaning), grammar (syntax or word order and morphology or grammatical markers), and pragmatics (use and context) and prosody (intonation, rhythm, stress) before the end of the critical period in order to acquire their first languages. If linguistic input is not adequate, children will never fully acquire. Language acquisition cannot normally occur after the critical period because the brain becomes “hardwired” to the first language.

    Language acquisition is a long-term process

    Language acquisition occurs over time with learners moving through developmental stages and gradually growing in proficiency. Individual learners however move through these stages at variable rates. Rates of acquisition are influenced by multiple factors including an individual’s educational background, first language background, learning style, cognitive style, motivation, and personality. In addition, sociocultural factors, such as the influence of the English or native language community in the learner’s life, may play a role in acquisition.

    Assignment 2 :

    Deaf children exposed to sign language show the same stages of language acquisition as do hearing children exposed to spoken languages. Children may acquire more than one language at a time. Bilingual children seem to go through the same stages as monolingual children expect that they develop two grammars. This is true for children acquiring two spoken language as well as for children acquiring a spoken language and a signed language. Whether the child wiil be equally proficient in the languages depends on the input she receives and the social condition unde which the languages are acquired. The difficulties encountered in attempting to learn languages after puberty may be due to the fact that there are sensitive periods. Some theories of second language acquisition suggest that the same principles operate that account for first language acquisition. A second view suggest that the acquisition of a second language in adulthood involves general learning mechanisms rather than the specifically linguistic principles used by the child. There are a number of second language teaching methods that have been proposed, some of them reflecting different theories of the nature of language and language acquisition. Questions as to wheter language is unique to the human species have led researchers to attempt to teach nonhuman primates systems of communication that purportedly resemble human language.

    Assignment 3 :
    Language acquisition is one of the central topics in cognitive science. Every theory of cognition has tried to explain it; probably no other topic has aroused such controversy. Possessing a language is the quintessentially human trait: all normal humans speak, no non human animal does. Language is the main vehicle by which we know about other people’s thoughts, and the two must be intimately related. Every time we speak we are revealing something about language, so the facts of language structure are easy to come by; these data hint at a system of extraordinary complexity. Nonetheless, learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a matter of a few years and without the need for formal lessons. With language so close to the core of what it means to be human, it is not surprising that children’s acquisition of language has received so much attention. Anyone with strong views about the human mind would like to show that children’s first few steps are steps in the right direction.

    Acquisition is the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge. Whereas language acquisition is the process how language is acquired or learned. First language refers to the first language which is heard by infant. In this case, children try to express their mother tongue into ungrammatical rules because they still hear from people say and imitate them. First language acquisition is always collateral with second language acquisition. It means that first language acquisition study about mother tongue or native language whereas second language acquisition study about additional language. For example, people who born in Java. First language, Javanese, which they heard is first language and Indonesian as second language.
    suadh in this book is suitable as training material for learning or language acquisition guidelines, but it is good lecturers should also be guiding. To improving proficiency in the language. We can also observe in the classroom to find the current input. Free chat without a theme is not suitable as an input good because it does not correspond to the subject matter, because learning is not only about things that are of interest to students. There is a presumption could be a native speaker of a language teacher. This is not entirely true because structured grammar learning more is required than simply speak using correct grammar. Learning grammar is necessary and should not be regarded as trivial. Although sometimes it is not natural, so it is only appropriate at a given time but can improve the quality of learning.

    Analysis of the intake used as the foundation for preparing a meaningful and communicative drills or exercises to become more efficient which leads to language acquisition. These activities provide a space for students to learn real communication or to stimulate communication.
    Designing learning to stimulate the mechanical exercise is not difficult. Similarly to communicate in the classroom. Provide input through learning activities that are meaningful and communicative is quite a challenging task. But in order to meet the criteria as intake. To realize this is not easy especially adapted to the learning materials.

    In the lecture, teachers are trained to create a context for learning grammar. And forget about the technique drill. Language acquisition would be easier if intakenya communicative and understandable.
    But exercise meaningful and communicative still has drawbacks. In fact, if students master the structure of higher language (i + 1) they will not be able to find enough natural input in language acquisition. In this case, if it is pulled generalization, the right activities for learning is that it is natural, attractive, and easy to understand. If these three things are met, plus the natural input, mastery (i + 1) will naturally be achieved and maintained, so that the language acquisition will be achieved. If the intake, it is important in the design of language learning in the classroom, meet the three criteria above, the class will be the right place to obtain a minimum language to an intermediate level.

    • Very interesting to read your response, Munir. However, reading your response, I might wonder if you took it from somewhere on internet. Did you write the response by yourself? For the Assignment, you did not answer what I asked from you. Your response is a bit lost. For the Assignment 2, you also did not answer the question. Your brief feedback on the mechanisms of language is not clear at this point. Then, for your Assignment 3, again, I wonder where did you get such sentences. And yes, I figured out that you might take from: http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-tips-foreign-languages/42458-language-acquisition-vs-language-learning/ (Please reply this comment if you really did write the article by yourself)

      • NAME/REG.NUMBER : Misbakhul Munir/1314050343

        Assignment 1

        Psycholinguistics is derived from the word psycho. Psycho is emotions and empathy. Emotion is a strong feeling came from the state of a person’s mood or an emotion is a state of mental or capability that spontaneous and does not appear by itself or unconscious. Empathy is a feeling that understand the customs or other people’s experiences and emotions or feelings to share with others. Language can sometimes make the behavior or character of a person is good and sometimes it makes people to be the worst. language acquisition device conscious, subconscious and unconscious.
        In the first meeting I probably have not been met and studied with the father, and I found psycholinguistics is the lesson of mental abilities in it, namely the production, the acquisition of language and perception. and also psycholinguistics is a branch of study that combines the disciplines of psychology and linguistics. This relates to the relationship between human language and thought for assessing the processes that occur in the brain when to produce and understand both spoken and written discourse.
        In the second lesson, I got that model or psycholinguistic theories based on behaviorism. It centered on people’s behavior. Language is seen as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn through imitating (imitation), reassurance, analogies, and structured input.
        Children learn by imitating (imitation). Children listen to what we say about them, and then they imitate. children imitate us word or speech, but sometimes not in accordance with existing conditions. Imitation repeating something heard. Children learn through reinforcement. the words of the children will be right with the underlying with the correct word (positive) and negative words reinforced when they say something is wrong. Children learn by analogy. Children use words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, to hear the phrase and use it as material to form another sentence. Children learn through structured feedback. Children can learn the language because the adults spoke slowly, quietly, and sometimes remark that du doing in front of or near children.

        Assignment 2

        Mechanism of Language Acquisition
        Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to receive, interpret and understand the language, and to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants in their native language acquisition. It was markedly different from the acquisition of a second language, which is related to the acquisition (in children and adults) of additional languages. language acquisition is one kind of psycholinguistics about how people learn to talk and mental processes involved.
        psycholinguistic model or theory based on behaviorism. It centered on people’s behavior. Language is seen as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn through imitating, reassurance, analogies, and structured input.
        Facts prove that many children learn through imitation. Children will listen to what we say about them, and then they will do it too. Therefore, we must keep our words even more around them. Imitation imitate something that is heard. Children learn through reinforcement. Children will learn to make correct sentences because they are reinforced with a positive mind to say something true and negatively reinforced when they say something is wrong. It was influenced also by imitation earlier. Children learn by analogy. Children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, to hear the phrase or word adult and using it to form another sentence. Children learn through structured feedback. Children can learn the language because the adults speak slowly and does not confuse even spontaneously.

        Assignment 3

        Feedback or argument
        I think that the study of books that have been discussed and read is a good and easy way to make the children could speak well and understand the language. Children should exist a special design to listen to the language. In fact, they do not wait to start until they are born. speech can be heard in the womb but will not be easy to say the back of the voice, but clear enough to identify the basic rhythm and certain features of the speaker’s voice. They prefer the language of their parents on other languages.
        Children will easily learn a language between the ages of two and six years old, they can say an average of ten new words every day. Children who are learning the language share a common purpose, but a lot of ways to get there. Taking the findings of the word, for example. Although many people do not realize, we do not usually leave a pause between words when we speak. In fact, when we’re talking all the words will feel the same that sometimes it is different. some children initially better than others in finding the words and pronounce clearly. At the age of 18 months, they produced a brief, clearly articulated, saying one word. They want the person’s name (Daddy, Mommy) and objects (barbie,games), and they use simple words like hot, and hungry to describe how they are feeling and what they want.
        Children need to hear language spoken to talk about things that they can see and feel, what they have just the experience, what they want to know about and what they care about. This is the kind of speech that provide children with the raw materials they need to learn the language to find out what words mean, where the subject or direct object fits into sentences, how to ask questions, and all the other things that make language.
        in fact, it’s the most important thing that every parent needs to know about the language. Therefore, talk to your children about what is important to them. and parents should teach and direct their children to acquire knowledge, a good experience and understanding of language with the ability or mindset of children to be.

        • I like the way you commented on the first assignment. Very personal, indeed. It seems that you did pay attention to our class and that is what I appreciate from you. For the second and third assignment, you made good points, but did you give relevant examples to support your statement?

  44. NAME/NIM : RIZKA AULIA/ 1314050204

    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Psycholinguistics is the study of the acquisition and use of language in terms of psychology and psychology can be defined as a science that study the factors of psychology and neurobiology that allow humans to acquire, use and understand of language. Language is a communication tool that is used to interact and communicate to convey ideas or mind, without language someone will not be able to communicate and socialize with others. From language we can know a person’s cultural background and where he come from.
    Language acquisition is obtained in the family environment, and usually acquire the language of what is heard. There are four mechanisms that through children in acquiring language are through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. The First, children get language through imitation. Children will imitate the pattern of language, that hear from parents or family, without thinking about the structure of the language. For example the children say a my pencil, two foot. Actually the structure of language this word is wrong, but the child will not think about the structure of language right or wrong.
    The second of mechanism of language acquisition is through reinforcement. The meaning of reinforcement is if the children say something right so he will earning praise such as, great, clever, and so on. Then if the child says something wrong then he will get a negative utterances like wrong, not both, and parents will correct it. The mechanism of language acquisition through reinforcement assumes that children continuously improved his language if he is wrong and praised if utterances is true. Through reinforcement the children can put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to from other sentences. Structured input also place too much emphasis on the environment.

    ASSIGNMENT 2
    We know that there are four mechanisms of language acquisition that through by children, the first is imitation. I agree if the children learn language by imitation, because the children only hear from adult say and the children only imitate of adult although sometimes they can’nt to speak. Example the adult say “Makan” and the children hear it, then imitate with say ”Mamam”. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentence that they would not spontaneously produce. The children will not think the rules of language, example the adult say “He’s going out”, the children only hear “He go out”. After that if the child is wrong, so the parents will repair what he say, and if the child is right, the parent will give praise. I don’t agree with this mechanisms, because the children will hear what the adult say spontaneously and not all sentence or word can their receive to mind. The parents will repair if the sentence of their children is wrong, but the children can not force to make right sentence.
    The children can arrange and put words together by analogy. The children know structure of language, but they make an analogy. Example I go to school by motorcycle, and the children make a sentence I go to school by bicycle. The meaning of this sentence is same, but the using of word is different. Children seem to know about the structure dependency of rules at a very early age. The last of mechanism of language acquisition is through structured input. I don’t not agree with this mechanism, because it is not suitable for infants. The adult should teach language to the child normally and not using the motherese, because it can make effect to child’s language development.

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. I agree with this statement, because when we born in the world we only know mother and father, and they always around in our life. When baby, he often his parents speak and the baby hear what his parents talking. The parents are the first people that his teach about language, words, and make sentence, an example the parents teach to their baby call them “Mama”, “Papa”, and the baby will imitate with say “Ma, pa”. The process infant receive this words is called bubble. The shaping by the linguistic environment that we see in perception also occurs in the speech the infant is producing. At around six months, the infant begins to babble the sound produced in this period include many which do not occur in the language of the household.
    More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. In era globalization, many the technology development example gadget. The infant not only learn English traditionally, but they can use tape recordings, videotapes. The children can imitate based on what they saw, and what they hear. Experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly. Similarly, newborns respond to phonetic contrast found in human language even when these differences are not phonemic in the language spoken in the baby’s home. A baby hearing a human voice over a loudspeaker saying ‘pa,pa” will slowly decrese her rate of sucking. If the sound changes to ba, the sucking increase dramatically. Controlled experiments show that adults find it difficult to differentiate between allophones of one phoneme, but for infants it comes naturally.
    Linguistics record spontaneous utterances of children can be one way to know the child’s production and comprehension. It means that the experts of linguistics record it to know how far the children understand about the language, and after that they try purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Acquiring language is a gradual, lengthy process, and one that involves a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see below that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part of the process of language acquisition. That is, they shouldn’t be corrected, because they will disappear in time. Second, children will learn to speak the dialects and languages that are used around them.

  45. Riska amelia/ 1314050340
    assignment 1 :
    every aspect of language is extremely complex before the children can learn math. the children are conjoining sentences, always asking question, using appropriate pronouns, negating sentences, using the syntactic, phonological, morphological, and smantic rules of the grammar. the study of the grammar of human language has reveales a great deal about language acquisition. the children dont need to teach about the rules of language but they will use their language creativively. The children must figure out the rules of language from around them. the children can learn language through immitation, like they hear their parents talk or their other family and around. not only immitation taht make the children understand about language, but also they learn through reinforcement. the benefit of reinforcement is can correct of bad grammar and reward for good grammar, it has also been suggested that children put word together to form phrase and sentences by analogy by hearing a sentences and using it as a sample to form other sentences, but this doesn’t work. analogy, immitation, and reinforcement cannot account for the language development because they are based on the assumption that what the child acquires is set of sentences or forms rather the set of grammatical rules.

    assignment 2
    my opinion about the mechanism of language is, the children can learn language the first bases on their parents. when they were child, they always see what their parents talked. not only their parents, but also their around. they will immitate and apply their own way eventhough still not perfect yet. Exactly there are many ways to learn language for the child, like immitate reinforcement, analogy and stuctured input like we have read before. it is obvious that chilren dont learn a language simply by memorizing the sentences of language. this example of language learning processing and creating represent just a few of many development between birth and linguistic maturity. During this period children discover the raw materials in the sound or gestures of their language.

    assignment 3:
    in my way, the children learn the first language through interaction with their parents especially mother. because a mother always talk to them eventhough they dont understand about it. when the children saw what the mother talked, the will immitate and apply with their own way.
    the children will more understand about language if they always hear words or sentences as direct or indirect from other people.

  46. Nama : Srigus Okta Diani / 1314050556 TBI-B
    Assignment 1
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition device are conscions, subsoncious and uncocious. all that is heard and seen children on his childhood in both the conscious, subconscious and unconscious will come up later if she was an adult. The linguistics absorption prescriptive language that is the language that he believes it is absorbed or instructions. Example if mother tonque is minang, then the child speak minang. And descriptive language is taught, if taught the boy did not speak. it is what their language or literary or literal. Example English, then the child needs to be taught because she was born not from the English. Which language acquisition starting from children before the age of five, already know most of the imitation system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Language of the children can be acquire through : imitation, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. Because children imitate the absorption of the language so that we as parents have to show or teach things that are good against children. If parents fight, shouldn’t be in the presence of children, because what would see him absorbed in his brain and in his later mimicked. We as parents should suppress or reinforce what the child is saying. If the child says something wrong then we rectify or suppress the correct sentence for spoken. If the child is not sensitive to color then we helped her to know that color. And then we as parents should provide feedback of correct sentences to the child and in accordance with age. Give input the correct language and spelling to children continues until the child can control and correct the words.
    Assignment 2
    Language of the children can be acquire through : (a.) imitation, which the children can learn language by memorizing the words and sentences of their language. Because children imitate the acquisition of the language so that we as parents have to show or teach things that are good against children. Example: children born of indonesian – speaking parent in an Indonesian speaking enviroment will learn indonesian. (b.) reinforement, the basic idea here is that children learn to speak like adults because they are taught to do by being praised and otherwise reworded for doing things right. At the same time, they are helped because parents correct them when they make mistakes. . If parents fight, shouldn’t be in the presence of children, because what would see him absorbed in his brain and in his later mimicked. We as parents should suppress or reinforce what the child is saying. (c.) analogy, it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. that children can use a sentence that they hear as an example in formulating other sentence. They can only produce one type of sentence. As it happens children can create a huge number of different sentences, so not just sentences with the same structure. If this would be the case, analogy would be a good method, but language is more creative than that. (d.) structured input, In many cultures adults do not use special register to talk to children. In some communities adults hardly talk to babies, But children all acquire language in the same way. Although infants prefer to listen to motherese than normal adult speech, controlled studies show that motherese does not significantly affect the child’s language development.
    Assignment 3
    It so me of the statement will give a response that is that the newborn child into the world he must have a sound and if it does not, then allow the child dumb can not about talk something. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension.
    Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. That the absorption of the language is done with the recording so that children imitate and acquisition what he heard. At the age of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers. Sounds issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel.
    However, these sounds could not be ascertained because the shape is not yet clearly audible. In this babble stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. n this babble stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. First language acquisition is a process of first language acquisition by the child. During this first language acquisition, there are two processes involved, namely the process of competency and process performance. Both these processes are of course obtained by the child unconsciously.
    There are several stages traversed by the child during acquiring their first language. Phase question is vocalizations sound, stage one-word or holofrastis, phase two-word, two-word stage, telegraphic utterances. In addition to language support acquisition phase as already mentioned, there are also linguists, such as Aitchison suggests several stages of child language acquisition. The stages he meant was snoring, babble, intonation patterns, speech one word, two-word utterances, the inflection of words, the form of questions and the form of ingratitude rare construction or complex, mature speech.
    So, absorption language from infancy through voice recording, video tape, and others. The more dominant child imitate what he heard and saw. then teach our children was told things are fine or positive, it was the opinion of me.

  47. Nama : Srigus Okta Diani / 1314050556
    Assignment 1
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition device are conscions, subsoncious and uncocious. all that is heard and seen children on his childhood in both the conscious, subconscious and unconscious will come up later if she was an adult. The linguistics absorption prescriptive language that is the language that he believes it is absorbed or instructions. Example if mother tonque is minang, then the child speak minang. And descriptive language is taught, if taught the boy did not speak. it is what their language or literary or literal. Example English, then the child needs to be taught because she was born not from the English. Which language acquisition starting from children before the age of five, already know most of the imitation system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Language of the children can be acquire through : imitation, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. Because children imitate the absorption of the language so that we as parents have to show or teach things that are good against children. If parents fight, shouldn’t be in the presence of children, because what would see him absorbed in his brain and in his later mimicked. We as parents should suppress or reinforce what the child is saying. If the child says something wrong then we rectify or suppress the correct sentence for spoken. If the child is not sensitive to color then we helped her to know that color. And then we as parents should provide feedback of correct sentences to the child and in accordance with age. Give input the correct language and spelling to children continues until the child can control and correct the words.
    Nama : Srigus Okta Diani / 1314050556
    Assignment 2
    Language of the children can be acquire through : (a.) imitation, which the children can learn language by memorizing the words and sentences of their language. Because children imitate the acquisition of the language so that we as parents have to show or teach things that are good against children. Example: children born of indonesian – speaking parent in an Indonesian speaking enviroment will learn indonesian. (b.) reinforement, the basic idea here is that children learn to speak like adults because they are taught to do by being praised and otherwise reworded for doing things right. At the same time, they are helped because parents correct them when they make mistakes. . If parents fight, shouldn’t be in the presence of children, because what would see him absorbed in his brain and in his later mimicked. We as parents should suppress or reinforce what the child is saying. (c.) analogy, it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. that children can use a sentence that they hear as an example in formulating other sentence. They can only produce one type of sentence. As it happens children can create a huge number of different sentences, so not just sentences with the same structure. If this would be the case, analogy would be a good method, but language is more creative than that. (d.) structured input, In many cultures adults do not use special register to talk to children. In some communities adults hardly talk to babies, But children all acquire language in the same way. Although infants prefer to listen to motherese than normal adult speech, controlled studies show that motherese does not significantly affect the child’s language development.
    Nama : Srigus Okta Diani / 1314050556
    Assignment 3
    It so me of the statement will give a response that is that the newborn child into the world he must have a sound and if it does not, then allow the child dumb can not about talk something. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension.
    Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. That the absorption of the language is done with the recording so that children imitate and acquisition what he heard. At the age of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers. Sounds issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel.
    However, these sounds could not be ascertained because the shape is not yet clearly audible. In this babble stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. n this babble stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. First language acquisition is a process of first language acquisition by the child. During this first language acquisition, there are two processes involved, namely the process of competency and process performance. Both these processes are of course obtained by the child unconsciously.
    There are several stages traversed by the child during acquiring their first language. Phase question is vocalizations sound, stage one-word or holofrastis, phase two-word, two-word stage, telegraphic utterances. In addition to language support acquisition phase as already mentioned, there are also linguists, such as Aitchison suggests several stages of child language acquisition. The stages he meant was snoring, babble, intonation patterns, speech one word, two-word utterances, the inflection of words, the form of questions and the form of ingratitude rare construction or complex, mature speech.
    So, absorption language from infancy through voice recording, video tape, and others. The more dominant child imitate what he heard and saw. then teach our children was told things are fine or positive, it was the opinion of me.

  48. NAME/NIM : RIZKA AULIA / 1314050204
    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Psycholinguistics is the study of the acquisition and use of language in terms of psychology and psychology can be defined as a science that study the factors of psychology and neurobiology that allow humans to acquire, use and understand of language. Language is a communication tool that is used to interact and communicate to convey ideas or mind, without language someone will not be able to communicate and socialize with others. From language we can know a person’s cultural background and where he come from.
    Language acquisition is obtained in the family environment, and usually acquire the language of what is heard. There are four mechanisms that through children in acquiring language are through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. The First, children get language through imitation. Children will imitate the pattern of language, that hear from parents or family, without thinking about the structure of the language. For example the children say a my pencil, two foot. Actually the structure of language this word is wrong, but the child will not think about the structure of language right or wrong.
    The second of mechanism of language acquisition is through reinforcement. The meaning of reinforcement is if the children say something right so he will earning praise such as, great, clever, and so on. Then if the child says something wrong then he will get a negative utterances like wrong, not both, and parents will correct it. The mechanism of language acquisition through reinforcement assumes that children continuously improved his language if he is wrong and praised if utterances is true. Through reinforcement the children can put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to from other sentences. Structured input also place too much emphasis on the environment.

    ASSIGNMENT 2
    We know that there are four mechanisms of language acquisition that through by children, the first is imitation. I agree if the children learn language by imitation, because the children only hear from adult say and the children only imitate of adult although sometimes they can’nt to speak. Example the adult say “Makan” and the children hear it, then imitate with say ”Mamam”. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentence that they would not spontaneously produce. The children will not think the rules of language, example the adult say “He’s going out”, the children only hear “He go out”. After that if the child is wrong, so the parents will repair what he say, and if the child is right, the parent will give praise. I don’t agree with this mechanisms, because the children will hear what the adult say spontaneously and not all sentence or word can their receive to mind. The parents will repair if the sentence of their children is wrong, but the children can not force to make right sentence.
    The children can arrange and put words together by analogy. The children know structure of language, but they make an analogy. Example I go to school by motorcycle, and the children make a sentence I go to school by bicycle. The meaning of this sentence is same, but the using of word is different. Children seem to know about the structure dependency of rules at a very early age. The last of mechanism of language acquisition is through structured input. I don’t not agree with this mechanism, because it is not suitable for infants. The adult should teach language to the child normally and not using the motherese, because it can make effect to child’s language development

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. I agree with this statement, because when we born in the world we only know mother and father, and they always around in our life. When baby, he often his parents speak and the baby hear what his parents talking. The parents are the first people that his teach about language, words, and make sentence, an example the parents teach to their baby call them “Mama”, “Papa”, and the baby will imitate with say “Ma, pa”. The process infant receive this words is called bubble. The shaping by the linguistic environment that we see in perception also occurs in the speech the infant is producing. At around six months, the infant begins to babble the sound produced in this period include many which do not occur in the language of the household.
    More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. In era globalization, many the technology development example gadget. The infant not only learn English traditionally, but they can use tape recordings, videotapes. The children can imitate based on what they saw, and what they hear. Experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly. Similarly, newborns respond to phonetic contrast found in human language even when these differences are not phonemic in the language spoken in the baby’s home. A baby hearing a human voice over a loudspeaker saying ‘pa,pa” will slowly decrese her rate of sucking. If the sound changes to ba, the sucking increase dramatically. Controlled experiments show that adults find it difficult to differentiate between allophones of one phoneme, but for infants it comes naturally.
    Linguistics record spontaneous utterances of children can be one way to know the child’s production and comprehension. It means the experts linguistics record it to know how far the children understand about the language, and after that they try purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Acquiring language is a gradual, lengthy process, and one that involves a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see below that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part the process of language acquisition. That is, They shouldn’t be corrected, because they will disappear in time. Children will learn to speak the dialects and languages that are used around them.

  49. IMELIA RESKA/1314050139 TBI-A

    Assignment 1

    In the first and second meeting we have llearned about how the children acquire the language. As we know that children who under two to five years old are able to pronoun something that they have heard. And something that he have heard will be a new lesson for them, because children is well known with imitator. They usually imitate something. Language is not taught by someone, but it come naturally, they get a new words and sentences by hearing people around them. While they are hearing something of course there is a part of that sentences are not pronounciated by them, it is because they can not catch well.
    A normal human being can go through life without learning to read and write.. Learning to speak and understand a language and learning to ride and write are different. When children imitating adults, they do not just imitate it. But they just say what they hear without knowing the rules of the language. For example adults said “nobody likes me”, the boy said “do not nobody likes me”. This shows that they overcome their speech disorder, they immediately use the language to speak.
    Then the children learn through reinforcement, they do not know what they are doing wrong and can not be corrected even when they show the errors children make funny. When someone says something to the kids as “a pencil” and kids can say “a my pencil”. This means that they use the analogy on it. Sometimes adults tend to speak slower and clearer by exaggerating intonation and generally grammatical sentences, but in fact this does not significantly affect the development of children’s language. This is because children are exposed to language that is more adultlike. motherese may be useful to get a child’s attention and hold it.

    Assignment 2
    As we know that children acquire their first language without pay attention in grammatical correct, and their parents dont teach them the rules of language, because of children will improve their language directly when they understood it. . When a child begin to speak, they like imitate and reinforce what they hear from adults eventhough they can not repeat it clearly. They often try to imitate what adults do, and what they are talking about .The children also say something wrong, although their parents teach them the correct one. It shows that children have a powerful brain to receive everything in order to produce their own language. Children also learn language through analogy and structured input, as a child will create a new sentence by hearing their parent’s communication, finally they can produce the new language by hearing sample and direct speech also. Children are able to learn language because adults speak to them in a special “ simplified “ language sometimes called motherese, or child direct speech. By doing this strategy, the children will be easy to learn language and they will be easy to remain word to word until some sentences that have been adults talking to them. It can be concluded that adults should use the special way ( more slowly and clearly ) to speak with children, so they can use language clearly and they can be taught and received the new sentences well. But on the other hand, children dont imitate everything they hear, they appear to be very selective and only reproduce unassimilated language chunks. Therefore, their replications seem to be controlled by an internal language monitoring process,the behaviourist theory cannot account for the speed that first language is acquired, children say things that are not adult imitations, in particular they use inflectional overgeneralisations
    Assignment 3

    Language acquisition is a process of growing ability of language, in a getting a language, parents take a big role for this children because mother is ,the first girl that he sees in this world and always take care of him. However, some people said that language is innate because an infant has innate since he sees the world or come up to this world. Researchers assume that the growing abilities of a language of a child since they say first word that will be a task for the parents especially other to record or write it to remember what his baby said. Today, in this electric era, the traditional ways are not only uses in catching the language but modern ways also included such as tape recording, videotape, and controlled experiment. Some researchers use these electric devices in doing experiment about process of language acquisition. And electric devices also useful for increase their sucking rate. The experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when stimuli are presented to them are varied, but will decrease the sucking rate when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly. Infants will respond to visual depth and distance distinctions, to differences between rigid and flexible psychical properties of objects, and to human faces rather than to other visual stimuli.
    Acquiring a language is like learning to play a game. Children must learn the rules of the language game, for example how to articulate words and how to put them together in ways that are acceptable to the people around them. In order to understand child language acquisition, we need to keep two very important things in mind:
    First, children do not use language like adults, because children are not adults. Acquiring language is a gradual, lengthy process, and one that involves a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see below that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part of the process of language acquisition. That is, they shouldn’t be corrected, because they will disappear in time. Second, children will learn to speak the dialects and languages that are used around them. Children usually begin by speaking like their parents or caregivers, but once they start to mix with other children (especially from the age of about 3 years) they start to speak like friends their own age. And it is a normal way of their speak.

  50. IMELIA RESKA/1314050139 TBI-A

    Assignment 1

    In the first and second meeting we have llearned about how the children acquire the language. As we know that children who under two to five years old are able to pronoun something that they have heard. And something that he have heard will be a new lesson for them, because children is well known with imitator. They usually imitate something. Language is not taught by someone, but it come naturally, they get a new words and sentences by hearing people around them. While they are hearing something of course there is a part of that sentences are not pronounciated by them, it is because they can not catch well.
    A normal human being can go through life without learning to read and write.. Learning to speak and understand a language and learning to ride and write are different. When children imitating adults, they do not just imitate it. But they just say what they hear without knowing the rules of the language. For example adults said “nobody likes me”, the boy said “do not nobody likes me”. This shows that they overcome their speech disorder, they immediately use the language to speak.
    Then the children learn through reinforcement, they do not know what they are doing wrong and can not be corrected even when they show the errors children make funny. When someone says something to the kids as “a pencil” and kids can say “a my pencil”. This means that they use the analogy on it. Sometimes adults tend to speak slower and clearer by exaggerating intonation and generally grammatical sentences, but in fact this does not significantly affect the development of children’s language. This is because children are exposed to language that is more adultlike. motherese may be useful to get a child’s attention and hold it.

    Assignment 2
    As we know that children acquire their first language without pay attention in grammatical correct, and their parents dont teach them the rules of language, because of children will improve their language directly when they understood it. . When a child begin to speak, they like imitate and reinforce what they hear from adults eventhough they can not repeat it clearly. They often try to imitate what adults do, and what they are talking about .The children also say something wrong, although their parents teach them the correct one. It shows that children have a powerful brain to receive everything in order to produce their own language. Children also learn language through analogy and structured input, as a child will create a new sentence by hearing their parent’s communication, finally they can produce the new language by hearing sample and direct speech also. Children are able to learn language because adults speak to them in a special “ simplified “ language sometimes called motherese, or child direct speech. By doing this strategy, the children will be easy to learn language and they will be easy to remain word to word until some sentences that have been adults talking to them. It can be concluded that adults should use the special way ( more slowly and clearly ) to speak with children, so they can use language clearly and they can be taught and received the new sentences well. But on the other hand, children dont imitate everything they hear, they appear to be very selective and only reproduce unassimilated language chunks. Therefore, their replications seem to be controlled by an internal language monitoring process,the behaviourist theory cannot account for the speed that first language is acquired, children say things that are not adult imitations, in particular they use inflectional overgeneralisations

    Assignment 3

    Language acquisition is a process of growing ability of language, in a getting a language, parents take a big role for this children because mother is ,the first girl that he sees in this world and always take care of him. However, some people said that language is innate because an infant has innate since he sees the world or come up to this world. Researchers assume that the growing abilities of a language of a child since they say first word that will be a task for the parents especially other to record or write it to remember what his baby said. Today, in this electric era, the traditional ways are not only uses in catching the language but modern ways also included such as tape recording, videotape, and controlled experiment. Some researchers use these electric devices in doing experiment about process of language acquisition. And electric devices also useful for increase their sucking rate. The experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when stimuli are presented to them are varied, but will decrease the sucking rate when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly. Infants will respond to visual depth and distance distinctions, to differences between rigid and flexible psychical properties of objects, and to human faces rather than to other visual stimuli.
    Acquiring a language is like learning to play a game. Children must learn the rules of the language game, for example how to articulate words and how to put them together in ways that are acceptable to the people around them. In order to understand child language acquisition, we need to keep two very important things in mind:
    First, children do not use language like adults, because children are not adults. Acquiring language is a gradual, lengthy process, and one that involves a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see below that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part of the process of language acquisition. That is, they shouldn’t be corrected, because they will disappear in time. Second, children will learn to speak the dialects and languages that are used around them. Children usually begin by speaking like their parents or caregivers, but once they start to mix with other children (especially from the age of about 3 years) they start to speak like friends their own age. And it is a normal way of their speak.

  51. Name : Budi Kurniawan Nim : 1314050150
    Asignment 1
    As we know children acquinted language from born with an inherited ability to learn any languages, every child has language acquisition device which grammatical structures into child’s brain, children have then only to learn new vocabulary and apply structures from language acquisition to forms sentences, a child could not possibly learn alanguage through imitation alone because the language spoken around them is highly and every language extremely complex, however all chidren regardless of their intellectual ability, become fluent in their native language within 5 or 6 years.
    Children are busy learning to adjust learning to speak language to suit their audience and situation parents go to great efforts to teach their children to say please and thank you when needed to be differential in speaking to remember, to issue an appropriate greeting when they meet others are speaking. Children find their language skills to maintain conversations, tell stories, ask or argue for favor. As children move on to higherstages of language development and the acquisition of literacy, they depand increasingly on broader social institutions. By reading their children, telling stories and engaging in supportive dialogs parents set the stage for their children entry into the world of literature , the parent must teach them by displaying examples of the execution and generation of a wide variety of detailed literature practices ranging from leaning to write through outlines to taking notes in lectures. Children must therefore contruct the rules that permit them to use their language creatively. Their parent are no more aware of the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic rules than are the children. Even if you remember your early years. Do you remember anyone telling you to form a sentence by adding a veerb phrase to a noun phrase and they use this theory to construct the grammar of language.
    Assignment 2
    In mechanisms of language acquisition there are four proposals concerning the psychological mechanisms involved in acquiring a language. first children learn through imitation, as we know something that the children do is imitate an activity that their parents or family do. They do not know about words, just they only hearing and try to speak it although it Is not clearly. Simply imitate what the children heard because they still unable to produce word or sentences well. For example daddy said tomorrow we will go to the beach, the children can catch what his daddy said with go to the beach. Second children learn through reinforcement. In many times children have mistakes in spelling word and speak that words, so that one of the reinforcement that can make the word strong is correctly the grammar that the children said their parents correct that structure for many times. For example the ungrammatical sentence. The children said “ani eat friedrice” and the mother said “no, say “ani eats friedrice” the children still say the same sentence and his mother also correct it for many times. So that is the function of reinforcement to correct the ungrammatical words of sentences from the children. Third children lear language through analogy. Analogy means that children can use a sentence that they hear as an example in formulating sentences, they can only produce one type of sentence , thus the question is wether children can acquire a language through analogyso not just sentences with the same structure to make the language more creative for example my father goes to office by car and the analogy is my father goes to office by Honda. Fourth children lear language through structured input, as I know learning by structured input just cans learnt to the adult not for the children because structured input just force the learner to understand what they say. So its suitable to the adult person not to the children wich learned by slowly and enjoyable for children.
    Assignment 3
    Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. All normal children who grow up in normal households, surrounded by conversation, will acquire the language that is being used around them. And it is just as easy for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time, as long as they are regularly interacting with speakers of those languages.
    The children will learn the first language from their parents only, especially their mother. The parent’s first language will be the first language for the children also. It is showed by how parents speak with them. It is more slowly and clearly, do not come from the written text . The adults will find many different ways to express their feeling to the children. It means that language will be learn by children directly as their interaction . A child like immitation from others. So that, everything that is spoken or done by adult will be imitated by them, eventhough they do not know the meaning. The children will not imitate clearly. . The children of five years old can speak more than three language by hearing and imitate from tape recorder, and any others media. Linguistics record spontaneous utterances of children can be one way to know the child’s production and comprehension. It means that the experts of linguistics record it to know how far the children understand about the language, and after that they try purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352). Children usually begin by speaking like their parents or caregivers, but once they start to mix with other children (especially from the age of about 3 years) they start to speak like friends their own age. So we can not force them becausethe way the children speak they will develop their own accents. And discuss about how a child acquire a language, we do not just focuss on one way, because there are so many ways how the children can acquire a language. The children are not though a language, but they learn from their interaction with people around them

  52. Dian Anesti /1314050269
    Assignment 1
    At the first meeting, I learned about a little basic on psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics is the study of the relationships with the behavior and human reason. I also understand how psycholinguistic used or tests such as what to do in the lesson this psycholinguistics. For example, we can go into the field as visiting mental hospitals, prisons and nursing homes. there we can understand how the environment was with him talking in order to understand the psychology in this case to understand how the language in psychology. I also get an explanation that Linguistics have branches of sciences such as Linguistics Micro and Macro. Micro linguistics is a branch of linguistics that studied the language of it, in other words, studying the structure of language itself. While Macro Linguistics is a branch of linguistics that studied the language in relation to factors outside the language, including the field of interdisciplinary and applied fields. Some branches of Linguistics Micro include phonology, morphology, syntax and semantics. Linguistics micro further discusses about the purpose and what lies behind the creation of the language, as well as function. While the macro includes Linguistics Psycholinguistics, Sociolinguistics, Linguistics Computational, and so on, because Linguistics Macro languages more linking science with aspects that are outside the linguistic sciences.
    At the second meeting I was not able to attend, because I was ill. So I have no comment on the matter at the second meeting.
    Assignment 2
    Language acquisition is a process of consciously done by children (learners) to master the language of the learned. Mastery of the language is usually done through formal teaching and intensively. Furthermore, what is meant by language acquisition is a process of language acquisition children do naturally derived from the environment and not due to accidentally learn the verbal. Language acquisition usually obtained from verbal contact with native speakers in the language environment. The children can imitation that they listen but when they trying they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. I think the children not just to listen what is said around them but they will imitate the speech that they hear. Then, in language the children would not to learn through reinforcement. When they were wrong in their speech we can guide to speech but don’t asked them to review what that we said exactly. For example when their mother said ‘It is my pencil’ and then they said ‘It pencil my’. In the problem anyone can’t ask them to say like them because in learn language the children can’t be forced.
    Assignment 3
    Humans acquire language through social interaction in childhood, and children are able to speak eloquently about the age of three years. The use of language has its roots in human culture. Therefore, not only used for communication, language also has many social functions, and cultural, such as to indicate the identity of a group, social stratification, and for the social makeup and change and vary over time, and in evolutionary history can be reconstructed reset by comparing modern languages to determine which properties should be owned by the language of their ancestors so that changes can occur later. A group of languages derived from a common ancestor known as the family of languages

  53. Name / nim : Abdul Latif : 1314050412
    Subject : psycholinguistic
    ( meeting I) Assigment 1

    Making summary what we have learned in the first and second meeting.
    In the first meeting, not much that I can write. because in the beginning of our lesson, we just introduced of the subject “ psycholinguistict” as we know that the root o psycholinguistict can be divided into two words they are psyche (jiwa) and linguistic (bahasa). So we just focus what does psycholinguistict mean. So I think psycholinguistict means the study of linguistic by psyche. Last week we studied psycholinguistict about language acquisition device (LAD) and second language acquisition. In language acquisition we study about the tools to acquire the language, for instance brain and mouth. Our brain can arrange the words that we will talk about and than our mouth the tool to produce what you will to say. Because the language is acquired or produced by someone’s mind. Based on psychology says that people’s mind can be devided into three kinds. First consious second subconcious and the last is unconcious. Furthemore, ater explaining LAD let’s move to SLA(second language acquisition). That means that as a human being, has another language besides their native or mother tongue language. For example rudi was born in padang he is not only can speak minang language but he can speak by two language those are minang and indonesia. That’s all about the first meeting that I still remember.
    The summery of second meeting about mechanic of language acquisition. Actually we study this material to know how to teach someone to produce words or speak, especially for the children. So we can clasified mechanic of language into imtaion/, reinforcement, analogy and through structured input. I wiil disscuss mechanic of language acquisition deeply in assigment II.

    Name : Abdul Latif
    Bp : 1314050412
    Subject: Psycholinguistic ( meeting II)
    What do you thing this lesson today?
    I think the lesson today exactly the mechanisms of language acquisition is very important and gives me a comprehension to know mechanics of language. And then the lecturer says to us that the linguistic is very has big influences or everything in the world, because something will be known caused of language. So we can conclude that linguistic is a crucial thing that everyone should know.
    Furthermore, through this lesson I also know that children who wants to ask with so many questions ’’or curiosity’’, it does not mean that child is stupid. Because children can study through asking everything around them. And the most surprise or me is the linguistic which begin or star from behaviorism, and apparently, linguistic views from behavior of something or someone. And the last one through joining this lesson I know how the child studies something especially about language, well it can be divided into three things. First the children study something through imitate something or someone, so everything that children say are what they are hearing about around them, so as the a good parent should be careful to put words or speak and also action in front of them. Caused they can imitate whatever we do or speak fastly. And the second things is reinforcement. It is very important to know especially for a couple who has got baby or new baby, reinforcement can teach us how the words are taught slowly. Because children can’t speak quickly like adult do. So let’s teach them speak through reinforcement slowly. The last point is through analogy. I think I am sure that I am lucky knowing this lesson, cause it can broaden my mind and my knowledge.

    Name / nim : Abdul Latif / 1314050412
    Subject : psycholinguistic (assigment III)

    Making feedback
    Making the diaries kept as the earliest study that the child learn to produce language is a litle mpossile for me and I don’t agree with it. Caused, there are so many children still can not or not able to write and also making diarie. We should think “ are they able to make diaire?” But some of them do it well. But I opinion says that the earliest studi for child to produce language is imitation like we have disscussed in the pevoious meeting that is about mechanisms of language acquisition. For example children imitate something’s sound. While children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, grammar is seldom taught to them explicitly; that they nonetheless rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically supports the theory advanced by NoamChomsky and other proponents of transformational grammar. But I strongly agree with the More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments as the earliest studi of child language acquisition. Because we have ever seen together that parents teach their child by using tape recording to train child’s hearing or speaking, even a mother who in pregnant ever tried to make the music in her pregnancy. May be that is the real earliest studi for shildren. And than teaching children by using vidieotapes is also has a good inluences to build child’s language and can speak well. Caused through this way the children are not only studi how to produce language, but they can studi and train their language with action that has exist on the videotapes. So videotapes has two functions in building child’s language acquisition well.
    Give response about the researcher found ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking and that is very crucial thing that should be known by parents. Caused it can be easier to teach their children by knowing those ingenious techniques. Cause through those techniques we can be able to predict their growth especially how they are going to speak. I thinkl that’s all my comment or this lesson. caused, honestly I still want to hear the explanation of this lesson “ children construct grammar” to get more comprehension.

  54. Name / nim : Abdul Latif : 1314050412
    Subject : psycholinguistic
    ( meeting I) Assignment 1

    Making summary what we have learned in the first and second meeting.
    In the first meeting, not much that I can write. because in the beginning of our lesson, we just introduced of the subject “ psycholinguistic” as we know that the root o psycholinguistic can be devided into two words they are psyche (jiwa) and linguistic (bahasa). So we just focus what does psycholinguistic mean. So I think psycholinguistic means the study of linguistic by psyche. Last week we studied psycholinguistic about language acquisition device (LAD) and second language acquisition. In language acquisition we study about the tools to acquire the language, for instance brain and mouth. Our brain can arrange the words that we will talk about and than our mouth the tool to produce what you will to say. Because the language is acquired or produced by someone’s mind. Based on psychology says that people’s mind can be divided into three kinds. First consious second subconcious and the last is unconcious. Furthemore, ater explaining LAD let’s move to SLA(second language acquisition). That means that as a human being, has another language besides their native or mother tongue language. For example rudi was born in padang he is not only can speak minang language but he can speak by two language those are minang and indonesia. That’s all about the first meeting that I still remember.
    The summery of second meeting about mechanic of language acquisition. Actually we study this material to know how to teach someone to produce words or speak, especially for the children. So we can clasified mechanic of language into imetation/, reinforcement, analogy and through structured input. I will discuss mechanic of language acquisition deeply in assignment II.

    Name : Abdul Latif
    Bp : 1314050412
    Subject: Psycholinguistic ( meeting II)
    What do you thing this lesson today?
    I think the lesson today exactly the mechanisms of language acquisition is very important and gives me a comprehension to know mechanics of language. And then the lecturer says to us that the linguistic is very has big influences or everything in the world, because something will be known caused of language. So we can conclude that linguistic is a crucial thing that everyone should know.
    Furthermore, through this lesson I also know that children who wants to ask with so many questions ’’or curiosity’’, it does not mean that child is stupid. Because children can study through asking everything around them. And the most surprise or me is the linguistic which begin or star from behaviorism, and apparently, linguistic views from behavior of something or someone. And the last one through joining this lesson I know how the child studies something especially about language, well it can be divided into three things. First the children study something through imitate something or someone, so everything that children say are what they are hearing about around them, so as the a good parent should be careful to put words or speak and also action in front of them. Caused they can imitate whatever we do or speak fastly. And the second things is reinforcement. It is very important to know especially for a couple who has got baby or new baby, reinforcement can teach us how the words are taught slowly. Because children can’t speak quickly like adult do. So let’s teach them speak through reinforcement slowly. The last point is through analogy. I think I am sure that I am lucky knowing this lesson, cause it can broaden my mind and my knowledge.

    Name / nim : Abdul Latif / 1314050412
    Subject : psycholinguistic (assigment III)

    Making feedback
    Making the diaries kept as the earliest study that the child learn to produce language is a litle mpossile for me and I don’t agree with it. Caused, there are so many children still can not or not able to write and also making diarie. We should think “ are they able to make diaire?” But some of them do it well. But I opinion says that the earliest studi for child to produce language is imitation like we have disscussed in the pevoious meeting that is about mechanisms of language acquisition. For example children imitate something’s sound. While children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, grammar is seldom taught to them explicitly; that they nonetheless rapidly acquire the ability to speak grammatically supports the theory advanced by NoamChomsky and other proponents of transformational grammar. But I strongly agree with the More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments as the earliest studi of child language acquisition. Because we have ever seen together that parents teach their child by using tape recording to train child’s hearing or speaking, even a mother who in pregnant ever tried to make the music in her pregnancy. May be that is the real earliest studi for shildren. And than teaching children by using vidieotapes is also has a good inluences to build child’s language and can speak well. Caused through this way the children are not only studi how to produce language, but they can studi and train their language with action that has exist on the videotapes. So videotapes has two functions in building child’s language acquisition well.
    Give response about the researcher found ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking and that is very crucial thing that should be known by parents. Caused it can be easier to teach their children by knowing those ingenious techniques. Cause through those techniques we can be able to predict their growth especially how they are going to speak. I thinkl that’s all my comment or this lesson. caused, honestly I still want to hear the explanation of this lesson “ children construct grammar” to get more comprehension.

  55. Name: Dona Melya Riska
    Nim: 1314050119
    Kelas: TBI.A
    Assignment 1
    The material that have we learned in the first and the second meeting is about what is psycholinguistics, psycholinguistics is one of branch of linguistics that have learn about psychology of human in using language. It means that we learned about the relation of language and psychology. psycholinguistics is in macro linguistics there are sociolinguistics, pragmatics, etnholinguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, ecolinguistics and pragmasemiotics. For example in psycholinguistics, we can know that language learned by the children using imitating way by imitate the way parent said and the children have stages in understand and can communicate language. Especially for the children have linguistics competence and we can look the develop of children to communicate begin from the children babbling then acquire the word and put in sentences we just know in point of view psychology of language or psycholinguistics itself. In the second meeting we have learn about language acquisition especially in mechanism of language acquisition, how the children have learn through imitation by the word that have get by the parents or people around, it just like for example the parent teach the children to say mama, then the children absolutely say the word that have not clearly and fluently the children just can say ma…ma. The children also learn through reinforcement, the children say the sentence that have they get In incorrect grammar then the parents like correct the children sentence in correct grammar for example the children say “ one other another spoon” we know that this sentence have wrong grammar then the parents said to the children they should said “want the other spoon”. We know that it is the correct grammar but that is in adult point of view grammar and in child point of view the sentence that has say by the children not wrong.
    Assignment 2
    The material that we have learned in language acquisition is about how language can communicate each other by human from the human still a baby. That have imitating what they have listen. Language acquisition is language that have get by human which is they have capacity in produce, understand, receive, and use the word to understand and communicate the language that have use. In mechanism of language acquisition the way children can communicate each other is by imitating, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. The first time children can speak usually imitate what have the parent said for example the parents teach the children how to say mama the children or the baby absolutely said like ma…ma still grope in saying one word. In my opinion, imitating is the first step that use by baby or children do in communicating as we know the thing that can do by the children is listen happened in around for instance listen what the parents said. Truly, the way to learn language have big role is in imitating how the people use language. In the other ways, the children imitate to say the word, the children also learn through reinforcement. As we know, the children absolutely speak with wrong structure, grammar or others, in this way the parent should have role to correction wrong sentence used by children to be correct sentence. For example the children say “nobody don’t like me” we know this sentence have same meaning with “nobody likes me” but mother should make the children can say that sentence in correct grammar. The other way is how the children through analogy, it has also been suggested that the children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy. But in my conclusion I think the children have learned trough imitating is function able.
    Assignment 3
    The theory earliest provides said that study of language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. As we know that, the way child and adult speak is different, the child have speak in several stages and it can be in four year until the children can speak fluently. The children have learnt by the parent to to get the language or language acquisitions I think this theory is good to know or to see the spontaneous the children in communicating. In children language has stages in communication by the children they begin by babbling, then acquire the first word and in just a few month they can put the word into sentence. With this theory we can look linguistic competent of the children. The children that have linguistics competent usually faster in understand and imitating the language that have their listen for example my neighbor have a children in four age now they can speak fluent and also can imitate song in foreign language that have his listen. They have listen Korean song continuously in three times and he can say or sing little bit of part fluent and clear moreover they do not know what is the meaning of song. In this case we can take a conclusion the children have linguistics competent. I think it’s no problem to record spontaneous of the children in speaking because with this way we can know is language of the children growth ?. and also we can know earlier is the children can speak fluent and clear or the children have some disease in language it means that the children can speak clearly and long time to make children can speak fluent. In language growth of the children should support by parent in reinforcement of grammar. Usually grammar that used by the children in speaking wrong in adult point of view it cause that the children do not response if the parent correct their grammar because in children point of view it is correct. For example the children say “ no body don’t like” its incorrect in grammar but correct children point of view. So my conclusion it is possible to do the theory to know children language growth, so that we can know to develop children competence that have, is the children have linguistics competence or not.

  56. NAMA /NIM : UMAR / 1314050122

    Assignment 1

    As we know that a child before the age of five already know most of the intricate system that we call grammar of a language. Even, Before they know how to add or divide numbers, they have conjoined sentences, asked questions, used appropriate pronouns, used negative sentences, formed relative clauses, and used the syntactic, phonological, morphological, and semantic rules of the grammar. Children are able to use a language well, even the word or the sentence they have not heard or produced before. Nobody teaches them. It is because children are normal human being can go through life without learning to read or write. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through some ways.
    When the children imitate adult speech, they are not simply imitating it. But they just say what they hear without knowing the rules of language itself. For example adult said “ where I can put this “ , the child said “ where can I put this”. It shows that they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use the language for speaking. Then children learn through reinforcement , they do not know what they are doing wrong and are unable to make correction even when they are pointed out. When someone says something to the children such as “I painted a red barn” and children can say “ I painted a yellow barn”. It means that they use an analogy on it. The last way in getting language is motherese or Child Directed Speech. Sometimes adult tends to speak more slowly and clearly by exaggerating the intonation and sentence are generally grammatical, but actually this way does not significantly affect the child’s language development. It is because of children are exposed to ever more adult like language.

    Assignment 2

    Actually I have known about the way of language is acquired by children. I think the mechanisms of language acquisition is still need investigated. The first is by imitating. Based on text which is written in An Introduction to Linguistics 7 edition by Victoria said that “ do not children just listen to what is said around them and imitate the speech they hear? Imitation is involved to some extent, of course, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech.” It clearly tells us that a child does not simply imitate the words or sentences that he have heard because he is unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. It means that a child imitates adult’s speak without know the rules of it ,because when they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use the language for speaking.
    To my opinion reinforcement is not suitable to teach children because they will not say what we said to them suddenly. Children do not think , are they right or wrong. They said something spontaneously without knowing the rules. It is also because they are unable to make a correction even they are pointed out. Children are able to analogize the sentence because children seem to know the structure depending of rules at a very early age. It means that they have no reason for making mistakes in analogizing. Then about structured input, I disagree with the motherese step which tends to speak more slowly and more clearly because there are some communities in which adults hardly talks to babies at all. And if we use motherese, children might not have sufficient information to extract the rules of their language and it may be useful for getting children’s attention only.

    Assigmment 3

    As we know that parents are the first humans that an infant see in this world, especially mother. When a child needs a food to eat he will cry, his mother understands that his baby is hungry. Actually as a newborn a child will be introduced to the family such as his father, mother, brother and sisters, even grandpa or grandma, mother teaches his baby to say their name by saying pa-pa. it is called babble. Because at around six months, the infants just hear words and sentences from his mother and the people around him. Infant begins to babble as a first stage in language acquisition because they can produce the correct pronunciation. These studies show that four to seven month old hearing infants exposed to spoken language produce a restricted set of phonetic forms. They just can say something phonetically for example ma-ma, pa-pa, and da-da. They get words and sentences from their family that always communicate with them or just hearing their conversation.
    In this modern era, the infant get the information about new words and sentences is not only traditionally but also by electric devices around them. Tape recordings and video tapes, that can be used in language acquisition process. It is because the experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when stimuli (visual or auditory) presented are varied. On the other hand when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly, it will decrease their sucking rate. . It means that children interests in something new to support their new words and sentences or they can extract the rule of the language that they have heard.
    The electric devices also can help the linguist research process to catch the information about the children from their utterances. Sometimes the children say something that we do not what it is exactly. Because they just say what they want to say without knowing the rules of it. A child and infant are different in this case, we can’t make them in the same line. It is because a child already can say something but the infant is not speaking yet. I do agree with the researchers that shown the technique for investigation the linguistics abilities of infant. Because when the infants want something they will not say something but they will just cry. Lukcly, every mother understands about what his baby wants. Infants aren’t speaking yet.

  57. RESPONSES:
    NAME/NIM: IRA MEDIAWATI/1314050156

    Assignment 1
    In the first meeting learn about introduction of psycholinguistics, like we know psyicholinguistics is a knowledge that study about connection of language and psychology. In the first meeting talking about linguistics to, linguistics have two kind like macro linguistics and micro linguistics. In micro linguistics such as phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics, and in macro linguistics such as sosiolinguistics, pragmatics, ethnolinguistics, psycholinguistics, sosiopragmatics, ecolinguistics and pragmasemiotics. We can see that psycholinguistics included micro linguistics. Language very important in human life because language can make clear imformation each people. There is the people have a language with learn like english language, the children learn english in their school from the teacher or in privat class but there is the children can speak english without learn, they just hear and imitate from the people in their environment or they hear the mother or the father says. If the children learn english it’s mean they have conscience and the children have unconscieness, they speak what did they hear from echo or sound caw around their area.
    In the second meeting writing the syllabus of psycholinguistics. And then learn about language Acquisition, read about mechanism of language Acquisition, that the children learn through imitation, sometimes the children can say something without learn language but they just listen what the parents say or the people near their house, the children can learn a language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. Because the children can learn language through imitatation, so the parents should be carefull if want say something in front of the children because it is influential to the childrent psychilogy, the children easy influenced with around situation. Language acquisition is a complex and unique human quality for which there is still no theory that is able to completely explain how language is attained.
    Assignment 2
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. learning a first language is something that every normal child does successfully without much need for formal lessons. Language development is a complex and unique human quality but yet children seem to acquire language at a very rapid rate with most children’s speech being relatively grammatical by age three. Grammar which is a set of mental rules that characterizes all of the sentences of a language, must be mastered in order to learn a language. Most children in a linguistic community seem to succeed in converging on a grammatical system equivalent to everyone else in the community with few wrong turns, which is quite remarkable considering the pitfalls and complexity of the system. By the time a child utters a first word, he or she has already spent many months playing around with the sounds and intonations of language, but there is still no one point at which all children learn to talk. Children acquire language in stages and different children reach various stages at different times, although they have one thing in common and that is that children learning the same language will follow an almost identical pattern in the sequence of stages they go through.
    The children learn language by imitation and reiforcement. The children learn with imitation by the people in the environment. We know the child is a kid that what they don’t know and they just talk about what they see and hear, and the children learn language based on behaviorist reinforcement principles by associating words with meanings. Correct utterances are positively reinforced when the child realizes the communicative value of words and phrases. For example, when the child says ‘milk’ and the mother will smile and give her some as a result, the child will find this outcome rewarding, enhancing the child’s language development.
    Assignment 3
    In my opinon, the earliest of children language Acquisition didn’t come from diaries kept by parents, but come from by what did the parents say because the children have Aqusition without plan, they have Aqusition spontaneous. Children acquire language through interaction not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. The children do not wake up one fine morning with a fully formed grammar in their heads, they just say what did they listen. In all language that linguistics have investigated, a coordinate structure constraint is part of the grammar. Like we know, the process of language Acqusition is fast, but it is not instantaneous. the parents’s role is very important and very influential with the children growth, attitude and thingking. Moreover, influential to children’s language to because. More recent of the children studies include the use of tape recordings, video tapes, and controlled. Childre who are never spoken acquire language and the language must be used for interaction with the child, for example a child who regularly hears language on the TV or radio but nowhere else will not learn to talk. I think this is can be easy way to make language ability of the children, because with use tape recording, video tapes the children easy to learn about language, they can study over again from this media. In my opinion is good if linguistics record spontaneous uttarances of children and purposefully elicit other uttarances to study the child’s production and comprehension, because it is make we know about language development of the children and we can compare at the last and now. And then, we can bring about others utterances to make easy understand about the children comprehension. Researches also have invented ingenious technique for investigeting the linguistics abilities of instants who are not yet speaking. The researches have a technique for know linguistics abilities from the baby are not yet speaking, but i think is not imposible to do this because like we know the baby are not yet speaking don’t can say anything. Maybe the we can understand what the children say with their body, like when they hungry they crying. Not always the parents teach the children, children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. The special way in which many adults speak to small children also helps them to acquire language.

  58. Name : NOFIRALINA
    Bp : 1314050632/ TBI-B
    Tugas 1 : Psycholinguistic
    Dosen : Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S.s., M.A
    About : “Definion of Psycholinguistic

    Psycholinguistic is the study of the psychological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. Initial forays into psycholinguistics were largely philosophical or educational schools of thought, due mainly to their location in departements other than applied sciences. Phycholiguistics has roots in education and philosophy, and covers the “cgnitive processes” that make it possible to generate a grammatical a meaning full sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structures, as well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, text, etc. Developmental psycholinguistics studies children’s ability to learn language.
    The are essentially two schools of thought as to how children acquire or learn language, and there is still much debate as to which theory is the correct one. The first theory states that all language must be learned by the child. The second view states that the abstract system of language cannot be learned, but that humans possess an innate language faculty, or an access to what has been called universal grammar.

    Name : NOFIRALINA
    Bp : 1314050632/ TBI-B
    Tugas 2 : Psycholinguistic
    Dosen : Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S.s., M.A
    About : “Mechanisms of Language Acquisition”
    In my opinion today’s lessons are fun because the meeting is to explain how the process onset of a child speaking. For example, a child who was taught by her mother to imitate what her mother said. That such as : “Mom” said to call her mother and said “Mamam”. If the child asked for a meal or she is hungry. And children also learn language which should require spesific processes. Early theories of language acquisition were heavly infineneed by behaviorism. And parents will respond on the progress of their language. In the beginning was the early age children have started to catch anything that has been taught by his parents. Parents should always see what is happening on the development of children. If the child has begun to develop and the way he thought in an early age.
    Then as parents should give lessons or better landing on the devepolment of their children. And parents teach their children to a better direction and adjust what should be tought to the development of their children. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior. And it was proposed that children learn language through imitation. They report that reinfocement seldom occurs. And when it does, it is usually incorect pronouncation or incorect reporting of facts that is corrected. In fact, attempts to correct a child’s language are doomed to failure. Children put words together to form phrases and sententences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. Children might not have sufficient information to extract the rules of their language. Children asquire language in much the same way, irrespective of these varying circumstances.

    Name : NOFIRALINA
    Bp : 1314050632/ TBI-B
    Tugas 3 : Psycholinguistic
    Dosen : Syayid Sandi Sukandi, S.s., M.A

    Child language acquisition is the children begin to recognize verbal communication with their environment called the children’s language acquisition. The child’s first language acquisition occurs when the child who from the beginning with no other language has gained one language. At the time of child language acquisition, children is more directed to the communication fuction rather than the form of the language. Language acquisition children can be said to have continuity characteristics, have a continum that moves from gretting one simple word to the combination he said tough.
    Research on human language has a language shows a lot about the acquisition on what to do when a child learn or acquire language ( Fromkin and Ridwan, 1998: 318):
    1. Children do not learn a language by storing all the words and sentences in a giganic mental dictionary, the words are limited, but there is no pity you can include all the sentences that are unlimited.
    2. Children can learn to make sentences, mostly in the form of sentences that they had never produced before.
    3. Children learn to understand the sentence that has never been their before, they can not do it by adjusting the derivative is heard with some sentences in their minds.

  59. Name: Dona Melya Riska
    Nim: 1314050119
    Kelas: TBI.A
    Assignment 1
    The material that have we learned in the first and the second meeting is about what is psycholinguistics, psycholinguistics is one of branch of linguistics that have learn about psychology of human in using language. It means that we learned about the relation of language and psychology. psycholinguistics is in macro linguistics there are sociolinguistics, pragmatics, etnholinguistics, psycholinguistics, sociolinguistics, ecolinguistics and pragmasemiotics. For example in psycholinguistics, we can know that language learned by the children using imitating way by imitate the way parent said and the children have stages in understand and can communicate language. Especially for the children have linguistics competence and we can look the develop of children to communicate begin from the children babbling then acquire the word and put in sentences we just know in point of view psychology of language or psycholinguistics itself. In the second meeting we have learn about language acquisition especially in mechanism of language acquisition, how the children have learn through imitation by the word that have get by the parents or people around, it just like for example the parent teach the children to say mama, then the children absolutely say the word that have not clearly and fluently the children just can say ma…ma. The children also learn through reinforcement, the children say the sentence that have they get In incorrect grammar then the parents like correct the children sentence in correct grammar for example the children say “ one other another spoon” we know that this sentence have wrong grammar then the parents said to the children they should said “want the other spoon”. We know that it is the correct grammar but that is in adult point of view grammar and in child point of view the sentence that has say by the children not wrong.
    Assignment 2
    The material that we have learned in language acquisition is about how language can communicate each other by human from the human still a baby. That have imitating what they have listen. Language acquisition is language that have get by human which is they have capacity in produce, understand, receive, and use the word to understand and communicate the language that have use. In mechanism of language acquisition the way children can communicate each other is by imitating, reinforcement, analogy and structured input. The first time children can speak usually imitate what have the parent said for example the parents teach the children how to say mama the children or the baby absolutely said like ma…ma still grope in saying one word. In my opinion, imitating is the first step that use by baby or children do in communicating as we know the thing that can do by the children is listen happened in around for instance listen what the parents said. Truly, the way to learn language have big role is in imitating how the people use language. In the other ways, the children imitate to say the word, the children also learn through reinforcement. As we know, the children absolutely speak with wrong structure, grammar or others, in this way the parent should have role to correction wrong sentence used by children to be correct sentence. For example the children say “nobody don’t like me” we know this sentence have same meaning with “nobody likes me” but mother should make the children can say that sentence in correct grammar. The other way is how the children through analogy, it has also been suggested that the children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy. But in my conclusion I think the children have learned trough imitating is function able.
    Assignment 3
    The theory earliest provides said that study of language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. As we know that, the way child and adult speak is different, the child have speak in several stages and it can be in four year until the children can speak fluently. The children have learnt by the parent to to get the language or language acquisitions I think this theory is good to know or to see the spontaneous the children in communicating. In children language has stages in communication by the children they begin by babbling, then acquire the first word and in just a few month they can put the word into sentence. With this theory we can look linguistic competent of the children. The children that have linguistics competent usually faster in understand and imitating the language that have their listen for example my neighbor have a children in four age now they can speak fluent and also can imitate song in foreign language that have his listen. They have listen Korean song continuously in three times and he can say or sing little bit of part fluent and clear moreover they do not know what is the meaning of song. In this case we can take a conclusion the children have linguistics competent. I think it’s no problem to record spontaneous of the children in speaking because with this way we can know is language of the children growth ?. and also we can know earlier is the children can speak fluent and clear or the children have some disease in language it means that the children can speak clearly and long time to make children can speak fluent. In language growth of the children should support by parent in reinforcement of grammar. Usually grammar that used by the children in speaking wrong in adult point of view it cause that the children do not response if the parent correct their grammar because in children point of view it is correct. For example the children say “ no body don’t like” its incorrect in grammar but correct children point of view. So my conclusion it is possible to do the theory to know children language growth, so that we can know to develop children competence that have, is the children have linguistics competence or not.

  60. Name : Leni Yusnita
    Reg.Number : 1314020098

    Assigment 1

    Psychlinguistic is a statement that related or discussing about think human being content such as society, life and all thing important to know. Two week ago, we all discuss about linguistic related areas such as word meaning, phonetics or phonology morphology, syntax and praghmatics, like we know that too they have different on their other.
    Language Acquisition word-meaning, it means that how to use a word, and make us easy to understand, Why we said like this, because if the word have incorrect grammar and vocabulary not clear will be happenen miscommunication and ambiguity meaning. Trusty in here important to aplicate.
    Phonology is conserned with the study of speech sounds. Within psycholinguistics research focuses on how the brain proceses and understands these sounds
    What about the morphology, the meaning is the study of how words are structured and how they are put together from smaller parts.
    Than discuss about syntax which all language that we showing shoul be have clear grammar, knowing subject and object to achieve meaningful.
    After that pragmatics, discuss about how to give a solution to a problem, to know it we should be the first about kontex or language to solve this problem
    On other hand we explain too about descriptive linguistic and prescriptive linguistic , the both have different meaning although we think similar words. Descriftive linguistic is the language can children accep when their were born. Which with prescriptive linguistic is the language can to know when the teaching

    Assigment 2

    This thing related with the how we should know the language that children aplicate in their activity. In here their have different background and have different attitude in their life. Inded the children can to understand that language and using it by native speaker, so they know about language with not use a memory. Exactly, for this language we know when their speak up and where their come beginning for language they use. These thing we can prove which their acquisition and reinforcement for language through imitation.
    Mechanisms of language Acquisition it meants language was viewed as a kids of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language throught imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. Even when children are traying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. The children learn through reinforcement, this sentence discuss about how the children always used language reinforcement when they are talking or doing communicate with other people. It happens usually between mother and their children. The children when doing communicate with their mother this is often happened.
    The last sentence in the children learn throught structured input. Analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account for language development because they are besed on the implicit or explicit assumption that what the child acquires is a set of sentences or form rather than a set of grammatical rules.

    Assigment 3

    On this stage in language acquisition when their talking with other people, many type they should be know before beginning communication with other people like this one is they always attention their grammatical correc, the language of acquisition is fast, but it is not instantaneous, the way to increate their grammar time the children to pass throught linguistics stages, they begin by babbling, they than acquire their first words, and in just a few months they begin to put words together into sentences. Some of the stages last for a short time; others remain longer. Some stages may overlap for a short period, though the transition between stages is often sudden
    structure here influenc for next meaning of sentences, if the meaning is clear it can say they able understand good language. good language can increate long communicate everybody, every children have different language, because they stay in different live, and teaching different parent think, it cause the childrent hava nice grammar and low grammar when they are speaking, here language that they do seem a dult doing when they are speak up, this case showing no one different a children grammar with the adult grammar, and what obout the incorrect grammar, they always to evoid it, farthermore parent in here is very omportent to hundle their children when using nice language.
    Althought child grammar and adult grammar differ an certain recpects they also share many formal properties. Like adults, children have grammatical categories such as NP and VP, This reality caused by a rules building as well as phonological rule, morphologikal rules, and semantic rules, and they adhere to universal princhiples such as dependency.
    So, of all above may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but the they are not error from the childs point of view. They reflect his current grammar. Indeed the so called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar

  61. Name / NIM : Tari Rahman / 1314050557

    Assignment 1 : The Psychology of Language

    Last meeting I have learned about introduction of psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psycological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend, and produce language. Psycholinguistics has roots in education and philosopy, and covers the ‘cognitive processes’ that make it possible to generate a gramatical and meaningful sentences, as well as the process that make it possible to understand utterances, words, text, etc. Developmental psycholinguistics studies children’s ability to learn language. The function of language is the reasons why someone talk. In general, it is to communicate something. Environment is very important in language acquisition. Because children grow and develop in their parents. So, every words that they hear, it will be produce and consume that. Language is a form of communication where a person’s thoughts and feeling symbolized that can convey meaning to others. Therefore, the development of language begins from the first cry until the child is able to speak the word. A human being have three world; first, conscious such as study, second, subconscious like angry, and third, unconsious. Body language is the way a person communicates is through gestures, facial expressions, steps, and style. Body language is the most tangible expression of children’s communication. For children to talk not only achievements but also serves to achieve its objectives, such as satisfying the needs or desires and as a means to attract the attention of others. When a child want to something, she/he will draw out her/his mother to the things that and ask the question about that. She/he will stand in front of things that. So, her/his mother will know what the child want. Another children will express their desire is with crying.

    Assignment 2.

    LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Last meeting I have learned about mechanisms of language acquistion. I think the lesson is very important and gives me a comprehension to know mechanisms of language. Language acquisition star from baby. Because for this time language is acquire and language is learning when we are adult or when we get study about language. During childhood, a baby gets the language in acquisition ways. A human being can only have one language , but somebody get two to three languages depend on the environment cognitive levels held by that person. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was visible by children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. Children just listen to what we said around them and imitate the speech they hear. After that they produce words with different words but same meaning. Children try to make good sentences with imitate their parents said. Children speak more slowly, so if we want to speak to children we tend to speak more slowly and more clearly, we axaggerate our intonation, and sentences are generally gramatical. Children acquire language in much the same way, irrespective of this varying circumstances. Finally, adults seem to be the followers rather than the leaders in this enterprise. The child does not develop because he is exposed to ever more adult like language. Rather, the adult adjusts his language to the child’s increasing linguistic sophistication. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition which examines the acquisition of children to their mother tongue and second language acquisition are not assess additional language acquisition by children. Language acquisition a process that takes place in the brains of children when she gained her first language or mother tongue. Children imitate what people said and produce with own language

    Assignment 3

    Language acquisition of child come from diaries kept by parents. This statement is one of many reas on of people that language acquisition come from daily life. I think that this teory observe children daily activities. It is study about how children say something and their parents teach them. Learning the language assosiated with the process that occurs when a child is learning a second language after she gained her first language while learning a second language with regard to language. Children’s early utterance may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the words and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morfology, and syntax that he has developed to that point. Sometime children speak like adult because their imitate the style of adult speaking. Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension that is because to know devlopment of language from children we should more intensive to guide them and make interesting. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. It is a good research to know some techniques to increase linguistics abilities of infants.

  62. Name/nim : YUNI PUTRI HAMIDA / 1314050374
    Assigment 1
    In the first and in the second meeting I learned about psycholinguistics, psycholinguistic or the psychology of language is a knowledge that discussed about process of language use look at psychology aspect. In universal psycholinguistics learned about three things that important. There are : first, comprehension is how people understand spoken and written language .Second, speech production is how people produce language. Third, Acquisition is how people learn language . Any some things that discriminated between language with actions of another massage delivery, like as : baby crying, carry in dog mouth, and dance of bee or that familiar with “waggle dance. Human language have hierarchical structure it’s mean massage of human language divisible in some analysis units that smaller . And then, human language have characteristic creative infinite it’s mean used of language can produce and understand sentence in their language without definite. It very different with animal that only produce language with definite.
    Language acquisition is the process of language acquisition or language skills in human development. Once the rapid acquisition of language in children has made both parents and researchers be carried away .any two opinion on language acquisition in children. First, some linguists (usually called the nativist) consider that language is essentially innate (congenital), that children are born with a special talent, unique, which allows people to be able to understand / master the grammar of a language without the need to obtain teaching , The second, usually called the behaviorist, found the parents is to teach the language to their children and how to use language has been simplified (when talking with their children) and to provide reciprocal (feedback) when children -children uses language for incorrect or inaccurate.
    Every aspect of language is extremely complex. Yet very young children before the age of five already know most of the intricate system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Before they can add 2+2, children are conjoining sentence, asking questions, using appropriate pronoun, negating sentence, forming relative clauses, and using the syntatic, phonological, morphological, and semantics rules of the grammar.

    Assigment 2

    Language was viewed as kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. All people must agree that language is the most important thing for human life. The language is connecting people to the society, even the world. Without the language, the knowledge and the information have never been known by the people. When we wanted to express something , we will produce the sounds. It is called as language. The brain is the most important think to speak. When we study about the language, we have to know how the acquisition of the language. Why study language?…….language is mirror of the mind in a deep and significant sense. It is product of human intelligence, created anew in each individual by operations that lie far beyond the reach of will or consciousness.
    Beside there some truth in Skinner’s explanation, but there are many objections to it, such as: Language is based on a set of structures or rules. The vast majority of children go through the same stages of language acquisition. Children are often unable to repeat what an adult says. Few children receive much explicit grammatical correction.

    Assigment 3
    The acquisition of language (Language Acquisition) is a human process gain the ability to capture, produce, and use words to understanding and communication. This capacity involves a wide range of capabilities such as syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language acquisition (language acquisition) is a process that goes on in a child’s brain when he acquired his first language or mother tongue. Language acquisition usually distinguished by learning the language
    Language can be obtained as in the spoken language vocal or manual as in sign language. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies the acquisition of children against their mother tongue and second language acquisition is not studying an additional language acquisition by children or adults.
    language acquisition or language acquisition usually followed by the first word or two, so that we know in terms of first language acquisition (PB1) or acquisition first language and second language acquisition (PB2) or second language acquisition. First language acquisition in connection with the activities of a person in control of his mother tongue. Line activities can through informal education and formal education. Second language acquisition takes place after a master or first language learned. Line activities can through informal education and formal education. Informal learning is not planned, accidental, unintentional, and unconscious; While learning the language is formally based on careful planning, deliberate, and in realizing it.
    the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from dairies kept by parent. More recent studies include the use of the recording, videotape, and controlled experiment. Linguistics record the spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production comprehension. Researches have also invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not speaking.

  63. Nama: Putri Mardiani
    Nim: 1314050016

    Assignment 1
    In the first meeting we has been learned about the micro and macro linguistic.where we know that microlinguistic is a branch of linguistic that concern itself with the study of language system in the abstract,without regard to the meaning or notional content of linguistic exspression.microlinguistic deals with phonetics grammar.the next is about macrolinguistic is studies includes meanings and especially with sosiolinguistic,which studies how language and meaning.macrolinguistic deals with comparative studies among languages,languag families,large influence on language development.there are many differences between macro and micro level theories.micro-level focuses on individuals and their interactions.for example the relationship between adult children and their parents,or the effect of negative attitudes on older people.some criticize on micro level theories because they focus on what older people do rather than on social conditionsand policies that cuase them to act the way they do.beside that,macro level focuses more upon social structure,socil processes and problems,and their interrelationships.for example the effect of industrialization on older people’s status,or how gender and income affect older people’s well being.in the first meeting we also learned about persona,shadow and anima.where we know that persona is the mental of process which can your controling as well.the persona have four function that is(1)recognize information from indra(2)compare with our memory(3)analysis and than get specifik respon.second is about shadow.shadow is the mental of proccess which the function as automatic so the person doesn’t knowing and difficult to controlling as well.the function of shadow is(1)habit(2)feeling(3)long memory(4)perception(5)personal(6)intuition(7)creactivitas(8)believed.
    From the learned we can know,what are the micro and macro linguistic.we also know that what are the persona,shadow and the function of that.every the normaly of human are born with potention,the persona and shadow.modern human doesn’t many using the shadow in daily life.because in school,they are just teach how using the persona(analysis-logic).

    assignment 2.

    Language acquisition is a creative process.children are not given explicit information about the rules,by either instruction or correction.the must somehow extract the rules of the grammar from the language the hear around them.and also their linguistic environment does not need to be special in any way for them to do this.observation of children acquiring different languages under different cultural and social circumstances reveal the development stages are similar,possibly universal.as a model of language acquisition,connectionism faces some serious chalengges,the model relis on specific properties of the input data.the language is some of the important things in our life,the children learned the language first from they are parents.everything that they are parent say it so have a meaning,like as construction,call,or give something explain around them.the children many learn all about the language from around them,the children likes to imitate what are they parent do and say,they are will always imitate everything around them.i think the environment is one of immportant things to make growing the children faster and growing well from the time.every that environment is really support them to be fast knowing what are the mean of the words,there is example when they are parents say”don’t do that”so that the children will try to understand it and try to sat it on the time.i think the growing of the baby is very perfect if they around them or they are environment give a good support to growing.because of that,if we are some the parent,we must do anything that making the children grow as well,the parent must educate the children how to say it and how to do it.if the children star to know or learn how to say it,much be better to good say,no get problem when the children stay here,no making a some mistake.no say anything a bad words and etc.

    assignment 3.

    Children acquire a language,they acquire the grammar of that language,that is phonology,morphological,syntactic and semantic rules.children are not taught language rather,they extract the rules.from the many of language or acquistion we can get a some important thing,is about how the children learned step by step.a number of learning mechanism have been suggested to explain the acquistion process.the children need a time to can say what are the peope say to them.as we will ilustrate,children,s earlyutterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentence.this is because the words and sentence the child produce conform to the phonology,morphology,and syntax that he has developed to that point.this may be why the children do not respond to corection.they reflect his current grammar.indeed the so called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.
    Actually,the children often wrong when they are saying the statement from his parents,because they are still not understand what are the meaning,they are just imitate,try to say it.they are not know what are the phonology,morphology and syntax,so the children often say the wrong statement.and usually the parent will teach team to say it more and more.parent usually understand what teh children want,but the baby usualy using the words confused.they are will cry if they are doesn’t say it.maybe the parent can using the tape recorder to recog what the children say and try hear to children.the parents can try repeat what the say.
    Altought the children hear many utterance,the language the hear is incomplete,noisy,and unstructure.we can said earlier that child directed speech is largely well formed,but children are also exposed to adult interactions.these utterance include slips of the tongue,false start,ungrammatical and incomplete sentence and no informtion as to which utterances are well formed.children will not know about the stuctural words.they are just imitate and say it more.the parent must be have patient to learn language to a child,because if the parent say it more and repeat it often,the children will be understang althoung they are not can say it louder.i think the parents can using the card or picture to learn children to know it.the parent must be smar to using the time and say it often.and of course the child must also learn many aspect of grammar from the spesific linguistic environment.for example,english speking children learn that the subject comes first and that the verb precedes the object inside the VP.

  64. Name/nim : YUNI PUTRI HAMIDA / 1314050374
    Assigment 1
    In the first and in the second meeting I learned about psycholinguistics, psycholinguistic or the psychology of language is a knowledge that discussed about process of language use look at psychology aspect. In universal psycholinguistics learned about three things that important. There are : first, comprehension is how people understand spoken and written language .Second, speech production is how people produce language. Third, Acquisition is how people learn language . Any some things that discriminated between language with actions of another massage delivery, like as : baby crying, carry in dog mouth, and dance of bee or that familiar with “waggle dance. Human language have hierarchical structure it’s mean massage of human language divisible in some analysis units that smaller . And then, human language have characteristic creative infinite it’s mean used of language can produce and understand sentence in their language without definite. It very different with animal that only produce language with definite.
    Language acquisition is the process of language acquisition or language skills in human development. Once the rapid acquisition of language in children has made both parents and researchers be carried away .any two opinion on language acquisition in children. First, some linguists (usually called the nativist) consider that language is essentially innate (congenital), that children are born with a special talent, unique, which allows people to be able to understand / master the grammar of a language without the need to obtain teaching , The second, usually called the behaviorist, found the parents is to teach the language to their children and how to use language has been simplified (when talking with their children) and to provide reciprocal (feedback) when children -children uses language for incorrect or inaccurate.
    Every aspect of language is extremely complex. Yet very young children before the age of five already know most of the intricate system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Before they can add 2+2, children are conjoining sentence, asking questions, using appropriate pronoun, negating sentence, forming relative clauses, and using the syntatic, phonological, morphological, and semantics rules of the grammar.

    Assigment 2

    Language was viewed as kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. All people must agree that language is the most important thing for human life. The language is connecting people to the society, even the world. Without the language, the knowledge and the information have never been known by the people. When we wanted to express something , we will produce the sounds. It is called as language. The brain is the most important think to speak. When we study about the language, we have to know how the acquisition of the language. Why study language?…….language is mirror of the mind in a deep and significant sense. It is product of human intelligence, created anew in each individual by operations that lie far beyond the reach of will or consciousness.
    Beside there some truth in Skinner’s explanation, but there are many objections to it, such as: Language is based on a set of structures or rules. The vast majority of children go through the same stages of language acquisition. Children are often unable to repeat what an adult says. Few children receive much explicit grammatical correction.

    Assigment 3
    The acquisition of language (Language Acquisition) is a human process gain the ability to capture, produce, and use words to understanding and communication. This capacity involves a wide range of capabilities such as syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language acquisition (language acquisition) is a process that goes on in a child’s brain when he acquired his first language or mother tongue. Language acquisition usually distinguished by learning the language
    Language can be obtained as in the spoken language vocal or manual as in sign language. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies the acquisition of children against their mother tongue and second language acquisition is not studying an additional language acquisition by children or adults.
    language acquisition or language acquisition usually followed by the first word or two, so that we know in terms of first language acquisition or acquisition first language and second language acquisition
    or second language acquisition. First language acquisition in connection with the activities of a person in control of his mother tongue. Line activities can through informal education and formal education. Second language acquisition takes place after a master or first language learned. Line activities can through informal education and formal education. Informal learning is not planned, accidental, unintentional, and unconscious; While learning the language is formally based on careful planning, deliberate, and in realizing it.
    the earliest studies of child language acquisition come from dairies kept by parent. More recent studies include the use of the recording, videotape, and controlled experiment. Linguistics record the spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production comprehension. Researches have also invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not speaking.

  65. Name/NIM : TETI RAHMADANI / 1314050256

    Assignment 1

    We have learned in the first and the second meeting about the Language Acquisition. Before we go to the what the meaning of language acquisition. I want to explain about the psychology of language before, in this semester we study about the psychology of language, it means we study of the psychological factors that unable humans to acquire, use and produce language. As well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, and text. And this study should the children ability to learn language.
    As we know the acquisition of language is “ doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is over required to perform. It means many people acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, to produce and use words and sentence to communicate. Because without the language no body do not communication by using language. and as a parent that has a children, of course they are have communicate to their children, when the children before the age of five the children always hear what the parent said. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without offort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether this parent try to teach there or not. And for the next time the children will use about the word.

    Assignment 2

    MECHANISMS OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    My response about what have we learned about the mechanisms of language acquisition is as a student and for the next time maybe I will be as a parent, from the study of this topic, I know how the children acquisition of the language. and as a parent should know about this study, although they haven’t study about this topic, because for teaching the children when they are a child, sometime we do not attention from what they have learned the language, every words that has the parent when the children has follow it, not just from the parent, when the children outside the house, many bad word that have they listened. So this topic should know the parent and others parent because we know how the children study or get of the language acquisition. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce.

    Example :
    adult : he is going out child : he go uot
    adult : that’s an old-time train child :old-time train.
    Imitation cannot account for another important phenomenon : children who are unable to speak for neurological reason learn the language spoken to them and understand it. When they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use of language for speaking.
    Analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account of language development, because they are based on the (implicit or explicit) assumption that what the child acquire is a set of sentences or forms rather than a set of grammatical rulees. Theories that assume that acquisition depends on a specially structured input also place too much emphasis on the environment rather than on the grammar- making abilities of the child. These proposals do not explain the creativity that children show in acquiring language, why they go through stages, or why they make some kind of “ errors” but not others.

    Assignment 3

    All children around the world learn the immediate language they hear in their environment. When children are very young they have to learn many things that will last them for the rest of their life, such as walking and socializing, and for socializing they need to learn the language that is spoken around them. Language is what distinguishes humans from other life forms on earth and to think how easy it is for such young children to acquire language in all its complexity in such short time. Children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the word and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology, and syntax that he has develop to the point. This may be why the children do not respond to correction. Nobody don’t like me and want ‘ another one spoon, daddy may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but they are not errors from the child’s point of view. They reflect his current grammar. Indeed, the so-called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.

  66. Name/Nim: Wardah Nasution/1314050004
    Assignment 1.
    Language acquisition Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition. First language refers to the first language which is heard by infant. In this case, children try to express their mother tongue into ungrammatical rules because they still hear from people say and imitate them. First language acquisition is always collateral with second language acquisition. It means that first language acquisition study about mother tongue or native language whereas second language acquisition study about additional language.
    There are four stages, how infants develop their first language acquisition. The first stage is word goo-goo- gaa-gaa. Those are the first languages which are expressed by baby. In this stage, baby try to express what they want but baby only can speak goo-goo-gaa-gaa to express anything. Whether baby is happy or hungry, baby always speak those words. The second stage appears when children begin to say simple word such as mama and water. In this stage, children have memorized some word in their mind. They also try to imitate what is other people around them say. Then they say in simple word to express something. The third stage, children try to the real communication. In this stage children start to say in a short sentence into ungrammatical such as “give milk” means that they want milk and daddy home means that their father has returned. Forth stage, children start to develop more and more complex word in a grammatical concept or rule. In the age four and five, they can indentify word whether its word plural or singular such as book and books. Actually in this stage, children still have some errors in grammatical rules. (300 words)

    Assignment 2.
    The early weeks, a baby will attract the attention of others and even though they do not intend to communicate, voice succeeded in giving information to parents about the purpose he wants. Other voices soon appear before the age of three months, the baby began to whimper at the age of five or six months. They started babbling (rambling), say the words continuously using the same syllables. The child’s language not familiar misplaced words. At the stage of a single word, the baby often uses a word to a lot of interest, emphasis on intonation to get the meaning. Pronunciation of single words can only be understood through context. If small children who are just learning to walk wants to reach the door knob, he’s safer emphasis on the word “Door!” This means “Open the door!”. First Sentences At the time the children reached the age of two years, they began to use two words collectively Similarly, there is no pause (pause) between words and intonation are down overall on all pronunciation. Children two years of age will say “Mommy shoe” can mean “This is Mommy’s shoe” or “Mommy is wearing her shoe” or “There’s mud on Mommy’s shoe” or “Mommy, Put on your shoe!”. The cow kisses the horse. It’s the cow that kisses the horse. It’s the horse that the cow kisses. The horse is kissed by the cow. Children aged two years demonstrated the first three sentences above correctly, but in the fourth sentence, they like to say horses kissing cows. Children aged four also demonstrated the first two sentences correctly, but in the fourth sentence of their reverse interpretation, with consistently said that horses kissing cows. They also define the horse as the culprit in the third sentence, where children aged two years to interpret correctly. (300 words)

    Assignment 3.
    When born, the baby cannot talk or silent. The word “infant” comes from the Latin word meaning “Without the language.” Slowly the baby develops from speech has no meaning until one or two words on the greeting words and eventually in the form of complete sentences in accordance with the structure of language. At the age of four or five years, all the children around the world have command in the main language. In neurology children are equipped with the ability to speak. A child has obtained its language, according to the language used in their environment. A child has provided with the ability to speak in his brain, because the brain we already have language order in accordance with what is required of men. Instead, the process begins with the acquisition of language support as infants imitate imitate what her mother said. Language should be obtained with the learning process. Acquire language is not enough with reinforcement but must be followed by strengthening the understanding. A child who has mastered the language is not only able to express what he saw around him now, but they can also reveal things that are in other places, and things that exist in their imagination. This is because of the language and their minds are interconnected. Languages affect the mind, through the mastery of vocabulary we learn will determine the categories we use to understand our way of thinking about time and problems for grammar gives a different sense. Although a child may begin to use words earlier than the others to speak more fluently. All normal children master basic whatever language they hear. Researchers started to suggest that instead of having a language-specific mechanism for language processing, children might utilize general cognitive and learning principles. Whereas researchers approaching the language acquisition problem from the perspective of argue for early full productivity, early adult-like knowledge of language, the opposing constructivist investigators argue for a more gradual developmental process. It is suggested that children are sensitive to patterns in language which enables the acquisition process. The significance of first language acquisition for children are to express needs and get what they want, used to tell others what to do, and tell stories and to create an imaginary situation. Nonetheless, learning a first language is something every child does successfully, in a matter of a few years and without the need for formal lessons. (400 words)

  67. Name/NIM: Ella Juliana/1314050275

    Assignment 1.
    The first and second meeting we introduce self and tell about our topic, like about linguistics macro and lingiuistics micro. These familiar prefixes (micro=very small, macro=very large). Differentiate two approaches to the study of language. The micro linguistics is interested in how small changes in a distinct word or other linguistics element may ofter clues to larger ternds. Microlinguistics is a branch of linguistics that concers itself with the study of language systems in the abstract, without regard to the meaning or notional content of linguistics expressions.macro cultural psychology is shown to explain micro level, interpersonal interactions. Example of play and family relations demonstrate how these micro level interpersonal relations actually recapitulate macro cultural factors. This macro analysis of micro level interactions is contrased with the popular tendency to regard micro level interactions as autonomous, and even as constituting macro cultural factors. The macro linguistics, on the other hand, studies major changes in language from outside forces the latin language influence on english came from the roman empire’s expansion. There are three people cultural, they are: persona, shadow, and anima.
    Next topic in syllabus about introduction to psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psycology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use,, comprehend and produce language. Initial forays into psycholinguistics were laegery philosophical or educational shools of thought, due mainly to their location in departments other than applied sciences. Human development, communications theories and infant development, among others.
    Psycholinguistics has roots in education and philosophy, and covers the cognitive processes that make it possible to generate a grammatical and meaningful sentence out of vocabulary and grammatical structure, as well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, text, etc.

    Assignment 2.
    My response what i have learned about language acquisition. especially about the mechanism of language acquisition. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. It involves the picking up of diverse capacities including syntax, phonetics, and an extensive vocabulary. However, learning a first language is something that every normal child does successfully without much need for formal lessons. Language development is a complex and unique human quality but yet children seem to acquire language at a very rapid rate with most children’s speech being relatively grammatical. Languange acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non human do not communicate by using language. Language acquisition usuallly refers to fist language acquisition, which study infants’ acquisitions of their native language. Language can be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even thought the human language capacity is finite one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion. In both these monologues, the parent is talking to the child who is unable to responds as they are too young and haven’t developed language skills and vocabularry. There is repletion for example ‘come on’ and ‘talk to me’ which is caracter way of teaching the child. The child has yet to develop full use of the consonant r’ when she attempt to say press it is instead pess. ‘r’ is a fricative sounds that is one of the more difficult one of the master.s So, another proposal is that children learn to produce correct (grammatical) sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right, and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong.

    Assignment 3.
    Althought parents or other caretakers don’t teach their children to speak, they do perform an important role by talking to their children. Children who are never spoken to will not acquire language. And the language must be used for interaction with the child, for example: a child who regulary hears language on the tv or radio but nowhere else will not leatn to talk.
    Children acquire language throught interaction not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other parents and other adults, but also with other children. The special way in which many adults speak to small children also helps them to acquire language. Studies show that the baby talk that adult naturally use with infants and toddlers ten to always be just a bit ahead of the level.
    speaking for myself fairly just if language learning child of its parent because, that man constitutes mother tongue that child studies. and parent constitutes child place get main utmost communication. parent constitutes place closest person child ask. usually parent utterance wills be guidance and will at imitates by us. althought child child not know meaning that their parent says. but child will often imitate utterance that often at utters its parent. child will faster understand and understanding if parent that teach that language. although often child utterance in conflict with their parent utterance sooth. and sometimes they can imitate by voice at tv or through song and music. and also video image pass. children usually easier and fast catch that thing. kerena is child has ingatn that strong and always inquiring about whatever thing. marespon’s children despites presto meaning not see meaning that at capkan its parent. usually special deep lingual learning if child at introduces by new lexicon therefore child will concern by context that is at its marrow, to measure their grasp accuracy to say that. and also child grasp will get up not only by even explanation, but also of what does child see and touch and with who engaged child gets ascendant interaction also in build anak.pada’s grasp by and large, they menunjukan enthusiasm for learned and angered on the world at its peripheral. agog tending children deep applies it on context that their tofu. and angered child with lexicon a new one they hear. then tries to explore it with monotonous utters it. to know its parent response.

  68. NAME/REG.NUMBER : BENI IRNANDA/410.589

    1. Assignment Part One
    Languange acquisition is a proccess for children or children to get ability to understanding mening of the sound, and use the wors for comunication. The branch of science of language acquisition are conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. conscious means you want someone understanding and look at you. subconscious means the closed character. and unconscious means ignore ownself, you don’t know about your self. The differences between conscious, subconscious, and unconscious the conscious mind communicates to the outside world and the inner self through speech, pictures, writing, physical movement, and thought. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind. And unconscious constantly communicates with the conscious mind via our subconscious, and is what provides us with the meaning to all our interactions with the world, as filtered through your beliefs and habits. It communicates through feelings, emotions, imagination, sensations, and dreams.
    In linguistic there are 2 branch of science those are prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive means language that is gotten by children in first interaction. Whereas Descriptive is a languagemeans that get and understand of language by learning process.
    The children don’t have tongue like adult. Acquiring language is a gradual, process, and that involves. a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part of the process of language acquisition. they shouldn’t be corrected, they will disappear.
    Children usually begin by speaking like their parents, but they start to mix with other children (especially from the age of about 3 years) they start to speak like friends their own age.
    But if the children be a dult ,they use languange in a second language as their mother tongue when theay learn.

    2. Assignment Part two
    Languange acquisition is a proccess for children or children to get ability to understanding mening of the sound, and use the wors for comunication. The branch of science of language acquisition are conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. conscious means you want someone understanding and look at you. subconscious means the closed character. and unconscious means ignore ownself, you don’t know about your self. The differences between conscious, subconscious, and unconscious the conscious mind communicates to the outside world and the inner self through speech, pictures, writing, physical movement, and thought. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind. And unconscious constantly communicates with the conscious mind via our subconscious, and is what provides us with the meaning to all our interactions with the world, as filtered through your beliefs and habits.
    Mechanisms of Language Acquisition can be divide there part. First pralinguistic, second step one word and the last develop become a sentence. Pralinguistic means how children say what they want but not perfect word,whereas in second step they begin to say word by clearly, and then dvelop become a sentence by perfecly.

    3. Assignment part three
    Language acquisition proccess children typically imitate and hear what is spoken by their parents. Starting from soft to harsh language whatsoever. They also pay attention to how they treat their mother’s father, and vice versa. Indirectly, they imitate their parents behavior in the conduct of their daily. Research conducted in this regard will be very helpful for parents in the process of how the development of children in mastering the language. Even newborns can detect what their language proficiency, even if only in the way they cry and laugh. For that when we teach children to master the language, we must teach and demonstrate a good way to get what you received and absorbed by children is also a good language.
    their Parents have a different way to teach a child, so the ability to speak and mastery of vocabulary every single child is different. So if you do a study on children through video recordings for example, then we will know and see the changes that occur in children as well as their stage of language acquisition.

  69. Name/ NIM : Mahrufi Ikhsan/ 1314050121

    Assignment 1.
    In the first and second meeting of teaching it can be concluded that children as a normal beings do not learn to construct and understand language. They can produce whatever they want to say naturally. They can communicate the language automatically. Contrary with some skills and systems such as chemistry, math and use a computer. They must be taught these skills but they do not have to be taught to talk or to produce a language. Children are permitted to use their language creatively and there is no aware on the rules of language itself. Nobody is taught them language but nobody can prevents the child from learning language. This unique phenomenon was called by language acquisition where language is not taught but language is acquired.
    Early theories of language acquisition were heavily influenced by behaviorism. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior. This verbal behavior was proposed the children to learn language through four ways. First way is imitation. Research shows that every children will imitate what is said around them indirectly. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear but they are unable to produce sentences spontaneously. They have to do practice by practice to make it perfect. Children also leran language through reinforcement. Reinforcement is needed by chilren to produce grammatical correct. One kind of reinforcement is correction of bad grammar and reward for good grammar. The other way is analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. But, this way is not always work well. Similarly to imitation, children should practice by practice for not make the mistakes anymore. And the last way is children learn language through structured input where the adults do typically talk to young children in a special way sometimes called motherese or child directed speech or baby talk.

    Assignment 2.
    Language acquisition is found in the first language of children because it is talking about how language is acquired not how language is taught. Early theories of language acquisition were heavily influenced by behaviorism. Language can be viewed as a kind of verbal behavior which talking about “what we see in the real action of children in acquiring a language”. There are many ways for children to acquiring a language. First is imitation, to my opinion children are able to acquire language through imitation, it is because characteristic of the children itself as a good imitator. Naturally children will imitate new word they heard around them, save the words in their memory and produce them conditionally. Even children is a good in imitating but they can not produce these new words spontaneously. They need a time to get better pronunciation and grammatical correct. The other theory tells children acquire language through reinforcement. I agree with this statement. By giving a correction to the bad grammar and reward for the good grammar of children it can motivates them to be better in acquiring a language. Reinforcement helps children to be easy in mastering a language. The other theory shows Analogy is one of the way children acquire a language. It is a good idea to say analogy facilitates the children to acquire a language. In analogy children hearing a sentence and they can change the form of one sentence to the other sentence. The last theory proposes children learn language through structured input. It is sometimes called motherese or child directed speech. In our country Indonesia especially in minang culture adults do typically talk to young children in a special way. Adults speak more slowly and clearly and axaggerete the intonation and language is conveyed politely. Even the studies shows this motheres does not significantly affect the children’s language development but i believe motheres gives good effects on the language of children because good children is begun by the good environment including attitude and language we gave to them.

    Assignment 3.
    This paraghraph tells us that the earliest studies of language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. To my opinion, I really agree with this theory because as we know the first education will be gotten by the children through the closest environment. Of course in this context parents have important role in developing their children ability and attitude including ability in constructing and producing a language. As a good imitator childrn will imitate the language which produced by both parents. Parents as a nearest person for children should understand what they have to do and what have not to do in producing and constructing a language. Children acquire language from their parents normally and automatically. Good parents will create a good children including in producing words because parents as the nearest person have a big effect in successing children to produce and constructing a language. So it is better for the parents to use grammatical correct when they are communicating with their children. It purposefully children can learn from this way the important of communication using grammatical rules and be better language speaker in their daily future life.
    But in the recent studies shows language acquisition also come from the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiment. It can be seen today in this new technology era, technology is spread extensively. In relating to the language acquisition children can acquire the language through this technology development for example when children are watching tv or videotapes and listening to the recordings indirectly they will save and memorize the language or words which produced by the the speaker. So we can not be denied that technology also effect the children language.
    There is many ways for linguist to find a new language science. Linguist records the spontaneous utterances of children and hopefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. To my opinion, it can not be reneged if oneday linguist find a new theory about child’s production which helps the researchers in researching child’s production theories. Because science is not a constant things it can become different and changeable anytime following by alteration of the year.
    The researchers have also invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistics abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. To my opinion, infants as a newborn creature can produce sounds and do communication among people around them. Even they can not talk and construct sentence yet but they produce sounds situsionally. For example when they are crying in the night for the light they can not ask their parents to turn off the light using language but they do cry with this situation that is means they do not like the light. Just simple way with no language but cry.

  70. Name / Nim : Ayuti Elvira /1314050142

    Part 1 (300 words)
    In the first meeting we learned about the branch of linguistics, especially we talked about intoduction to psycholinguistics, our lecturer said that psycholinguistics not same with psycholinguistic. Our lacturer distinguished them. From the last meeting we can conclude that psycho means mental processes. Although linguistics means linguistic theory, it is consist of same branch, they are : phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and rules.

    In second meeting, we used the materials in our photocopy we learned language acquisition, the lacturer taught mechanisms of language acquisition ‘ the psychological mechanisms involved in acquiring a language’ in this subject we found imitation, that means in mechanisms of language acqusition the children that used the language , they imitate the language that they listened, they will say or repeat after us, so don’t say the bad thing in front of them because they can say like we said. Not just it they (children) imitate the words and reinforcement, and after that they can use the language with well and to be certain clear, they will say some words although they have error sentence before. They speak litle by litle, the first they imitate the word, but they can’t spell it clear and well, but they alway study to speak, example: they said maam, and then they can say mamam.

    The children also learned through anatology, it means they say something almost same, for example : I like the pink doll, but they said l like the red doll. The children also lean language through stuctured input, in this subject we also found that language sometimes called motherese or children direct speech / baby takl. In this point the children had begun input the structure, the start learn arrange their words or arrange their sentence. And then they children began construct their grammer.

    Part 2 (300 words)

    My respond about this second part or, the poin of Language Acquisition is “that children learn language through imitation”. Imitation is distinguished with learn. When the child born in a place, she or he will imitate the language that the people use in the place. So that language will be her or his first language, although she or he don’t be native speaker of the language in that place.
    If we learn mechanisms of language acquisition, we will know the children when learn language at the, the children have many error sentences or have error words, they don’t input the good grammer.but they always use that language again and again, they imitated the language from the people arround them. Certainly learn language through mechanisms of language acquisition, we use language naturally, however there different acquiring with learned, although native speaker can speak and can use English clearly, but not all of them can explain English. But if we learned English me can use and explain it. The native speaker can use that language but they couldn’t explain so will called it Tacit.
    In this topic we also explained about the different of descriptive language and perspektive language. Descriptive is phenomenological about language to work of objective. It focuses at real delineation to indication language that happen in field, although not based on good Grammer.
    For example : she bring his book
    She brings her book.
    The both are may to use.
    Prescriptive is opinion of this language direct on norm, rules and structure. It can distinguish wrong or right language. Usually Prescriptive call with Normative. Example:
    1). I doesn’t sleep last night because I make this assignment.
    2). I didn’t sleep last night because I made this assignment.
    Example first statement is wrong, even though statement is right.

    Part 3 (400 words)

    Actually children has comprehension of language from they still young child, they can use language from their environtment, they learn from their parents and theirs friends may be, but I agree the children learn the language from their perents, her or his father or mother included their home are the first environtment the place that can the children learn, we knew children’s house is the first place the children learn, they learn to speak from the people around them include learn about cultura, in this periode children speak up naturally, they will say vocabulary that they listened, so the parents don’t use the bad words in front of their children because the children can repeat it again, why it happen? Cause every children imitate, usually the children at 14 month will imitate the voice around them their family usually teach them with base vovabulary, for example mama, papa, kakak. At the age of 0-3 weeks will sound of crying baby who is still a reflex. So, the baby was not crying because she wanted to cry, but it was done without his knowing it. When a baby at the age of 10 months she began to imitate the voices heard from the environment, and he will also use facial expressions or hand gestures when they want to ask for something

    So in our material “A baby hearing a human voice over a loundspeaker saying (pa) (pa)(pa) will slowly decreases her rate of sucking”. Children can speak because they the interact. The key of language is interaction.so it is the reason why we can minangkabau clear and well because we always use it and intract with the people around us, especially with our family. It is can distinguish the language as acquiring or as learned, the language is acquiring or acquisition, if the language as acquiring, it means we get the language from our parents or our environment so we called that langguage as first language becuase it can learn began from the children can speak up or we also say that as our mother tongue. But there are children can speak whereas their parents disable or dumb it means they get the language from their environment, a child can use java, mandailing language wherease she minnagkabau their parents can use mandailing language, so why the children can use it, it is cause the child learn with their environment.

  71. Response :
    Name/NIM : TETI RAHMADANI / 1314050256
    Assignment 1
    We have learned in the first and the second meeting about the Language Acquisition. Before we go to the what the meaning of language acquisition. I want to explain about the psychology of language before, in this semester we study about the psychology of language, it means we study of the psychological factors that unable humans to acquire, use and produce language. As well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, and text. And this study should the children ability to learn language.
    As we know the acquisition of language is “ doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is over required to perform. It means many people acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, to produce and use words and sentence to communicate. Because without the language no body do not communication by using language. and as a parent that has a children, of course they are have communicate to their children, when the children before the age of five the children always hear what the parent said. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without offort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether this parent try to teach there or not. And for the next time the children will use about the word.
    Assignment 2
    MECHANISMS OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    My response about what have we learned about the mechanisms of language acquisition is as a student and for the next time maybe I will be as a parent, from the study of this topic, I know how the children acquisition of the language. and as a parent should know about this study, although they haven’t study about this topic, because for teaching the children when they are a child, sometime we do not attention from what they have learned the language, every words that has the parent when the children has follow it, not just from the parent, when the children outside the house, many bad word that have they listened. So this topic should know the parent and others parent because we know how the children study or get of the language acquisition. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce.

    Example :
    adult : he is going out child : he go uot
    adult : that’s an old-time train child :old-time train.
    Imitation cannot account for another important phenomenon : children who are unable to speak for neurological reason learn the language spoken to them and understand it. When they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use of language for speaking.
    Analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account of language development, because they are based on the (implicit or explicit) assumption that what the child acquire is a set of sentences or forms rather than a set of grammatical rulees. Theories that assume that acquisition depends on a specially structured input also place too much emphasis on the environment rather than on the grammar- making abilities of the child. These proposals do not explain the creativity that children show in acquiring language, why they go through stages, or why they make some kind of “ errors” but not others.
    Assignment 3
    All children around the world learn the immediate language they hear in their environment. When children are very young they have to learn many things that will last them for the rest of their life, such as walking and socializing, and for socializing they need to learn the language that is spoken around them. Language is what distinguishes humans from other life forms on earth and to think how easy it is for such young children to acquire language in all its complexity in such short time. Children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the word and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology, and syntax that he has develop to the point. This may be why the children do not respond to correction. Nobody don’t like me and want ‘ another one spoon, daddy may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but they are not errors from the child’s point of view. They reflect his current grammar. Indeed, the so-called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.

  72. Name / Nim : Ayuti Elvira /1314050142

    Part 1 (300 words)
    In the first meeting we learned about the branch of linguistics, especially we talked about intoduction to psycholinguistics, our lecturer said that psycholinguistics not same with psycholinguistic. Our lacturer distinguished them. From the last meeting we can conclude that psycho means mental processes. Although linguistics means linguistic theory, it is consist of same branch, they are : phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and rules.

    In second meeting, we used the materials in our photocopy we learned language acquisition, the lacturer taught mechanisms of language acquisition ‘ the psychological mechanisms involved in acquiring a language’ in this subject we found imitation, that means in mechanisms of language acqusition the children that used the language , they imitate the language that they listened, they will say or repeat after us, so don’t say the bad thing in front of them because they can say like we said. Not just it they (children) imitate the words and reinforcement, and after that they can use the language with well and to be certain clear, they will say some words although they have error sentence before. They speak litle by litle, the first they imitate the word, but they can’t spell it clear and well, but they alway study to speak, example: they said maam, and then they can say mamam.

    The children also learned through anatology, it means they say something almost same, for example : I like the pink doll, but they said l like the red doll. The children also lean language through stuctured input, in this subject we also found that language sometimes called motherese or children direct speech / baby takl. In this point the children had begun input the structure, the start learn arrange their words or arrange their sentence. And then they children began construct their grammer.

    Part 2 (300 words)

    My respond about this second part or, the poin of Language Acquisition is “that children learn language through imitation”. Imitation is distinguished with learn. When the child born in a place, she or he will imitate the language that the people use in the place. So that language will be her or his first language, although she or he don’t be native speaker of the language in that place.
    If we learn mechanisms of language acquisition, we will know the children when learn language at the, the children have many error sentences or have error words, they don’t input the good grammer.but they always use that language again and again, they imitated the language from the people arround them. Certainly learn language through mechanisms of language acquisition, we use language naturally, however there different acquiring with learned, although native speaker can speak and can use English clearly, but not all of them can explain English. But if we learned English me can use and explain it. The native speaker can use that language but they couldn’t explain so will called it Tacit.
    In this topic we also explained about the different of descriptive language and perspektive language. Descriptive is phenomenological about language to work of objective. It focuses at real delineation to indication language that happen in field, although not based on good Grammer.
    For example : she bring his book
    She brings her book.
    The both are may to use.
    Prescriptive is opinion of this language direct on norm, rules and structure. It can distinguish wrong or right language. Usually Prescriptive call with Normative. Example:
    1). I doesn’t sleep last night because I make this assignment.
    2). I didn’t sleep last night because I made this assignment.
    Example first statement is wrong, even though statement is right.

    Part 3 (400 words)

    Actually children has comprehension of language from they still young child, they can use language from their environtment, they learn from their parents and theirs friends may be, but I agree the children learn the language from their perents, her or his father or mother included their home are the first environtment the place that can the children learn, we knew children’s house is the first place the children learn, they learn to speak from the people around them include learn about cultura, in this periode children speak up naturally, they will say vocabulary that they listened, so the parents don’t use the bad words in front of their children because the children can repeat it again, why it happen? Cause every children imitate, usually the children at 14 month will imitate the voice around them their family usually teach them with base vovabulary, for example mama, papa, kakak. At the age of 0-3 weeks will sound of crying baby who is still a reflex. So, the baby was not crying because she wanted to cry, but it was done without his knowing it. When a baby at the age of 10 months she began to imitate the voices heard from the environment, and he will also use facial expressions or hand gestures when they want to ask for something

    So in our material “A baby hearing a human voice over a loundspeaker saying (pa) (pa)(pa) will slowly decreases her rate of sucking”. Children can speak because they the interact. The key of language is interaction.so it is the reason why we can minangkabau clear and well because we always use it and intract with the people around us, especially with our family. It is can distinguish the language as acquiring or as learned, the language is acquiring or acquisition, if the language as acquiring, it means we get the language from our parents or our environment so we called that langguage as first language becuase it can learn began from the children can speak up or we also say that as our mother tongue. But there are children can speak whereas their parents disable or dumb it means they get the language from their environment, a child can use java, mandailing language wherease she minnagkabau their parents can use mandailing java, so why the children can use it, it is cause the child learn with their environment.

  73. Response :
    Name/NIM : TETI RAHMADANI / 1314050256

    Assignment 1

    We have learned in the first and the second meeting about the Language Acquisition. Before we go to the what the meaning of language acquisition. I want to explain about the psychology of language before, in this semester we study about the psychology of language, it means we study of the psychological factors that unable humans to acquire, use and produce language. As well as the processes that make it possible to understand utterances, words, and text. And this study should the children ability to learn language.
    As we know the acquisition of language is “ doubtless the greatest intellectual feat any one of us is over required to perform. It means many people acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, to produce and use words and sentence to communicate. Because without the language no body do not communication by using language. and as a parent that has a children, of course they are have communicate to their children, when the children before the age of five the children always hear what the parent said. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without in formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether this parent try to teach there or not. And for the next time the children will use about the word.

    Assignment 2

    MECHANISMS OF LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
    My response about what have we learned about the mechanisms of language acquisition is as a student and for the next time maybe I will be as a parent, from the study of this topic, I know how the children acquisition of the language. and as a parent should know about this study, although they haven’t study about this topic, because for teaching the children when they are a child, sometime we do not attention from what they have learned the language, every words that has the parent when the children has follow it, not just from the parent, when the children outside the house, many bad word that have they listened. So this topic should know the parent and others parent because we know how the children study or get of the language acquisition. Even when children are trying to imitate what they hear, they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce.

    Example :
    adult : he is going out child : he go uot
    adult : that’s an old-time train child :old-time train.

    Imitation cannot account for another important phenomenon : children who are unable to speak for neurological reason learn the language spoken to them and understand it. When they overcome their speech impairment, they immediately use of language for speaking.
    Analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account of language development, because they are based on the (implicit or explicit) assumption that what the child acquire is a set of sentences or forms rather than a set of grammatical rules. Theories that assume that acquisition depends on a specially structured input also place too much emphasis on the environment rather than on the grammar- making abilities of the child. These proposals do not explain the creativity that children show in acquiring language, why they go through stages, or why they make some kind of “ errors” but not others.

    Assignment 3

    All children around the world learn the immediate language they hear in their environment. When children are very young they have to learn many things that will last them for the rest of their life, such as walking and socializing, and for socializing they need to learn the language that is spoken around them. Language is what distinguishes humans from other life forms on earth and to think how easy it is for such young children to acquire language in all its complexity in such short time. Children’s early utterances may not completely resemble comparable adult sentences. This is because the word and sentences the child produces conform to the phonology, morphology, and syntax that he has develop to the point. This may be why the children do not respond to correction. Nobody don’t like me and want ‘ another one spoon, daddy may contain errors from the perspective of the adult grammar, but they are not errors from the child’s point of view. They reflect his current grammar. Indeed, the so-called errors that children make provide us with a window into their grammar.

  74. Name/NIM: Laras Sekar Tanjung/1314050002

    Assignment 1
    In the first meeting, the lecturer told about linguistics macro and linguistics micro. Micro linguistics consists of phonology, morphology, syntax, semantic, and lexicologi. Phonology has two branches, they are phonetic and phonemic. Phonetic is talking about the sounds of the phonem in a language are sounded, and phonemic is talking about the unity of the smallest sounds that can make a different meaning. Morphology is a branch of microlinguistics that tells about the form of a word, the structure, the parts, and how the word build. Then, syntax is talking about the correlation between a word and others to a a phrase, clause, or sentence.
    A branch of micro linguistics that talks about meaning of a word is called by semantic. We can get the meaning from the dictionary, and also from imagery definition and structured definition, etc. The last branches of micro linguistics is lexicology. Lexicology is talking about the form, history and meaning of a word. In another definition, it can be defined as a science about a word that already and will be contained in a dictionary. Then, the branches of macro linguistics are sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics, anthropholinguistics, stilistics, filology, dialectology, philosophy of language, and neurolinguistics. From this sentence, we can see that psycholinguistics is contained in macro linguistics.
    Beside the explanation above, the lecturer also told about persona (alam sadar), shadow (alam bawah sadar), and anima (alam tidak sadar).
    At the second meeting, the lecturer told the students about the syllabus for psycholinguistics subject in this semester. The syllabus has 16 points. 14 points about the material that we will learn and discuss. Then, the 2 more points are midterm and final project of language acquisition. Point 1 until 7 and point 16 will be personal assignment, and point 9-15 will be group assignment.
    After that, the lecturer told about the language acquisition, especially about the mechanisms of language acquisition. By reading the source and listening the explanation that the lecturer has given to me, I can know that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input (similar processes).

    Assignment 2.
    Language acquisition is a process which can take place at any period of one’s life. Before I learned about Language Acquisition from my psycholinguistics lecturer, i have heard about that from my lecturer in another subject. In language acquisition, we can use the language without learn or without go to a school or institution to learn the language. The children usually acquire their mother language. It is caused the children hear the language from their parents and also from the people around them. According to what i have learned so far about Language Acquisition, especially about the Mechanisms of Language Acquisition, I can know that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input (similar processes). In acquire a language children are doing imitation. By doing imitation means that children just listen to what is said around them and imitate the speech they hear. But, the children unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce, even they are trying to imitate what they hear. When the children make a sentence in a wrong grammatical or bad grammatical, adults must be correct it. They dictate the right one to the children. But children cannot correct it in one correction, or they cannot directly make a grammatical sentence like the adults told them. They just repeat the sentence. Even the condition is like that, adults need to give reinforcement to the children, so that one time they can learn by that reinforcement. In analogy a sentence, the children may be can change an adjective to others. But, if they do an analogy in past tense form for invite-invited into run-runned and took-taked, something is gone wrong here. Adults usually use speak to children use motherese mode. It can get a child’s attention and holding it, but it is not a driving force behind language development.

    Assignment 3.
    From the paragraph in the instruction of assigment 3, we can see that the researchers are doing a big effort to study the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking. They really want to know about that. They do various things, such us get the diary kept by parents, use tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments, to get what infant knows or gets about language. May be the reasearchers want to know about what kind of tools or ways that infants use to communicate, even they cann’t speaking yet. The researchers do those effforts because they know that infants also have linguistic ability even they do not speak yet.
    By doing a research in linguistic abilities of infants, the researchers can know the level of linguistic that infants have. Beside that the researcher can know how infants get the ebility so they can stand on the level. After knowing about those things, the researchers can find something that can improve the linguistic abilities of infants. It can be useful for the future of the infants because it can make their abilities in linguistic become better.
    It still doubtful about the function of the diary kept by parents, use tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments in knowing the comprehension ang linguistic abilities of infants. The writer doesn’t give the detail explanation about those things. It makes the reader confuse how those things can help researchers in getting information comprehension ang linguistic abilities of infants. It’s better if the writer give more explanation about those.

  75. NAMA/ NIM: ERSISMITA/ 1314050136
    Assignment 1
    Psycholinguistics is the study of language with reference to human psychology. It has a very broad scope but is frequently used with specific reference to processes of language acquisition, especially of one’s first language. In the more general psycholinguistics covers the following areas.
    Language Acquisition Language is a cognition that truly makes us human. Whereas other species do communicate with an innate ability to produce a limited number of meaningful vocalizations (e.g. Bonobos), or even with partially learned systems (e.g. bird songs), there is no other species known to date that can express infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech sounds and words).
    there are several ways in which children in acquiring the language that children acquire it by imitating, repeating, analogy by imitating and repeating the words were heard by the children of those that exist in the environment of her se4cara automatically he will imitate and repeat the words until they can speak like parents.
    This ability is remarkable in itself. What makes it even more remarkable is that researchers are finding evidence for mastery of this complex skill in increasingly younger children. Infants as young as 12 months are reported to have sensitivity to the grammar needed to understand causative sentences (who did what to whom; e.g. the bunny pushed the frog (Rowland & Noble, 2010). Some children might utilize general cognitive and learning principles.
    After more than 60 years of research into child language development, the mechanism that enables children to segment syllables and words out of the strings of sounds they hear, and to acquire grammar to understand and produce language is still quite an enigma. When the child hears a sufficient number of instances of a linguistic construction (i.e. the third singular verb form), she will detect patterns across the utterances she has heard.
    Assignment 2
    Neural and behavioral research studies show that exposure to language in the first year of life influences the brain’s neural circuitry even before infants speak their first words. What do we know of the neural architecture underlying infants’ remarkable capacity for language and the role of experience in shaping that neural circuitry?
    The goal of the review is to explore this topic, or focusing on the data and arguments about infants’ neural responses to the consonants and vowels that make up words. Infants’ responses to these basic building blocks of speech the phonemes used in the world’s languages provide an experimentally tractable window on the roles of nature and nurture in language acquisition.
    Comparative studies at the phonetic level have allowed us to examine the uniqueness of humans’ language processing abilities. Moreover, infants’ responses to native and nonnative phonemes have documented the effects of experience as infants are bathed in a specific language. We are also beginning to discover how exposure to two languages early in infancy produces a bilingual brain.
    We focus here on when and how infants master the sound structure of their language(s), and the role of experience in explaining this important developmental change. As the data attest, infants’ neural commitment to the elementary units of language begins early, and the review showcases the extent to which the tools of modern neuroscience are advancing our understanding of infants’ uniquely human capacity for language.
    Humans’ capacity for speech and language provoked classic debates on nature vs. nurture by strong proponents of naturism and learning. While we are far beyond these debates and informed by a great deal of data about infants, their innate predispositions, once exposed to natural language , we are still just breaking ground with regard to the neural mechanisms that underlie language development.
    Assignment 3
    Essence child language acquisition is a process of ownership acquisition of language proficiency both in the form of understanding or disclosure, naturally, without going through formal learning activities (Tarin et al., 1998) . Kiparsky in Tarin (1988) says acquisition language is a process that used by children hyphothesis with child to adapt a series of greeting their parents until the rules of grammar can choose the best and most simple of language relate.
    Characteristics of language acquisition by Tarin et al. (1998) are: (a) Held in informal situations, children belajarbahasa without a load, and outside the school; (b) Ownership of language through formal learning dilembagalembaga education such as schools or courses; (c) Do unwittingly or spontaneously; and (d) the direct Suffered by children and occurs in contex of language meaningful for children.
    Variety Language Acquisition or type of child language acquisition by Tarin (1988) from different points of view, among others: (a) based on the form, (b) by order, (c) based on the number, (d) based on the media, ( e) based keaslian.Ditinjau in terms of form, known varieties: (a) first language acquisition, (b) second language acquisition, (c) acquisition and over.
    Various language acquisition in terms of the order, known varieties: (a) first language acquisition, (b) second language acquisition In terms of the number of known varieties: (c) acquisition of the language, (d) acquisition of two language In terms of media, known varieties: (a) the acquisition of spoken language, (b) language acquisition in terms of authenticity or strangeness, known varieties: (a) native language acquisition, (b) foreign language acquisition.
    10. The factors in question are as follows: (a) biological factors; (b) social environmental factors; (c) the factors of intelligence; and (d) factors motivasiDengan Thus, the primary needs of children so belajarberbahasa are: (a) the desire to obtain information tentanglingkungannya, then about himself and his friends; (b) give the order and declare the will; (c) social contact with other people; and (d) express opinions and ideas. (Tarin et al., 1998)
    11. Variety or type of child language acquisition can be viewed from berbagaisudut view of, among other things: (a) based on the forms of language acquisition first- language acquisition they both re-acquisition (b) based sistematic- first- language acquisition second language acquisition (c) based amount- acquiring a bilingual language-acquisition (d) based media in oral- language acquisition of written language acquisition (e) based on the authenticity of language acquisition foreign language acquisition real
    Strategies children acquire.

  76. Name / Nim : Fitri Nengsih / 13140503567

    Assigment 1
    Psycholinguistics is the study of language with reference to human psychology. It has a very broad scope but is frequently used with specific reference to processes of language acquisition, especially of one’s first language. In the more general psycholinguistics covers the following areas. In psycholinguistics we are discussed about Language acquisition.
    Language acquisition this is a process which can take place at any period of one’s life. In the sense of first language acquisition, however, it refers to the acquisition (unconscious learning) of one’s native language (or languages in the case of bilinguals) during the first 6 or 7 years of one’s life (roughly from birth to the time one starts school). A child can learn any language. However, this is in general the language of the parents, but this does not have to be the case.
    Characteristics of first language acquisition
    • It is an instinct. This is true in the technical sense, i.e. it is triggered by birth and takes its own course, though of course linguistic input from the environment is needed for the child to acquire a specific language. As an instinct, language acquisition can be compared to the acquisition of binocular vision or binaural hearing.
    • It is very rapid. The amount of time required to acquire one’s native language is quite short, very short compared to that needed to learn a second language successfully later on in life.
    • It is very complete. The quality of first language acquisition is far better than that of a second language. One does not forget one’s native language.
    • It does not require instruction. Despite the fact that many non-linguistics think that mothers are important for children to learn their native language, instructions by parents or care-takers unnecessary, despite the psychological benefits of attention to the child.

    Assigment 2
    Language acquisition has been a contentious topic among linguists, psycholinguists, and behaviorists for decades. Although numerous theories of language acquisition have surfaced, none have sufficiently accounted for the subtleties of the language that children acquire. The present study attempts to explain the role of modeling and automatic reinforcement in the acquisition of the passive voice. Six children, ages 3 to 5, participated in this study. The results indicated that the children began using the passive voice only after the experimenter modeled passive sentences. Furthermore, the usage of the passive voice increased with repeated exposure to the experimenter’s verbal behavior. Given that the children were not explicitly reinforced
    Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. Cognitive development is the process through which the brain takes in information to “make meaning” – something our brains do naturally. The way your baby’s brain makes meaning is through experience, which is made up mostly of interaction with the important people in his life. This means that learning is social, and for babies, involves imitating the people around them. Imitation provides children with the opportunity to practice and master new skills. Imitation also serves as a basis for the development of empathy, or the ability to experience what another person is feeling. Example mother said “mama” then children said “maa maaa”. Except learn language through imitation the children learn language through reinforcement, the children will repeat what the parents said. One kind of reinforcement is correction of “bad grammar” and reward for “good grammar”. Learn language through analogy, it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences.

    Assigment 3
    In essence, child language acquisition involves two skills: the ability to produce spontaneous speech and the ability to understand the speech of others. If it is associated with it then it is a language acquisition is a process of ownership of proficiency in either understanding or disclosure, naturally, without going through formal learning activities (Tarin et al., 1998). Thus, the acquisition process is an unconscious process. Mastery of the language are not recognized and are not influenced by the teaching that explicitly rule system that is in a second language. In contrast to the learning process, is a process that is done knowingly committed by learners in mastering the language.
    Knowledge of language acquisition and the very first stages can be from diaries kept by parents who also psycholinguistics science researchers. In studies of more sophisticated, the knowledge gained through the recordings on tape, video tape, and experiments are planned. There while linguists that divides the stage into the stage of language acquisition and linguistic paralinguistic. However, this establishment refuted by many people who say that the stage paralinguistic it cannot be considered a language that beginning because sounds like a cry and whine controlled by the stimulus solely, the automatic response of children to stimuli hunger, pain, desire to be picked up, and feelings of pleasure. I agree with the arguments of those above. at about 6 weeks of age, babies begin to emit sounds in the form of screams, whimpers. Sound issued by infants is similar to consonant or vowel. These sounds could not be ascertained because the shape is not yet clearly audible.
    After the stage of vocalizations, babies begin babbling. Babble is a speech that has a single syllable like you and da. As aging baby babbling can be determined by sure .This babble stage, the child already produce different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. Vowel is / a /. thus, its structure is K-V.
    Behaviorism theory highlights linguistic aspects of behavior that can be observed directly and the relationship between the stimulus and reaction. Effective language behavior is to make the right reaction to stimuli. This reaction will become a habit if the reaction is justified. Thus, children learn their first language.

  77. NAME : GENTA / 1314050449
    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Language is a communication tool used by humans to interact in life, language is an agreement. in learning about the language we know psycholinguistic is a discipline that studies on language concerning the psychology and the way of language acquisition itself.
    as normal people we are acquiring language since the first one can say, like what we are doing as a child by calling the mother as,,, ma maa …. Although there are replace with ibu , bunda , or mami, but in essence all it’s same.
    Language develops in the child spontaneously and without any direct instruction as in the acquisition of the other intelligence such as mathematics and social sciences and others. Language acquisition and language learning is different, in the book we have discussed in class explained that there are several mechanisms of language acquisition by children as a way mimics, reinforcement and analogy.
    First language acquisition occurs when a child who has not had a language and then they acquire language. Regional languages, is the first known language as the language of instruction of children in the family or often referred to as the mother tongue. So we can conclude that the mother tongue is the language that is most important in the mechanism of language acquisition and the role of local communities have a profound, if they say this is a psycholinguistic means will have something to do with the symptoms of the soul owner of the language in acquiring language, then we must pay close attention language which we will use in front of children at that time. besides their mother tongue in everyday use very often carried over into formal or official situations should use good language and should be.

    ASSIGNMENT 2
    Mother tongue is the first language which is controlled by humans since the beginning of his life through interaction with fellow members of the language community, such as family and community environment. It shows the first language is a process that gained early in the familiar sound of the child and the symbol of the so-called language. Since the child was born in fact they have their own language that is by crying, laughing or others, then we try to understand whether it is hungry or defecate or other. but after they can say, that starts with ma …. Maaa and further to paa…. well then we will help him get through it, we can give an example, or those who imitate spontaneously, through reinforcement and analogy.

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    From these quotations we know that the study of language acquisition has been achieved only once from the manual written mom and we have had a very high increase in the measurement of language acquisition, it could be the experts will find a language detector that only by analyzing the motion or gesture babies who can’t speak. But we must remember that the definition or translation of the baby’s mother is critical of anything.

  78. NAME : GENTA / 1314050449
    ASSIGNMENT 1
    Language is a communication tool used by humans to interact in life, language is an agreement. in learning about the language we know psycholinguistic is a discipline that studies on language concerning the psychology and the way of language acquisition itself.
    as normal people we are acquiring language since the first one can say, like what we are doing as a child by calling the mother as,,, ma maa …. Although there are replace with ibu , bunda , or mami, but in essence all it’s same.
    Language develops in the child spontaneously and without any direct instruction as in the acquisition of the other intelligence such as mathematics and social sciences and others. Language acquisition and language learning is different, in the book we have discussed in class explained that there are several mechanisms of language acquisition by children as a way mimics, reinforcement and analogy.
    First language acquisition occurs when a child who has not had a language and then they acquire language. Regional languages, is the first known language as the language of instruction of children in the family or often referred to as the mother tongue. So we can conclude that the mother tongue is the language that is most important in the mechanism of language acquisition and the role of local communities have a profound, if they say this is a psycholinguistic means will have something to do with the symptoms of the soul owner of the language in acquiring language, then we must pay close attention language which we will use in front of children at that time. besides their mother tongue in everyday use very often carried over into formal or official situations should use good language and should be.
    ASSIGNMENT 2
    Mother tongue is the first language which is controlled by humans since the beginning of his life through interaction with fellow members of the language community, such as family and community environment. It shows the first language is a process that gained early in the familiar sound of the child and the symbol of the so-called language. Since the child was born in fact they have their own language that is by crying, laughing or others, then we try to understand whether it is hungry or defecate or other. but after they can say, that starts with ma …. Maaa and further to paa…. well then we will help him get through it, we can give an example, or those who imitate spontaneously, through reinforcement and analogy.
    ASSIGNMENT 3
    From these quotations we know that the study of language acquisition has been achieved only once from the manual written mom and we have had a very high increase in the measurement of language acquisition, it could be the experts will find a language detector that only by analyzing the motion or gesture babies who can’t speak. But we must remember that the definition or translation of the baby’s mother is critical of anything.

  79. NAME/ NIM : MARATUS SHLIAHAH/ 1314050643
    Assignment 1
    In my opinion of first and second meeting in study Psycholinguistict was interesting subject. Psycholinguistics have 2 words, Psychology and Linguistic. Psychology is a study of the mind and human behavior . And the linguistic languages is formed by perspective (language is existence) and descriptive (language is teachable).
    Psycholinguistics is important as a part of linguistic, and psycholinguistics has meaning is the study of the psychological and all factors that enable humans to acquire, to use, to comprehend and produce language.
    A human has a sides of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. That like a “fitrah” as a human mind who created by Allah. The conscious mind is what most people related with who you are. The subconscious mind, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuously contact with the other sources of the unconscious mind. The unconscious is where most of the work of the mind gets done; it’s the repository of automatic skills (such as riding a bike), the source of intuition and dreams, the engine of much information processing. Fleeting perceptions register in the unconscious mind long before we may be aware of them
    Assignment 2
    The first material in Psycholinguisct is Language Acquisition. Language Acquisition describes how introduce the language as a complex thing. That is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A human learning to speak and understand a language, include learning to read and write. For example, the first sounds a baby makes are the sounds of crying.
    In the Mechanism of a Language, a baby learns by imitating what they saw, and what they parents did but they did it still simple. Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. People also learn by behaviorism, children know the language by how their parents speaks’, which one is the reinforcement. For example the reinforcement in each syllable, children needs to repeating to knew every new words. Parents repeat it, slowly and carefully, and children try to say it, but sometimes it’s wrong. Next, children learn language through Analogy, children don’t know what they are saying right or wrong but parents always guide them, children says with wrong utterances but it still same meaning, they are usually confused to use irregular. Furthermore, children learn thought Structured Input, children are able to learn language because adults speak to them special “simplified” language sometimes called motherese. As a Minangist people Minang language is our motherese, and Java people has Betawi language.
    Assignment 3
    Children learn language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. Each child’s development is usually acquisition from their abilities. Parents who use of tape recordings, videotapes, that sure to them analyze and see the development or the baby, which was on first record or videotapes.
    There is no space which a child learns to talk. By the time the child first utters a single meaning word, the baby has already spent many months playing around with the sounds, intonations and stress of language and then connecting words with meanings, which has a different meaning. Every child is curious in a new thing, not only a language, an action too. Children acquire language in stages, and different children reach the various stages at different times. The order in which these stages are reached, however, it’s almost always the same.
    The sounds of crying is first sounds a baby makes. In the beginning the babies doesn’t know how to say word, only with crying. After a few month the babies would to say they want to eat or just called their mother. Children will acquire the language that is being used around them, include from the parents, sister or brother. In children developing each month has increasing, what would they say even not a real meaning and parents guide them carefully know what they say meant. Although the ‘baby talk’ that parents use with the children may help them to acquire language as possible they can.

  80. NAME/ NIM : MARATUS SHLIAHAH/ 1314050643
    Assignment 1
    In my opinion of first and second meeting in study Psycholinguistict was interesting subject. Psycholinguistics have 2 words, Psychology and Linguistic. Psychology is he scientific study of the mind and human behavior . And the linguistic languages is formed by perspective (language is existence) and descriptive (language is teachable).
    Psycholinguistics is important as a part of linguistic, and psycholinguistics has meaning is the study of the psychological and all factors that enable humans to acquire, use, to comprehend and to produce language.
    A human has a sides of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. That like a “fitrah” as a human mind who created by Allah. The conscious mind is what most people associate with who you are, because that is where most people live day to day. But it’s by no means where all the action takes place. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind. The unconscious mind is the storehouse of all memories and past experiences, both those that have been repressed through trauma and those that have simply been consciously forgotten and no longer important to us. It’s from these memories and experiences that our beliefs, habits, and behaviors are formed.
    Assignment 2
    The first material in Psycholinguisct is Language Acquisition. Language Acquisition describes how introduce the language as a complex thing. That is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A human learning to speak and understand a language, include learning to read and write. For example, the first sounds a baby makes are the sounds of crying.
    In the Mechanism of a Language, a baby learns by imitating what they saw, and what they parents did but they did it still simple. Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. People also learn by behaviorism, children know the language by how their parents speaks’, which one is the reinforcement. For example the reinforcement in each syllable, children needs to repeating to knew every new words. Parents repeat it, slowly and carefully, and children try to say it, but sometimes it’s wrong. Next, children learn language through Analogy, children don’t know what they are saying right or wrong but parents always guide them, children says with wrong utterances but it still same meaning, they are usually confused to use irregular. Furthermore, children learn thought Structured Input, children are able to learn language because adults speak to them special “simplified” language sometimes called motherese. As a Minangist people Minang language is our motherese, and Java people has Betawi language.
    Assignment 3
    Children learn language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. Each child’s development is usually acquisition from their abilities. Parents who use of tape recordings, videotapes, that sure to them analyze and see the development or the baby, which was on first record or videotapes.
    There is no space which a child learns to talk. By the time the child first utters a single meaning word, the baby has already spent many months playing around with the sounds, intonations and stress of language and then connecting words with meanings, which has a different meaning. Every child is curious in a new thing, not only a language, an action too. Children acquire language in stages, and different children reach the various stages at different times. The order in which these stages are reached, however, it’s almost always the same.
    The sounds of crying is first sounds a baby makes. In the beginning the babies doesn’t know how to say word, only with crying. After a few month the babies would to say they want to eat or just called their mother. Children will acquire the language that is being used around them, include from the parents, sister or brother. In children developing each month has increasing, what would they say even not a real meaning and parents guide them carefully know what they say meant. Although the ‘baby talk’ that parents use with the children may help them to acquire language as possible they can.

  81. Name/NIM: Deza Zalia Permata Dewi/1314050510

    ASSIGNMENT 1
    In first meeting I knew that psycholinguistics is the study of the mental faculties involved in the perception, production, and acquisition of language and also psycholinguistic is branch of study which combines the disciplines of psychology and linguistics. It is concerned with the relationship between the human mind and language as it examines the processes that occur in brain while producing and perceiving both written and spoken discourse.
    Psycholinguistics based on word psycho. Psycho is emotion and empathy. Emotion is a strong feeling deriving from one’s circumstance mood or relationship with others or an emotion is a mental state that is spontaneous and does not come from conscious effort. Empathy is a feeling that understanding another person’s experiences and emotion: the ability to share someone else’s feeling.
    Language can make people be the best and sometimes, it makes people be the worst. Language acquisition device is conscious, subconscious and unconscious.

    In second meeting, I got that model or theory of psycholinguistic based on behaviorism. It focused on people’s behaviors. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input.
    Children learn through imitation. Children just listen to what we said around them and then they imitate it. Imitation is repeating something that listened. Children learn through reinforcement. Children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong. Children learn through analogy. Children put words together to form phrase and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form another sentences. Children learn through structured input. Children are able to learn language because adult speak slowly.

    ASSIGNMENT 2
    Mechanism of Language Acquisition
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This distinguished from second language acquisition, which deals with acquisition (in both children and adult) of additional languages. Language acquisition is just one strand of psycholinguistics which is all about how people learn to speak and the mental processes involved.
    Model or theory of psycholinguistic based on behaviorism. As the name implies, behaviorism focused on people’s behaviors. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input.
    Children learn through imitation. Children just listen to what we said around them and then they imitate it. Imitation is repeating something that listened. Imitation is involved to some extent, but the early words and sentences that children produce show that they are not simply imitating adult speech. Children learn through reinforcement. Children learn to produce correct sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong. Reinforcement seldom occurs, and it is usually incorrect pronunciation. Children learn through analogy. Children put words together to form phrase and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form another sentences. Children learn through structured input. Children are able to learn language because adult speak slowly. They can speak well because the adult speak step by step and do not make them be confused.

    ASSIGNMENT 3
    Feedback or argument
    I think that research of book that we have read is a good way to create the children can speak very well and know about the language. Children seem to be especially designed to listen to language. In fact, they don’t even wait until they are born to start. Speech can be heard in the womb—not precisely enough to make out individual sounds, but clearly enough to identify the basic rhythm and certain features of the speaker’s voice. They prefer the language of their parents over other languages.
    Children learn language very quickly. Between age two and six, they average ten new words a day, almost one for every waking hour and get after hearing it just once or twice. Children who are learning a language share a common destination, but many paths lead there. Take word finding, for instance. Although many people don’t realize it, we usually don’t leave pauses between words when we speak. (If you have any doubts about this, try listening to a language that you don’t speak. You’ll quickly notice that the words all run together.) Some children are initially better than others at finding words and at pronouncing them clearly. By age 18 months, they are producing short, clearly articulated, one-word utterances. They like to name people (Daddy, Mommy) and objects (kitty, car), and they use simple words like up, hot, and hungry to describe how they feel and what they want.
    Children need to hear language being used to talk about things they can see and feel, what they have just experienced or are about to experience, what they are curious about and what they care about. This is the type of speech that provides children with the raw material they need to learn a language to figure out what words mean, where a subject or a direct object fits into a sentence, how to ask a question, and all the other things that make up language.
    In fact, that’s most important thing that any parent needs to know about language. Talk to children about what matters to them. So, parents should teach and direct their children to get knowledge, good experience and know about the language as far as the children can.

  82. NAME/ NIM : MARATUS SHLIAHAH/ 1314050643
    Assignment 1
    In my opinion of first and second meeting in study Psycholinguistict was interesting subject. Psycholinguistics have 2 words, Psychology and Linguistic. Psychology is he scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is really a very new science linguistics can certainly be used prescriptively. And the results of careful description and analysis are at least implicitly normative. And the languages is formed by perspective (language is existence) and descriptive (language is teachable).
    Psycholinguistics is important as a part of linguistic, and psycholinguistics has meaning is the study of the psychological and all factors that enable humans to acquire, use, to comprehend and to produce language.
    A human has a sides of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. That like a “fitrah” as a human mind who created by Allah. The conscious mind is what most people associate with who you are, because that is where most people live day to day. But it’s by no means where all the action takes place. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind.The unconscious mind is the storehouse of all memories and past experiences, both those that have been repressed through trauma and those that have simply been consciously forgotten and no longer important to us. It’s from these memories and experiences that our beliefs, habits, and behaviors are formed.
    Assignment 2
    The first material in Psycholinguisct is Language Acquisition. Language Acquisition describes how introduce the language as a complex thing. That is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A human learning to speak and understand a language, include learning to read and write. For example, the first sounds a baby makes are the sounds of crying.
    In the Mechanism of a Language, a baby learns by imitating what they saw, and what they parents did but they did it still simple. Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. People also learn by behaviorism, children know the language by how their parents speaks’, which one is the reinforcement. For example the reinforcement in each syllable, children needs to repeating to knew every new words. Parents repeat it, slowly and carefully, and children try to say it, but sometimes it’s wrong. Next, children learn language through Analogy, children don’t know what they are saying right or wrong but parents always guide them, children says with wrong utterances but it still same meaning, they are usually confused to use irregular. Furthermore, children learn thought Structured Input, children are able to learn language because adults speak to them special “simplified” language sometimes called motherese. As a Minangist people Minang language is our motherese, and Java people has Betawi language.
    Assignment 3
    Children learn language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. each child’s development is usually characterized by gradual acquisition from their abilities. Parents who use of tape recordings, videotapes, that sure to them analyze and see the development or the baby, which was on first record or videotapes.
    There is no space which a child learns to talk. By the time the child first utters a single meaningful word, the baby has already spent many months playing around with the sounds and intonations of language and then connecting words with meanings, which has a different meaning. Every child is curious in a new thing, not only a language, an action too. Children acquire language in stages, and different children reach the various stages at different times. The order in which these stages are reached, however, it’s almost always the same.
    The sounds of crying is first sounds a baby makes. In the beginning the babies doesn’t know how to say word, only with crying. After a few month the babies would to say they want to eat or just called their mother. Children will acquire the language that is being used around them, include from the parents, sister or brother. In children developing each month has increasing, what would they say even not a real meaning and parents guide them carefully know what they say meant. Although the ‘baby talk’ that parents use with the children may help them to acquire language as possible they can.

  83. NAME/ NIM : MARATUS SHLIAHAH/ 1314050643
    Assignment 1
    In my opinion of first and second meeting in study Psycholinguistict was interesting subject. Psycholinguistics have 2 words, Psychology and Linguistic. Psychology is he scientific study of the mind and behavior. Psychology is really a very new science linguistics can certainly be used prescriptively. And the results of careful description and analysis are at least implicitly normative. And the languages is formed by perspective (language is existence) and descriptive (language is teachable).
    Psycholinguistics is important as a part of linguistic, and psycholinguistics has meaning is the study of the psychological and all factors that enable humans to acquire, use, to comprehend and to produce language.
    A human has a sides of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. That like a “fitrah” as a human mind who created by Allah. The conscious mind is what most people associate with who you are, because that is where most people live day to day. But it’s by no means where all the action takes place. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind.The unconscious mind is the storehouse of all memories and past experiences, both those that have been repressed through trauma and those that have simply been consciously forgotten and no longer important to us. It’s from these memories and experiences that our beliefs, habits, and behaviors are formed.
    Assignment 2
    The first material in Psycholinguisct is Language Acquisition. Language Acquisition describes how introduce the language as a complex thing. That is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A human learning to speak and understand a language, include learning to read and write. For example, the first sounds a baby makes are the sounds of crying.
    In the Mechanism of a Language, a baby learns by imitating what they saw, and what they parents did but they did it still simple. Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. Children also learn by behaviorism, children know the language by how their parents speaks’, which one is the reinforcement. For example the reinforcement in each syllable, children needs to repeating to knew every new words. Parents repeat it, slowly and carefully, and children try to say it, but sometimes it’s wrong. Next, children learn language through Analogy, children don’t know what they are saying right or wrong but parents always guide them, children says with wrong utterances but it still same meaning, they are usually confused to use irregular. Furthermore, children learn thought Structured Input, children are able to learn language because adults speak to them special “simplified” language sometimes called motherese. As a Minangist people Minang language is our motherese, and Java people has Betawi language.
    Assignment 3
    Children learn language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. each child’s development is usually characterized by gradual acquisition from their abilities. Parents who use of tape recordings, videotapes, that sure to them analyze and see the development or the baby, which was on first record or videotapes.
    There is no space which a child learns to talk. By the time the child first utters a single meaningful word, the baby has already spent many months playing around with the sounds and intonations of language and then connecting words with meanings, which has a different meaning. Every child is curious in a new thing, not only a language, an action too. Children acquire language in stages, and different children reach the various stages at different times. The order in which these stages are reached, however, it’s almost always the same.
    The sounds of crying is first sounds a baby makes. In the beginning the babies doesn’t know how to say word, only with crying. After a few month the babies would to say they want to eat or just called their mother. Children will acquire the language that is being used around them, include from the parents, sister or brother. In children developing each month has increasing, what would they say even not a real meaning and parents guide them carefully know what they say meant. Although the ‘baby talk’ that parents use with the children may help them to acquire language as possible they can.

  84. NAME/NIM : Putri Rahma Dani / 1314050120

    ASSIGNMENT 1.

    In the first and second meeting we have learned about introducing psycholinguistics and mechanism language acquisition. Psycholinguistics is concerned with discovering the psychological processes that make it possible for humans to acquire and use language. The children process begin to know about communicate with their environment verbally it called as language acquisition. Language acquisition based on natural character or in other words human were created as creature get language because they have been completed with all something like brain and speaking tool. the first language that is gotten by children it more direct to function of communication than language form. There are most scientists give view that wherever children are, they keep to acquisition mother tongue with the same strategy. In the syntax field, children begin to speak by saying one word, this word for them is full sentence because they can not say more than one word, they only use one word from all that sentence. Mother tongue as the first language that has been gotten by human since be born through interaction with environment like family and society. The language that used by adult to children who processing acquisition a mother tongue. Children is fifteen years old will speaking to their young brother who is two years old will use mother tongue too. As we know a child does not direct have grammar and form in the first language. A language will be gotten through some stages like imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and structured input. What are people say too much, so the children will imitate about it. There are some kinds imitate like spontaneous imitation, elicited imitation, immediate imitation, act. For example parents say makan in Indonesian language, so the children will say ma-mam. It will be happened when children are two years. After that, children will repeat that word when they want to eat.

    ASSIGNMENT 2

    In my opinion is Ability for can speak is a potential that has been had by children which that ability can be gotten without through special learning. A language that will be gotten by children involve two skills, they are produce expression spontaneously and understanding another people’s expression. In this context, language acquisition is process ability for have a language as communication. I agree with guidance book that we use in psycholinguistics lesson that children get a language based on imitate process, it means that the children imitate and repeat of words that has been listened. This process will help to product children’s statement or expression. Nevertheless, language acquisition is not only gotten from imitation process because imitation can apply only to speech production and not to speech comprehension. Therefore language acquisition needs another process. It is like reinforcement which after children imitate about words or sentences, so the role of parents is do correction whether is the children say about something right or something false. It is very useful for them because it will improve language ability. After that, children are five years old the parents introduce about grammatical rules.

    ASSIGNMENT 3

    The role of parents and society are very important in children’s language acquisition. Whatever that is done or said by parents, it has influence to them. For example the parents always use media like videotape for playing song every day. So that, children will imitate words and movements spontaneously that they saw. Experiments have shown that infants will increase their sucking rate when visual or auditory presented to them are varied, but will decrease the sucking rate when the same stimuli are presented repeatedly. Infants will respond to visual depth and distance distinctions to differences between rigid and flexible physical properties of objects, and to human faces rather than to other visual stimuli. Babies will not react, however to distinctions that never correspond to phonemic contrast in any human language such as sounds spoken more or less loudly or sounds is a different physical sound when produce by male, female, or child but babies ignore the non linguistic aspects of the speech signal just as we do. An infant can’t have learned to perceive linguistically relevant distinctions and ignore others. Infants appear to be born with the ability to perceive just those sounds that are phonemic in some language. From around six months, they begin to lose ability to discriminate between sounds that are not phonemic in their own language. Their linguistic environment molds their initial perceptions. The generally accepted view is that humans are born with a predisposition to discover the units that serve to express linguistic meanings, and that at a genetically specified stage in neural development, the infant will begin to produce these units sounds or gestures depending on the language input the baby receives.

  85. azilah octavia/ 1314050588

    assignment 1
    Mechanisms of language acquisition have mostly been studied in isolation. Here, were view behavioral and imaging evidence concerning the role and the operation of three such mechanisms: statistical learning, rule extraction and perceptual primitives. Statistical learning is a general learning mechanism, found in animals, adults and infants, that tracks the distributional and statistical information in the input. Rule extraction allows the fast mapping of regularities and the positing of generalizations that go beyond actual experience. Perceptual primitives, the least investigated of the three mechanisms, are specific configurations automatically processed and detected as a result of the way perceptual systems function. We present empirical findings suggesting that neither of the three mechanisms alone is sufficient to explain language development. The most accurate models of language acquisition will probably emerge from the integration of these and other such mechanisms. Such as the use of near infrared optical imaging, the developmental applications of which we briefly discuss here. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits,[1] because non-humans do not communicate by using language.[2] Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition of additional languages. The capacity to successfully use language requires one to acquire a range of tools including phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and an extensive vocabulary. Language can be vocalized as in speech, or manual as in sign. The human language capacity is represented in the brain. Even though the human language capacity is finite, one can say and understand an infinite number of sentences, which is based on a syntactic principle called recursion.

    assignment 2
    Language acquisition (LA) 1: Mechanism of language acquisition
    Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar processes. Don’t children just listen to what is said around them and imitate the speech they hear, children do not hear words like holder, tooth or sentences such as cat stand up table or many of the other utterances they produce between the ages of two and three. Another proposal is that children learn to produce correct (grammatical) sentences because they are positively reinforced when they say something right, and negatively reinforced when they say something wrong. Children do not know what they are doing wrong and are unable to make corrections even when they are pointed out, such conversations between parents and children do not occur often. This conversation was between a linguistic studying child language and his child. It has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. As a model of language acquisition, connectionism faces some serious challenges. Past-tense learning cannot be based on phonological form alone but must also be sensitive to information in the lexicon. Do children learn through structured input, children acquire language in much the same way, irrespective of these varying circumstances. The child does not develop because he is exposed to ever more adult like language. Rather, the adult adjusts his language to the child’s increasing linguistics sophistication. The exaggerated intonation and analogy, imitation, and reinforcement cannot account for language development because they are based on the (implicit or explicit) assumption that was the child acquires is a set of sentences or forms rather than a set of grammatical rules.

    assignment 3
    Language acquisition is defined as a natural progession or development in the use of language, typified by infants and young children learning to talk. It is an unconscious process that occurs when language is used in ordinary conversation. Language acquisition is distinguished from intentional study of a language by its informality. Developmental psychologists are not agreed as to how humans acquire the ability to speak their first language. It was only in the 1950s that the availability of portable tape recorders made it possible for researchers to record children’s speech patterns for later analysis in the laboratory. One early theory of language acquisition was based on imitation, the notion that children learn to speak by imitating adults and older children. The difficulty with the imitation theory is that it fails to account for the ability of even small children to form new sentences from words they know. A second theory, associated with the behavioral school of psychology, maintains that language acquisition is explained by reinforcement. Children learn to speak because their parents give them positive reinforcement when they speak correctly and negative reinforcement (correction or criticism) when they speak ungrammatically. This theory does not hold up under the findings of recent research that parents reinforce the meaning of what children say rather than its grammatical correctness. In addition, children often chatter to themselves or to no one in particular for the sheer pleasure of talking. This activity is hard to explain in terms of the reinforcement theory. A third theory of language acquisition is called nativism. This theory holds that humans are neurologically “programmed” from birth with the capacity to acquire language as soon as their nervous system reaches a certain point of maturation. Noam Chomsky maintained that the human brain has a built-in language acquisition device, or LAD, that analyzes the parts of speech in the language that a child hears. The phases of language acquisition and the age at which children begin to acquire language are similar enough across different cultures and different languages to give some support to the nativist view. Human language functions as a means of interpersonal communication, to convey thoughts, feelings, and many other forms of information. It is necessary to human social life as well as to intellectual development. Language also stimulates the expression of human creativity: poetry, drama, novels, short stories, vocal music, and similar forms of art are based on language.

  86. Name/Nim : Ayu Oka Lestari / 1314050445
    A. Assigment I
    First Meeting about Introduction to Psycholinguistics
    The lesson today is about psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or that we said as psychology of language is the study of the psychological factors that enable human to use, comprehend, acquire and produce language.
    In the study about psycholinguistics the teacher explain about conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. Conscious is awake and able to understand what is happening around you. Subconscious is the subconscious mind stores all of your life experiences or your beliefs, memories, skills and all situations you’ve been through and all images that ever seen. The unconscious is where most of the work of the mind gets done; it’s the automatic skills such as riding a bike, the source of intuition and dreams and the engine of much information processing. Many perceptions register in the unconscious mind long before we may be aware of them. An important focus of psycholinguistics is the unconscious application in grammatical rules that enable for people to produce and the clear comprehend sentences.
    Second meeting about Mechanisms of Language Acquisition
    The lesson today is about language acquisition. I think language acquisition is not something that should taught by someone like parents, teacher, etc. The children about two until three ages can speak by language that they hear from around them. Without taught from anyone their can review or answer that asked from their mother or other. They do that from the people said around them. Language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy and similar processes.
    The children can imitation that they listen but when they trying they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. For example when their mother said ‘It is my pencil’ and then they said ‘It pencil my’. Then, in language the children would not to learn through reinforcement. When they were wrong in their speech we can guide to speech but don’t asked them to review what that we said exactly. Besides that, we can also use the analogy and structural input to repair their speech to be better in the future.
    B. Assigment II
    The respons about Language Acquisition, especially about the Mechanisms of Language
    The children can imitation that they listen but when they trying they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. I think the children not just to listen what is said around them but they will imitate the speech that they hear. Then, in language the children would not to learn through reinforcement. When they were wrong in their speech we can guide to speech but don’t asked them to review what that we said exactly. For example when their mother said ‘It is my pencil’ and then they said ‘It pencil my’. In the problem anyone can’t ask them to say like them because in learn language the children can’t be forced. Besides that, we can also use the analogy and structural input to repair their speech to be better in the future. The children can learn language with analogy because it been suggested the children to put some word together to form other sentences and using it as a sample to form other sentences. In structured input they can place a lot of emphasis on the role of the environment in facilitating language acquisition. In our culture adults do typically talk to young children in a special way. For example, to someone that old from as we can call them “uni, uda, om” and etc, same with someone that young from as we can call the “adik”. We tend to speak more slowly and more clearly, erranged our intonation and sentences are generally grammatical.
    C. Assigment III
    Please write your feedback or argument or evaluation about the following statement from the book we read in the class
    I think the earlies studies of child language acquisition come from their parents. In the basic steps the children learn by that the parents said and their hear in around them. For example when the child feel hungry their mother teach them to say “mamam” and then the child can repeat that although they will say “mam” but their understand what their mother said. So, every the children feel hungry they can say “mam” or “mamam”. I think it is the basic steps that teach by parent from their child. Then, the next steps by someone around them for example their friend, family etc. Language acquisition in each child using the same strategy. This similarity is not only based on the biology and neurology same man, but also by the view mentalisitik stating that the child has been equipped with a natural at birth.
    There are four strategies that use of a child in his first language acquisition. The first strategy is based on the mimic on what is said by others. Mimicking continue to be used by children merskipun he was able to perfectly pronounce the sound. The second strategy is productivity. Productivity aqueous effectiveness and efficiency in language acquisition. The third strategy relates to the relationship between speech production feedback and response. With this strategy the child confronted with guidelines for producing utterances and how responses. The fourth strategy is the operating principle. In this strategy children are introduced to the guidelines: the use of “operating principles” common to think of Working and set the language. Besides, in the language there is also a universal concept that the child is mentally already know the nature – nature is universal.

  87. The way you type your written response:
    Name/ NIM: Elvi Rahmi/ 1314050390
    Assignment 1.
    In the first and second meeting we are discussion about introduction of subject and about material. Ok, now i will repeat about the subject first, my subject is Psycholinguistics it’s mean a science that discussed about proces how to get and using a languange. In general psycholinguistics study three thing. First, comprehension it is mean how people understand spoken and written language. Second speech production, that mean is how people produce language. The last aquisition it’s mean how people learn language. In the ohter hand psycholinguistics as mean as a knowledge that discussing phychologi’s factor and also neurobiology that will help human to understand, to get and also to use language. At the same time, we discussion the material also, exacly about Language Aquisition. Language acquisition or how to get a language is a development process ability of human language. In the language aquisition has some strategies to get language for child, such as learn through imitation, reinforcement, and analogy. First, i will talk about imitation, it mean’s that language has innates’ character and also the child has speciall ability , that may help human to understand a language without getting explanation. Second, learning through reinforcement, it means that parents are teacher that can teach their child by using simple statements when they was talking with their children.the fact is not only that but also the parents are going to give response to their children when the children get false. The last, learning through analogy, it means that parents teach their child not only one of word or a sentence and also it si not only how to ask and how to answer but also about similarity and differenciety of word also.

    Assignment 2.
    My opinion about our lesson last weeek, Mechanisms of Language Acquistion it is very important to apply in our life. Now I want quote one paragraph of the book it is “ A normal human being can not go through life without learning to read or write”.
    I think the lesson last week is important to know and to apply anywhere especially for a teacher. The teacher should know how to teach students, because language is a communication tool that can deliver information. According to the explanation last week, there are some strategies of young learner to know a language. The first imitation, it means that a child will imitate whatever they hear from other person such as their parents, sister, and friends. So, the parents should teach their childern slowly because the childeren will imitate dialect or do the same speech that their hear, if the parents say bad words automatically their child do the same as their parents do, but like that divertingly also. The second, children can to know language through reinforcement, it’s mean that parents should correction something wrong when they speak. Because the children often say intricate words, like in english children wrong grammar. The last it is analogy, it’s mean that parents should teach teir children not just one word but teach them similarity or differenciety of a word also.
    So we as a parents and a teacher insyaallah, should know and apply that, and to make our children able smart and good grow.

    Assignment 3
    I think the intent of this statement that the first stage of a child could master the language aquisition through what is seen and heard from his parents and then the child will practice spontaneously, if the parents say the statement was not good then the child will do the same thing, so good the bad attitude of children will be seen from what is spoken. So in this case the language of the parents are very influential in the development of Reviews their language. when the parents said the remarks were not good then the child will do the same thing, so good the bad attitude of children will be seen from what diucapakannya. then to learn and develop language at an early stage, according to new research by linguists who use tape recordings, videotapes and controlled trials, they recorded utterance spontaneous of the child and bring it to them, also deliberately bring in other utterances to measure the language has been acquired by the child and also understanding. I think they split into stages of language acquisition and linguistik.Tahap linguistic prelinguistic stage consists of several stages, the first is pengocehan (babbling); second, the stage of one word (holofrastis); third, two-word stage, and the stage resembles a telegram (telegraphic speech). before entering the first stage of a child pengocehan passed the stage of vocalizations sound, meaning that At the age of about 6 weeks, the baby began to emit sounds in the form of yelling, whining, and snoring. then, babies begin babbling. Chatter is a speech that has a single syllable like you and da. then phase two words, take place when the child is 18-20 months old. Uiaran-speech consists of two words began to appear like mama and papa mam participate. The last stage meksudnya resembles the telegram in my opinion is the age of 2 and 3 years old children are able to form sentences and sort.

  88. Name : Wel Trisnawati / 1314050607
    class : Tbi – B
    Assignment 1
    Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the mental mechanisms that make it possible for people to use language. It is a scientific discipline whose goal is a coherent theory of the way in which language is produced and understood. Psycholinguists study how word meaning, sentence meaning, and discourse meaning are computed and represented in the mind. They study how complex words and sentences are composed in speech and how they are broken down into their constituents in the acts of listening and reading. In short, psycholinguists seek to understand how language is done.
    Psycholinguistics is combines the fields of linguistics and psychology. psycholinguistics means language psychology. For example, a psycholinguist might choose to focus on how a baby develops their specific language to the exclusion of all others.
    Children achieve language through stages like when new born, first week is crying, Children achieve linguistic milestones in parallel fashion, regardless of the specific language they are exposed to. For example, at about 6-8 months, all children start to babble, children many speech. That is, to produce repetitive syllables like “Bababa”. At about 10-12 months they speak their first words, and between 20 and 24 months they begin to put words together. It has been shown that children between 2 and 3 years speaking a wide variety of languages use infinitive verbs in main clauses, or omit sentential subjects, although the language they are exposed to may not have this option. Across languages young children also over-regularize the past tense or other tenses of irregular verbs. Interestingly, similarities in language acquisition are observed not only across spoken languages, but also between spoken and signed languages.”
    Assignment 2
    “ Mechanisms of Language Acquisition”
    I think, Mechanisms of Language acquisition process performed by a child naturally when she learned their mother tongue. The Process of the child begin to recognize verbal communication with their environment referred to child language acquisition. The first language acquisition occurs when the child who from the beginning without language has now gained one Language. At the time of child language acquisition, the child is more directed at the communications functions of the form language. Language acquisition children can be said to have continuity characteristics, have a continuum, moving from greeting one simple word to the combination of words is more complicated.
    Children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy and similar process. When their mother speak child try to repeat what they say but not use grammar. Children just listen to what is said around them and imitate the speech they hear. Children achieve language through stages like when newborn, first week is crying.
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. Language acquisition is one of the quintessential human traits, because non-humans do not communicate by using language. Language acquisition usually refers tos first-language acquisition, which studies infants’ acquisition of their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition in both children and adults of additional language.

    Assignment 3
    Language is universal . First language acquisition closely related to the social development of children and thereby also closely connected with the formation of social identity. Learn the first language is one of the holistic development. of a child becoming a full member of a community. since, child interaction with environment they know language. A mother is often offered an opportunity for the child to participate in social communication with them. When that child was first exposed to socialization, that the world is where people share a sense.
    Knowledge of language acquisition and first stages can be from diaries kept by parents who also psycholinguistics science researchers. In studies of more sophisticated, the knowledge gained through the recordings on tape, video tape, and experiments are planned. There while linguists that divides the stage into the stage of language acquisition and linguistic pre linguistic. However, this establishment refuted by many people who say that the stage pre linguistic it can’t be considered a language that beginning because sounds like a cry and whine controlled by the stimulus (stimulus) solely, the automatic response of children to stimuli hunger, pain, desire to be picked up, and feelings of pleasure. Therefore, the stages of language acquisition is discussed in this paper is a linguistic stage which consists of several stages, namely (1) the stage (babbling); (2) the stage of one word (holofrastis); (3) phase two words; (4) The stage resembles a telegram (telegraphic speech).
    In the preliminary stages of language acquisition , usually children produce words of adults simplified as follows :1) eliminate the final consonant. ex: blumen buu become buut buu, 2) reducing consonant clusters into a single segment, 3) eliminating the syllable unstressed,4) eduplication syllable simple.
    The first strategy, in language acquisition with reference to : imitate what others are saying . Knockoffs children continue to be used , even though he was able to pronounce sounds perfect . There is a wide range of impersonation or imitation , that imitation spontaneous or spontaneous imitation , imitation acquisition or elicited imitation , imitation immediately or immediate imitation , imitation late or delayed imitation and imitation with expansion or imitation with expansion , with the reduction or reduced imitation imitation

  89. NAME : LUCY DEWINTA ELVAN / 1314050377
    ASSIGMENT 1
    -first meeting about introduction to psycholinguistics
    Today the lecturer introduces what is psycholinguistics. The field of psycholinguistics, or the psychology of language, is concerned with discovering the psychological processes that make it possible for human to acquire and use language. In the other word, psycholinguistics is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
    I have learned the differences between conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. In general, humans have a mind / consciousness consists of three parts, namely Mind Conscious, Subconscious, and unconsciousness. Conscious Mind is a mental process that you can control on purpose. Subconscious Mind is a mental process that functions automatically, so you do not realize it and deliberately difficult to control. The subconscious mind has incredible strength, which can be used for many purposes.
    Language acquisition usually refers to first-language acquisition, or their native language. This is distinguished from second-language acquisition, which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. Language divided into two, prescriptive and descriptive.
    -Second meeting about Mechanisms of Language Acquisition
    Learning about the mechanisms of language acquisition is very interesting to learn. In the second meeting, we already know that language is acquired since we were child.
    Children who acquire language usually imitate around them. Imitation cannot account important phenomenon. When they Overcome Reviews their speech impairment, they immediately use the language for speaking. Language also cannot be forced by parents to their children. Children also learn language through analogy. It has been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to the form of sentences. Children also cannot structure the language properly, but over time it will be perfect. My lecturer told that we should speak slowly because if we hard to the children they can harder than what we do.
    ASSIGMENT 2
    In my opinion, learning about the mechanisms of language acquisition is very interesting. In the second meeting, we already know that language is acquired since we were child. Language acquisition is a process that takes place in the brain of children when she gained her first language or mother tongue. Language acquisition usually distinguished by language learning. Learning the language associated with the processes that occur when a child learning a second language after she gained her first language. Children who acquire language usually imitate around them. Imitation cannot account important phenomenon. When they Overcome Reviews their speech impairment, they immediately use the language for speaking. Language also cannot be forced by parents to their children. Children also learn language through analogy. It has been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to the form of sentences. Children also cannot structure the language properly, but over time it will be perfect.
    ASSIGMENT 3
    I think, a child does not suddenly have a grammar in the brain and complete with all the rules. Usually acquired in several stages and each subsequent stages closer to the grammar of the language of adults. Knowledge of language acquisition and the very first stages can be from diaries kept by parents and also obtained through tape recordings, video tape, and experiments are planned. Language acquisition stage to the stage paralinguistic and linguistics, but sometimes paralinguistic stage it cannot be considered a language that beginning because sounds like a cry and whine controlled by the stimulus (stimulus) solely, it automatic responses to stimuli child hunger, pain, desire to be picked up, and feelings of pleasure.
    In this babble stage, the child already produces different vowels and consonants such as fricative and nasal. They also begin to mix consonants with a vowel. Chatter begins with a consonant followed by a vowel. Consonant that comes out first is consonant bilabial inhibitory and bilabial nasal. Vowel is / a /. thus, its structure is K-V. Another feature of the chatter is at around the age of 8 months, K-V syllable structure is then repeated so comes structures such as: K1 V1 K1 V1 K1 V1 papapa mamama Bababa.
    Utterance that contain single words spoken child to refer to objects that are encountered daily. At this stage it is also a child start using a series of repeated sounds for the same meanings. At this age, the child has understood that sound said with regard to the meaning and began to utter the words first. That is why this stage is called stage one word phrase or sentence, which means that a spoken word children was the one concept, such as “mam” (I’m eating); “Pa” (I want papa is here), “Ma” (I want mama is here).
    Of all the translations of the above it can be concluded that every child born into the world have the potential to speak and influence the environment first is precisely the family or parents.

  90. NAME/NIM : AHSANUL HUSNA / 1314050063

    Assignment 1
    We have learned psycholinguistics in the first and second meeting. In the first meeting we have learned about introduction of psycholinguistics. It discusses that psycholinguistics is a study concerned with discovering the psychological process that make it possible for humans to acquire and use english. It means that psycholinguistics is the study of combination between linguistics form and psychology. Linguistics is described as the scientific study of language, and how to use the language. In psycholinguistics, we will learn the psychologist aspect when someone in communication. The aspect is how someone can choose vocabulary or the way they can use language for communication ( the way they produce language ). It is also the way how the children can learn or acquire a language for their communication. In the second meeting we have learned about language acquisition. In this part, we have learned about how people use language as a system, how people learn a language or how people can acquire a language and use it for communication . Learn a language means that people should learn language from the basic, and how the language use correctly. People must enter the class to learn language. So that, the language is the foreign language for them. Acquire means the first language. There is a theory about language said that a child develops their language based on language that was given by their parents. For example, if the parents use english as a way for communication with their children, although they are Indonesian , so english will be the first language for them. It was created by communication and interaction around the childrren. Of course that it is came from their parents first. There are psychological mechanisms involved in acquire a language. Children learn language from imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar processes.

    Assignment 2
    Language acquisition is the way how to acquire language as a system and how to produce it into communication and interaction. Children acquire their first language without pay attention in grammatical correct, and their parents do not teach them the rules of language.This assumption because of children will improve their language directly when they understood it. As a human who will get the first language , a child will have various ways to produce their first language.There are mechanisms of language acquisition. language was viewed as a kind of verbal behavior and it was proposed that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and similar process. When a child begin to speak, they like imitate and reinforce what they hear from adults eventhough they can not repeat it clearly. They often try to imitate what adults do, and what they are talking about .The children also say something wrong reinforcely, athough their parents teach them the correct one. It shows that children have a powerful brain to receive everything in order to produce their own language. The children also learn language through analogy and structured input, as a child will create a new sentence by hearing their parent’s communication, finally they can produce the new language by hearing sample and direct speech also. Children are able to learn language because adults speak to them in a special “ simplified “ language sometimes called motherese, or child direct speech or baby talk. By doing this strategy, the children will be easy to learn language, and they will be easy to remain word to word until some sentences that have been adults talking to them. It can be concluded that adults should use the special way ( more slowly and clearly ) to speak with children, so they can use language clearly.

    Assignment 3
    In my opinion, The children will learn the first language from their parents only, especially their mother. The parent’s first language will be the first language for the children also. It is showed by how parents speak with them. It is more slowly and clearly, do not come from the written text . The adults will find many different ways to express their feeling to the children. It means that language will be learn by children directly as their interaction . A child like immitation from others. So that, everything that is spoken or done by adult will be imitated by them, eventhough they do not know the meaning. The children will not imitate clearly. The using of tape recordings, vidiotapes, and controlled experiments are benefit in developing language for children because children like learning by hearing. But, it is more efficient if using this in Efl (english as a foreign language ) because they need more example of language. In first language, it can be used at five years old to show them the grammatical correct about language. The children of five years old can speak more than three language by hearing and imitate from tape recorder, and any others media. Linguistics record spontaneous utterances of children can be one way to know the child’s production and comprehension. It means that the experts of linguistics record it to know how far the children understand about the language, and after that they try purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352). Based on the book, the process of acquire a language is begun since infans. In this step, the communication is built by showing gesture, crying, and face expression. After they are 3 – 6 months , they are able to produce the word such as “ maa”, and about 6 – 9 months, the baby begin to say the first word, and the next word until they have much vocabulary to speak up. If we discuss about how a child acquire a language, we do not just focuss on one way, because there are so many ways how the children can acquire a language. The children are not though a language, but they learn from their interaction with people around them ( acquiring the first language ).

  91. NAME : NOFIA HULANDARI / 1314050454 / TBI.B
    Assignment 1:
    First Meeting about Introduction to psycholinguistics.
    The lesson today is interesting. Because my lecturer introduces what is psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language. The Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental aspects of language and speech. It is primarily concerned with the ways in which language is represented and processed in the brain.
    In the study about psycholinguistics, I know the differences between conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. The conscious mind and the subconscious mind are two types of capabilities contained in our brain. The conscious mind is the mind that we consciously use every day, to work to do something, wanted to find food when hungry, recreation, and anything that is real and we can consciously feel and do with our bodies. The subconscious mind is the repository of all the memories, habits, personality, confidence, and our self-image during this time. Even what we think unconsciously else was in it. Unconscious communicates with the conscious mind via our subconscious, and is what Provides us with the meaning to all our interactions with the world, as filtered through your beliefs and habits. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

    Second meeting about Mechanisms of Language Acquisition.
    At the second meeting I did not attend because illness, so I just listen to from my friend and reading book about the lesson yesterday. Learn about the mechanisms of language Acquisition very useful, because we can know what the mechanisms of language Acquisition.
    From childhood we have been able to acquire language by listening and imitating the people around us. Children can not be forced to learn the language, because the language will flow by itself. And they will be able to master the language well. Children learn language through analogy it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. Children also can not arrange the words well, but we can understand its meaning. My lecturer said that we should speak slowly to the children. Because if we hard to the children they can harder that what we do.

    Assignment 2:
    I think, learn about the mechanisms of language Acquistion very useful, because we can know what the mechanisms of language Acquistion. In essence, child language acquisition involves two skills: the ability to produce spontaneous speech and the ability to understand the speech of others. If it is associated with it then it is a language acquisition is a process of ownership of proficiency in either understanding or disclosure, naturally, without going through formal learning activitiesa child born into this world like a white sheet without notes, lingkungannyalah which will shape that is slowly conditioned by the environment and the strengthening of the behavior. Knowledge and language skills acquired through experience and learning. The experience and the learning process that will shape their language acquisition. Thus, the language is seen as something that moved through the inheritance of culture, as well as those who will learn to ride a bicycle. Children can not be forced to learn the language, because the language will flow by itself. And they will be able to master the language well. Children learn language throught analogy it has also been suggested that children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a sample to form other sentences. Children also can not arrange the words well, but we can understand its meaning. My lecturer said that we should speak slowly to the children. Because if we hard to the children they can harder that what we do.
    Assignment 3:
    I think, in the brain of a child am not a sudden have a grammar and complete with all the rules. Usually grammar can be obtained in several stages and each subsequent stage closer to the grammar of adults. Knowledge about language acquisition and first stage can obtain from diaries kept by parents and also obtained through recaps tape, videotape, and experiments are planned. Linguists that divides the stage into the stage of language acquisition and linguistic paralinguistic.
    First language acquisition is closely connected with the development of cognitive development. The first, if the child can produce fundamental remarks on grammar neat, does not automatically imply that the child has mastered the language in question well. Second, speakers must acquire cognitive categories that underlie the various meanings expressive natural languages, such as words, space, modalities, quality, and so on.
    The sound produced by the baby is sounds vocalization language / cooing stage. After the stage of vocalizations, babies begin babbling (babbling). Babble is a speech that has a single syllable like you and dye. As aging baby babbling can be determined with certainty. Because many experts disagree that stage chatter occurs at various ages including; 5 untill 6 months and 8 to 10 months. Such differences of opinion can be alone. We need to remember that a child’s ability chattering depends on the development of child neurology.
    At this stage of Phase One word or Holophrastic a child start using a series of repeated sounds for the same meanings. At this age, the child has understood that sound said with regard to the meaning and began to utter the words first. That is why this stage is called stage one word phrase or sentence, which means that a spoken word children was the one concept, such as mom (I’m eating); Pa (I want papa is here), Ma (I want mama is here).
    Of all the above explanation I can conclude that every child born has an ability to talk to the influence of the family, especially the parents, because the kids will start the first language to the families or the people around him.

  92. GUSTIA RAHMI / 1314050032
    Assignment 1
    At first meeting we are study about introduction to psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics is the study about the psychological factors that unable human to produce language. there are two ki8nds of linguistics, first linguistics macro and second linguistics micro.
    At the second meeting we are talked about language acquisition. For children before five years every language aspect is extremely complex they already know what we called grammar. A normal human can life without learning read and write because learning to read and write are different with learning to speak and understand language. language acquisition is the study of the grammars of the human language it is about what child does and does not do when learning a language. children do not learn by storing all the word. The list of the word are infinite but there is no dictionary.
    Children are not simply imitation adult speech. Even when children trying to imitated what they hear , they are unable to produce sentences that they would not spontaneously produce. Attempts to correct a child’s language are doomed to failure. Children do not know what they are doing wrong and they are unable to make correction even they are pointed out. Children also can not learn by analogy.
    Assignment 2
    “ children are not learn language through analogy” learning by analogy means that learn by using a sentence as example to form another sentences. Children do not do this things because they can make different sentence from one sentence. For example when you say “ I bring a blue bag” you hope you will hear “ I Bring a blue book” but you hear “ I bring bag blue” or something like that. They can make their own sentences.
    Assignment 3
    It is a good experiment to studying about baby’s linguistics abilities . we can know how they study the language. we can also know how to make then study early and better then before. By knowing their way to learn we also know how to solve the problem to the baby who not or never try to speak.

    Thanks 

  93. Assignment 3
    Please write your feedback or argument or evaluation about the following statement from the book we read in the class:
    The earliest studies of child language acquisition come from diaries kept by parents. More recent studies include the use of tape recordings, videotapes, and controlled experiments. Linguists record spontaneous utterances of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension. Researchers also have invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of infants, who are not yet speaking (Fromkin 352).
    this is a very good thing, because with this research could make them understand, and the role of parents is very important in terms of knowing the language issued by infants when they were little, and this is also the first step to determine the children’s language itself. and to record conversations babies when they are small we can know what language that is often used by the baby for example, if we create a video of their time a little, after one year later we saw the footage, and see what changes have occurred in linguistics baby and this is a very useful and make us understand what language they use at that time. and in this case the making of the video, the baby will be very helpful activity, in terms of both activities using the language as well as in other movements, and it is certainly very helpful development, voice recording is also a very important thing in terms of linguistic see the baby. voice recording is also a very important thing in terms of seeing the linguistic from a baby. and in this respect the role of parents in terms of monitoring and watching every movement and conversation of the baby is important for constantly monitor every action taken by the baby.

  94. Assignment 1

    Learning a language is very important for a person, since the language can help us in communication and interaction well. In the language of psycholinguistics related to the mind, as well as the cultural aspects of society. in this lesson we will discuss about how children learn to speak, how children’s interaction in communication and how do we know their language so that we can understand and know what they want. Children aged under 5 years old tend to be difficult for us to understand what they were told, in a period usually if a child needs something or there is something they want, they will send it to cry, the so-called baby language, but in line with growth toward the toddler son will begin to understand and appreciate what we say and what they want.
    Each life must be through a variety of processes, as well as learning the language. the first language learned by a child crying, crying is a baby language, because newborns can not perform good communication, therefore, crying is the communication of the baby, if they must, sick or hungry they will pass by crying, this is where our role in understanding their language.
    The first letter easily grasped by children in learning the language is “m” like “Mamma” and so on. The child who is just learning a new language and understand the language would be difficult to understand and say “daddy” because “p” is relatively difficult letters in pronunciation. Over time, to see the habits and ways of speaking people around them, children will also learn and understand the language itself. they learned the language by looking at the people around them so they imitate and try to understand what they hear and apply it by way of their own thinking.

    Assignment 2

    Language acquisition is also called a second language, meaning that the language is learned or acquired outside the family environment, the second language can usually be obtained in the school environment, example, Indonesian, English and Arabic. while the language we get in the family environment is called the mother tongue.
    Second language is also the language that we obtain directly or can also be scaled, meaning directly that language does not exist in subjects in school, a language without having we learn it first and flowing by itself, such as the Indonesian we learned in the environment school, studying Indonesian student does not need to follow a special training beforehand, the students can learn the language by itself when communicating with friends or teachers, but it also takes time to be able to communicate well or well. while the language we learn in scale that the language contained in subjects in school, such as English and Arabic, because these two languages ​​in Indonesia is a foreign language and are rarely used in the environment of everyday life, and therefore to make the language into the our second language, we must first learn the language in scale.
     To make foreign languages ​​such as English language and Arabic in our daily life, we must first master the vocabulary of the language, then we have to learn pronunciation, and we also have to make frequent conversations among friends to get used to the language into a second language us.
    People in Indonesia have a wide variety of native languages ​​according to their area of ​​each, there is a language Minang, Javanese, Sundanese, so that the second language they use for communication between people is Indonesian, very rarely we find English or arab used as a second language, because people communicate with language Indonesi.

    Assignment 3

    I think this study is very effective for us to see the development of a child from infancy until they are able to communicate well. where we know, a baby interaction language by crying. a baby can not communicate well in something then they will require your cry, for example if they are hungry or in pain their baby will say it by crying.
    I think the study is done is very little good for parents to understand children’s language, usually the parents will have difficulty in understanding a baby’s cry or the words that come out of the child, because tend to be usually a child’s imagination with their own language, they imagine with letter easy or word that is spoken, such as “Mamam, which means eat” and “sleep means sleeping or sleepy”, usually a child who is just beginning their communications would mention the word “mam mam mam ma ma, because the letter M is the letter that easy in pronunciation.

    a child if you want something tend to prefer the body language to convey their wishes, such as pointing things they want or go where the goods are and stand in front of the goods they want, this mean their parents will understand or comprehend what they want.

    I think the use of tape recordings, videotapes to see the ability of language development of children is very nice to do in view of the ability of the child’s understanding and how language development of the child, the child also had a desire to be able to communicate well, but because they still can not communicate well, usually a child will only mutter, if we talk to them a child will usually say the word spontaneous rare we hear but we understand, but there are also some language spontaneous that we find difficult to understand, usually the language spontaneously comes from the language that is often they hear but just a different version, the version that children tend to say which version is easier in pronunciation but could still be understood.

    therefore to better know and better understanding the child would be better off if we followed the study who did the recording, the video to see how the production and comprehension of children in their environment, how does a child understand and grasp the language that they are with, and how they submit it with their own language, this study is very useful for parents to see am, a child’s brain development.

  95. NAMA : MARINI
    BP : 1314050498
    PART 1:

    I think, learning at the first meeting and the second is very helpful for all of us. At the first meeting, I could know what was the purpose of psycholinguistics and language acquisition in psycholinguistics as conscious, subconscious and unconscious.
    Here I get a sense of what it psycholinguistics. From the explanation which has been described by the lecturer. I conclude that psycholinguistics is a branch of linguistic science that combines the science of psychology and linguistics. Psycholinguistics is a relatively new science of psychology. Because the branch of linguistics that raised new in 1951 although the study since the 19th century in the form of studies language development
    Within the last name psycholinguistic language acquisition. Usually followed by the first word and the second word that is known as the first. Hiking activities can be through formal education and non-formal education. While the second language acquisition takes place after a person controls or learn the first language.
    Language acquisition device there are three parts, the first one is conscious, which means someone’s act or behave consciously about what it does or what he says. The second is the subconscious, meaning that a person acts or behaves under his conscious, and the third is unconscious is someone to act or behave without realizing what he was doing. Examples of conscious are people who work, the subconscious is the one who speaks when sleeping. And an example of the unconscious is the person who is sleepwalking when circumstances eyes still closed.
    At the second meeting we have discussed about the mechanisms of language acquisition. In this mechanism is learned is how a child acquire language, the first child acquire language was that he would imitate those around him, especially his parents, the second child acquire language to see that of the environment.

    PART 2:
    Learning at the second meeting I think is very good, because here to learn how a kid in acquiring language. As we know, language is a very important tool in this life is to communicate to everyone.
    The pattern of language experience a child comes from parents, such as their character and behavior. The language that appears on someone is her personality. Language that comes out of the mouth of someone not from mental but from what he said. The language of a child is mimicking what the people around him, namely the family, especially his parents. Language issued by the parent against the other will be produced to the brain and will issue these words.
    The language of a child also reflects on what he sees, for example, if a child sees his parents rough then the brand will say rude as well, and vice versa.
    When we spoke to a child we have to speak slowly because the child would not be able to catch if we speak with fast. Even so child ren will reverse the sentence in her words. Also type kids talk will not use good grammar.
    So, when we talk to children must patiently and slowly because they mimic about all that we say and do.

    PART 3:
    My argument about that statement is that it was indeed a child language acquisition comes from the diary of his parents. Because children will imitate whatever is said by his parents, because in the early years of a child living in the neighborhood and supervision of their parents, of course, what he heard from his parents he would do likewise, just as listening recording tape, cassette and video. Because in the early days of children arriving at the stage emulate about all that is heard and seen
    A child will speak according to his ability without thinking about what they said. sometimes unknowingly child to speak correctly, but at the age of 1 year most children say is not true.
    Theories of first language acquisition. As for theories of language acquisition are:
    a. The theory of behaviorism
    Behaviorism theory highlights linguistic aspects of behavior that can be observed directly and the relationship between the stimulus (stimulus) and reaction (response). Effective language behavior is to make the right reaction to stimuli. This reaction will become a habit if the reaction is justified. Thus, children learn their first language.
    A new child is born into this world of language is considered empty or empty of linguistic structure carrying. The child is like a tabula rasa or white paper that has not been written, environment that will provide style and color on paper. However, such acquisition requires strengthening
    b. The theory of nativism
    Language can only be controlled by humans, animals may not be able to master human language. Chomsky Opinion is based on several assumptions. First, the language behavior is something inherited (genetic), every language has a similar development (is universal), and the neighborhood has a small role in the maturation process language. Second, the language can be mastered in a relatively short time. Third, the child’s language environment can not provide sufficient data for the mastery of complex grammar of orandg adults.
    c. theory Cognitivism
    According to this theory, language is not, a natural characteristic of separate but one among several capabilities that come from cognitive maturity. Language disertukturi by reason. Language development must be based on a more fundamental change and more common in cognition. Thus, sequences
    d. Interactionism theory
    Interactionism theory assumes that language acquisition is the result of interaction between the mental abilities of learning and language environment.

  96. Name : Muhammad Hamdi
    Reg.No : 1314050413
    Subject : Psycholinguistics- B
    A. Assignment I
    Introduction to Psycholinguistics and Language Acquisition
    Psycholinguistics is constructed between two words “psychology” and “linguistic”, it is a study about language usage and acquiring process of language that is got by the human. Language usage include two aspects such as language acquisition about how the children acquiring the language and how a normal adult uses and learn the language. In psycholinguistics, human thinking can be divided in to three fields. They are, conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. Conscious includes every activities that is done consciously like writing, speaking, swimming, hiking, walking and the like. Subconscious includes every activities is done subconsciously like get angry. Unconsciously includes several unique events in human life, like when someone wants to get a spoon but after he goes to the kitchen he takes plate instead.
    Language is a complex phenomenon which runs the world, without language everything in this world will never be happened. Human gets the language in acquisition way. Young children before age of five already know most of the intricate system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Before they can add 2+2, children are conjoining sentences, asking questions, using appropriate pronouns, negating sentences, forming negative clauses, and using the syntactic, phonological, morphological, and semantic rule of a grammar. Language acquisition has several mechanisms such as imitation, reinforcement, and analogy. It shows that children’ environment gives big influence for their language ability.
    B. Assignment II
    Based on the meeting of psycholinguistic on March 13 and 19, 2016, I think that language is a unique phenomenon in human life. Language is the resources of everything in the world include knowledge, civilization, and human culture. How can the people call something if they don’t have language to call or to say it in communication process. During childhood, a baby gets the language in acquisition ways, a baby doesn’t need to learn the language because Allah has created the language as a fitrah. Young children before the age of five already know most of the intricate system we have been calling the grammar of a language. Before they can add 2+2, children are conjoining sentences, asking question, using appropriate pronouns, negating sentences, forming relative clauses, and using the syntactic, phonological, morphological, and semantic rules of grammar. It means human has been created with language, human don’t learn to walk because they have been created with it, so is a language. Early theories of language acquisition were heavily influenced by behaviorism which focuses on people’ behaviors, which are directly observable, rather than on mental systems underlying these behaviors. The children acquire the language thorough imitation, reinforcement, analogy, and the like. All of these processes can be happen in their daily life. Their parents should control their language in front of their children it is so dangerous if they say something in rude or impolite ways because it will disturb their psychology and bring bad influences in their future. The children will save everything that they got in their childhood. After the children already been adult they will act or speak like their environment gave in their childhood. It is could be good or bad based on the process that they got. In short, language is the most important thing in human life which got thorough acquisition ways so it should be got in good process and ways.
    C. Assignment III
    As we know, language is a complex phenomenon which is got through acquisition ways. In acquiring the language a human will through several stages that begun since his childhood. During childhood, the children have fresh and strong memory because their brain hasn’t received much information. It makes the children can remember or memorize anything in easy ways. If a child lives in city which has a special accent, the child will has accent such as the people who live in that city although his parent don’t belong to that city. It happens because environment gives big influence to their language acquisition process.
    On that statement says that “Linguist record the spontaneous utterance of children and purposefully elicit other utterances to study the child’s production and comprehension”. As I explained before that environment influences the children in acquiring the language. In fact, the children can acquire the language from several things like film at the TV, Audio Sound, or direct conversation that is done by their family or relatives. They will adopt every language that they hear even it good or bad, polite or impolite. For example, recently, Indonesian children do like to watch Malayan film such as Upin Ipin and Pada Zaman Dahulu that use Malayan language on its film. This film gives influence for the children directly. Children who live in Minang territory can speak Malayan language with appropriate accent as a native speaker. It happens because the children are able to acquire the language through imitation way be easy. It shows that the children have good acquiring ability.
    In that statement also says that the researchers invented ingenious techniques for investigating the linguistic abilities of children who are not yet speaking. I think is a good invention for human life language acquisition. In fact, a child can understand a language before he can produce a complete word in speaking. Can’t speak it doesn’t mean that the children can understand it. The children begin to understand a language since they are able to take a simple sit. They start to recognize their mother, mother, and other people around them. And then they tray to produce a simple word like ma, ba, and pa. In short in acquiring a language human through similar stages.

  97. Name/ NIM: Ayung Mahendra_/ _1314050586____
    Assignment 2
    Please write your response about what you have learned so far about Language Acquisition, especially about the Mechanisms of Language Acquisition in one paragraph only (between 10-15 sentences). You can quote one or two sentences from the passage that we read together in the class in your response, but your sentences should be more than what you quoted!
    Psychologists and linguists today prefer the term language acquisition (language acquisition) than learning a language (language learning). Use of the term is felt more simple language acquisition and the arena it has been used in general. Speaking about the acquisition of language, we can refer into two different developments, namely the first language or mother tongue that is normally associated with maturity and socialization of children, and to learn a second language.
    as described above, that the development of children’s language acquisition influence for example when a small child she had known only language ma .. ma .. while after increasing age of the mother will teach other languages. in addition to these things, children will quickly receive the language that is around. especially his mother tongue.and a child will not pay attention his pronunciation grammar, for example, when an adult: he is going out, and when little he would say he go out. because if the little ones blamed when they speak they will be upset and crying so if we want to look at a child’s language development, then do not make them sad as what is spoken of her

  98. Name/ NIM: Ayung Mahendra_/ _1314050586____
    Assignment 1.
    Please write and type your brief summary of what we have learned in the first and second meeting in the comment session below. (Please write only within 300 words. Exceeding those numbers will reduce your score)
    in the first meeting, which we learned was about the introduction of self between lecturer and student. The next after our introduction, lecturers directly provide materials on language. and the use of language in children. how children mimic the surrounding language and how language influences the parents strongly influence the language used by children who, as I recall it.dan lecturer examined how a child applying existing language region. for example in the use of Minang language if a child living areas Minang since childhood, he automatically can instantly adapt to the language and the language of his trademark, not the same person as a child were not in the area MIinang, so the child would have to adapt to his own to be able to adjust their local language. language known for the first times a child will affect the use of the language to be used when they become adults. for example, if we go to the market, we have been using with the Indonesian market, but they only use Minang language, why it happens, it’s because of the conditioning that occurs when they are small local languages without the use of other languages.

  99. Rahilva Kh / 1314050601
    Assignment 1 (300 words)

    Learning a language is a very important thing to know someone, especially children. to learn the language, the introduction of the fundamental topics in languages, linguistics and related fields is very important. In Psycholinguistics we discuss how children learn to know, speak and read their native language, a language that they can from their parents and what language they use when I want to eat, drink, sleep. They could only cry. They have not been able to say the words or body language cues. The introduction stage is the process of mimicking what was spoken by their parents. In this stage of knowing and learning their native language, the children have a quick response to understand and master. As they began to grow up, the more vocabulary they controlled until finally they imitate what was spoken by the father, mother and brothers vicinity. They also looked at how parents behave and then mimic what he sees.
    Meanwhile, in studying the native or second language, children are more difficult to master, since the introduction of the language by learning the language was very much different. On the other hand a second language is not their native language, so that mastery of a second language has its own difficulties for children. While children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation, ordinances are rarely taught to them explicitly; that they fixed it quickly gained the ability to speak. However, people rarely become fluent in a second language as their mother tongue. That’s because they have not heard about it because they live in their family environment, but understand when they have started to recognize the environment around them. They would not fluent in a second language to learn because they are not everyday language and familiar to them.

    Assignment 2 (300 words)

    The acquisition of language, native or second language learning is a process that is quite difficult for a person. The acquisition of the native language studied mainly by developmental psychologists and psychologists. However the children learn to speak and not fully comprehending, still learning a second language involves the observation that children imitate what they hear and conclude that humans have a natural talent for understanding grammar. While children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation. Grammar are rarely taught to them explicitly. They learned through the stages in the form of recognition, speech and action. The ability to master and speak stages of grammar in language acquisition can be measured by the increasing complexity and vocabulary. When they learn the native language, they just absorb and imitate.

    The acquisition of a second or foreign language studied mainly by applied linguists. People learning a second language through several stages of the same, including overgeneralization, as do children learn their native language. However, people rarely become fluent in a second language as their mother tongue. That’s because they have not heard of it because they live in their family environment, but understand when they have started to recognize the environment around them, certainly will not be as fluent in their native language. native language or mother tongue is already embedded in the action, and the words were repeated in their daily lives. so it can not be equated between the original language to the second language when the children get to know and learn. When children hear enough examples of linguistic constructions. They will detect all speech patterns they hear. The acquisition of language from the perspective of general cognitive processing is economical account of how children can learn their first language without excessive biolinguistic mechanism.

    Assignment 3 (300 words)

    Preliminary studies of child language acquisition comes from a diary kept by parents. I think that statement is true. I believe that every child learns about himself through his family, especially his parents. In general, children imitate everything that the parents including parents what they read, they had heard and seen. Parents are the key facilities of children in learning everything. A concrete example when parents provide their children aged about 5 years to get to know and play a video game called “Zombie”. Then gradually the child is always called “Zombie .. Zombie” and imitate his behavior was Zombie’s gait. This proves that the parents of children affect the mindset and lifestyle as well as mastery of the vocabulary of their children.
    In the process of language acquisition children typically imitate and hear what is spoken by their parents. Starting from soft to harsh language whatsoever. They also pay attention to how they treat their mother’s father, and vice versa. Indirectly, they imitate their parents behavior in the conduct of their daily. Research conducted in this regard will be very helpful for parents in the process of how the development of children in mastering the language. Even newborns can detect what their language proficiency, even if only in the way they cry and laugh. For that when we teach children to master the language, we must teach and demonstrate a good way to get what you received and absorbed by children is also a good language.
    Every parent has a different way to teach a child, so the ability to speak and mastery of vocabulary every single child is different. So if you do a study on children through video recordings for example, then we will know and see the changes that occur in children as well as their stage of language acquisition. Through it we can see and hear everywhere mistakes or grammar speech in children. So we can fix the things that are wrong in being absorbed by children. When a child is able to speak, only one word is very loved by his parents, especially when they are able to pronounce some words correctly with expressions and how they talk funny. Similarly, when they begin to grow up and know the good and bad language they should spend. So when we make a documentary about children’s development, then indirectly we can see and improve children’s vocabulary.

  100. Name/ NIM: Sari Ramadhani / 1314050549
    Assignment 1
    The first meeting we are talking about introduction of psycholinguistics. Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
    The differences between conscious, subconscious, and unconscious the conscious mind communicates to the outside world and the inner self through speech, pictures, writing, physical movement, and thought. The subconscious mind, on the other hand, is in charge of our recent memories, and is in continuous contact with the resources of the unconscious mind. And unconscious constantly communicates with the conscious mind via our subconscious, and is what provides us with the meaning to all our interactions with the world, as filtered through your beliefs and habits. It communicates through feelings, emotions, imagination, sensations, and dreams.
    The second meeting we are talking about Language acquisition. Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
    Assignment 2
    There have been various proposals concerning the psychological mechanisms involved in acquiring a language. As the name implies, behaviorism focused on people’s behaviors which are directly observable, rather than on the mental system underlying these behaviors. Children learn language through imitation. Behaviourists propose that a child’s environment is the most important factor in first language acquisition, and if a child is exposed to ‘rich language,’ then ‘good habit formation,’ and proper language development will occur. It is possible that first language acquisition includes speech imitation. But, children do not imitate everything they hear, they appear to be very selective and only reproduce unassimilated language chunks. Therefore, their replications seem to be controlled by an internal language monitoring process, children learn the basic rules of language at around the age of five, the behaviourist theory cannot account for the speed that first language is acquired, children say things that are not adult imitations, in particular they use inflectional overgeneralisations such as ‘goed,’ ‘putted,’ ‘mouses,’ and ‘sheeps and children produce language structures that do not exist; you often hear, “Where I am?” instead of “Where am I?”
    Assignment 3
    Children acquire language quickly, easily, and without effort or formal teaching. It happens automatically, whether their parents try to teach them or not. Although parents or other caretakers don’t teach their children to speak, they do perform an important role by talking to their children. Children who are never spoken will not acquire language. And the language must be used for interaction with the child; for example, a child who regularly hears language on the TV or radio but nowhere else will not learn to talk.
    Children acquire language through interaction, not only with their parents and other adults, but also with other children. All normal children who grow up in normal households, surrounded by conversation, will acquire the language that is being used around them. And it is just as easy for a child to acquire two or more languages at the same time, as long as they are regularly interacting with speakers of those languages.
    All children acquire language in the same way, regardless of what language they use or the number of languages they use. Acquiring a language is like learning to play a game. Children must learn the rules of the language game, for example how to articulate words and how to put them together in ways that are acceptable to the people around them. In order to understand child language acquisition, we need to keep two very important things in mind:
    First, children do not use language like adults, because children are not adults. Acquiring language is a gradual, lengthy process, and one that involves a lot of apparent ‘errors’. We will see below that these ‘errors’ are in fact not errors at all, but a necessary part of the process of language acquisition. That is, they shouldn’t be corrected, because they will disappear in time.
    Second, children will learn to speak the dialects and languages that are used around them. Children usually begin by speaking like their parents or caregivers, but once they start to mix with other children (especially from the age of about 3 years) they start to speak like friends their own age. You cannot control the way your children speak they will develop their own accents and they will learn the languages they think they need.

  101. Annisa Djafri/ 1314050623

    Assignment 1
    Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate. there are three kinds of language in language acquisition device, those are conscious, subconscious, and unconscious. conscious is something that you want someone to see you, subconscious is something that you don’t want someone know about you, and unconscious is something that you don’t know about your self. In linguistic there are 2 kinds of language those are prescriptive and descriptive. prescriptive is a language that is gotten by someone through interaction, for instance our native language, for me that is Minangkabau language, i never learn about the rule of Minangkabau language, how is the grammatical form of a sentence that used in Minangkabau language but i can use it. Descriptive is a language that is taught, someone get this kind of language through learning process.
    Depend Skinner’s book we know that there are some mechanism of language acquisition for children, those are; through imitation, the children listen to the people around he/she and then that children try to imitate the new word that he or she have heard; reinforcement, when the children try to say a sentence and he/she make the wrong sentence, his or her parent or people around that children correct his/her sentence; analogy, in analogy the children put words together to form phrases and sentences by analogy, by hearing a sentence and using it as a simple to form the other sentences; and similar processes.

    Assignment 2
    Someone can learn language from everything not just through learning in that class, because as we know that there is 2 kinds of language, not just descriptive language that we get through learning but also prescriptive language that we get from our circles, like parents, school, etc. We can get example from that children, children can learn his/her native language through imitate the people around them, then if that children make a mistake in his/her sentences the people around them help them to make the right sentence.

    Assignment 3
    From that paragraph we know that the researcher research the children to know spontaneous utterances of that babies, and make ingenious technique to investigate the linguistics abilities the babies who are not speaking yet. The researcher did that to know is the children just use the same language with adult people or make the new utterance.

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